A common data model (CDM) can refer to any standardised data model which allows for data and information exchange between different applications and data sources. Common data models aim to standardise logical infrastructure so that related applications can "operate on and share the same data",[1] and can be seen as a way to "organize data from many sources that are in different formats into a standard structure".[2]

A common data model has been described as one of the components of a "strong information system".[3] A standardised common data model has also been described as a typical component of a well designed agile application besides a common communication protocol.[4] Providing a single common data model within an organisation is one of the typical tasks of a data warehouse.

Examples of common data models

Border crossings

X-trans.eu was a cross-border pilot project between the Free State of Bavaria (Germany) and Upper Austria with the aim of developing a faster procedure for the application and approval of cross-border large-capacity transports. The portal was based on a common data model that contained all the information required for approval.

Climate data

The Climate Data Store Common Data Model is a common data model set up by the Copernicus Climate Change Service for harmonising essential climate variables from different sources and data providers.

General information technology

Within service-oriented architecture, S-RAMP is a specification released by HP, IBM, Software AG, TIBCO, and Red Hat[5] which defines a common data model for SOA repositories[6] as well as an interaction protocol to facilitate the use of common tooling and sharing of data.[7]

Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) is an open standard for inter-operation of different content management systems over the internet, and provides a common data model for typed files and folders used with version control.[8]

The NetCDF software libraries for array-oriented scientific data implements a common data model called the NetCDF Java common data model, which consists of three layers built on top of each other to add successively richer semantics.


Main article: Electronic health record § Common data model (in health data context)

Within genomic and medical data, the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) research program established under the U.S. National Institutes of Health has created a common data model for claims and electronic health records which can accommodate data from different sources around the world. PCORnet, which was developed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, is another common data model for health data including electronic health records and patient claims. The Sentinel Common Data Model was initially started as Mini-Sentinel in 2008. It is used by the Sentinel Initiative of the USA's Food and Drug Administration. The Generalized Data Model was first published in 2019. [9] It was designed to be a stand-alone data model as well as to allow for further transformation into other data models (e.g., OMOP, PCORNet, Sentinel). It has a hierarchical structure to flexibly capture relationships among data elements. The JANUS clinical trial data repository also provides a common data model which is based on the SDTM standard to represent clinical data submitted to regulatory agencies, such as tabulation datasets, patient profiles, listings, etc.


SX000i is a specification developed jointly by the Aerospace and Defence Industries Association of Europe (ASD) and the American Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) to provide information, guidance and instructions to ensure compatibility and the commonality. The associated SX002D specification contains a common data model.

Microsoft Common Data Model

The Microsoft Common Data Model is a collection of many standardised extensible data schemas with entities, attributes, semantic metadata, and relationships, which represent commonly used concepts and activities in various businesses areas.[citation needed] It is maintained by Microsoft and its partners, and is published on GitHub.[10] Microsoft's Common Data Model is used amongst others in Microsoft Dataverse[11] and with various Microsoft Power Platform[12] and Microsoft Dynamics 365[13] services.

Rail transport

RailTopoModel is a common data model for the railway sector.[14]


There are many more examples of various common data models for different uses published by different sources.[15][16][17][18][19]

See also


  1. ^ What is a Common Data Model? – How Does it Work? | Synopsys
  2. ^ Common Data Model | James Serra's Blog
  3. ^ Salvaneschi, Paolo; Lazzari, Marco (1997). Weak information systems for technical data management (PDF). Worldwide ECCE Symposium on computers in the practice of building and civil engineering. Lahti, Finland. pp. 310–314. Retrieved 2015-11-29
  4. ^ "What is Data Modeling? | IBM". www.ibm.com. Retrieved 2023-07-04.
  5. ^ Boris Lublinsky HP, IBM, Software AG and TIBCO Releases Version 0.9 of the SOA Repository Specification - http://www.infoq.com/news/2010/04/SOARepository InfoQ, April 27, 2010
  6. ^ Kurt Stam, Eric Wittmann S-RAMP Version 1.0. Part 1: Foundation - http://docs.oasis-open.org/s-ramp/s-ramp/v1.0/s-ramp-v1.0-part1-foundation.html OASIS, December 23, 2013
  7. ^ Martin Smithson, Vincent Brunssen S-RAMP Version 1.0. Part 2: Atom Binding - http://docs.oasis-open.org/s-ramp/s-ramp/v1.0/s-ramp-v1.0-part2-atom-binding.html OASIS, December 23, 2013
  8. ^ Vstath, Bill. "Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) Version 1". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ Danese, Mark D.; Halperin, Marc; Duryea, Jennifer; Duryea, Ryan (2019-06-24). "The Generalized Data Model for clinical research". BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 19 (1): 117. doi:10.1186/s12911-019-0837-5. ISSN 1472-6947. PMC 6591926. PMID 31234921.
  10. ^ GitHub - microsoft/CDM: The Common Data Model (CDM) is a standard and extensible collection of schemas (entities, attributes, relationships) that represents business concepts and activities with well-defined semantics, to facilitate data interoperability. Examples of entities include: Account, Contact, Lead, Opportunity, Product, etc.
  11. ^ About - Common Data Model - Common Data Model | Microsoft Docs
  12. ^ What is the Common Data Model and Why Should I Care? Part 3 of Dataflow Series in Power BI - RADACAD
  13. ^ Microsoft Dynamics 365: the Common Data Model explained | Nigel Frank
  14. ^ UIC and railML act to create the foundations for a Universal Infrastructure Data Exchange Format | UIC Communications
  15. ^ Introducing the Common Data Model - IBM Documentation
  16. ^ Common Data Model (CDM) - EU Vocabularies - Publications Office of the EU
  17. ^ Common data model | Workato Docs
  18. ^ Common Data Model concepts - Documentation for BMC CMDB 20.02 - BMC Documentation
  19. ^ Common Data Model - Evolveum Docs