Croix de Guerre
Croix-De-Guerre-Francis-Browne.jpg
Type
  • Military decoration (four class decoration)
  • Four degrees:
  • Croix de Guerre with Bronze Palm
  • Croix de Guerre with Gold Star
  • Croix de Guerre
  • Croix de Guerre with Bronze Star
Awarded forIndividuals who distinguish themselves by acts of heroism involving combat with enemy forces
DescriptionA bronze cross with swords
Presented by France
EligibilityMilitary personnel only, often bestowed to members of allied countries
Campaign(s)
  • World War I
  • World War II
  • Other wars not fought on French soil
ClaspsNone for wars or campaigns; stars and palm denote level of each medal awarded
StatusActive
EstablishedApril 2, 1915
  • CroixdeGuerreFR-BronzePalm.png
  • Croix de guerre 1939-1945 with palm (France) - ribbon bar.png
  • Streamer FCDG WWII.png
  • Croix de Guerre avec Palme ribbon bars and streamer
  • (1914–1918 & 1939–1945)

The Croix de Guerre (French: [kʁwa də ɡɛʁ], Cross of War) is a military decoration of France. It was first created in 1915 and consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The decoration was first awarded during World War I, again in World War II, and in other conflicts; the croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures ("cross of war for external theatres of operations") was established in 1921 for these. The Croix de Guerre was also commonly bestowed on foreign military forces allied to France.[1]

The Croix de Guerre may be awarded either as an individual award or as a unit award to those soldiers who distinguish themselves by acts of heroism involving combat with the enemy. The medal is awarded to those who have been "mentioned in dispatches", meaning a heroic deed or deeds were performed meriting a citation from an individual's headquarters unit. The unit award of the Croix de Guerre with palm was issued to military units whose members performed heroic deeds in combat and were subsequently recognized by headquarters.

Appearance

The Croix de Guerre medal varies depending on which country is bestowing the award and for what conflict. Separate French medals exist for the First and Second World War.

For the unit decoration of the Croix de Guerre, a fourragère (which takes the form of a braided cord) is awarded; this is suspended from the shoulder of an individual's uniform.

As the Croix de Guerre is issued as several medals, and as a unit decoration, situations typically arose where an individual was awarded the decoration several times, for different actions, and from different sources. Regulations also permitted the wearing of multiple Croix de Guerre, meaning that such medals were differentiated in service records by specifying French Croix de Guerre, French Croix de Guerre (WWI), etc.

French Croix de Guerre

French Croix de guerre des TOE
French Croix de guerre des TOE

There are three distinct Croix de Guerre medals in the French system of honours:

Ribbon Awards
Ruban de la Croix de guerre 1914-1918.png
Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (for World War I service)
Ruban de la croix de guerre 1939-1945.PNG
Croix de Guerre 1939–1945 (for World War II service)
Croix de Guerre des Theatres d
Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures (TOE), for wars other than World War I and World War II not fought on French soil[note 1]

Furthermore, the French collaborationist government created two croix during World War II. These croix are now illegal under French law and wearing them is outlawed:

Ribbon Awards
Croix de Guerre Vichy ribbon.svg
Croix de Guerre (Vichy France; for World War II service)
Croix de Guerre Vichy LVF ribbon.svg
Croix de Guerre de la Légion des Volontaires Français (for World War II service)

The Croix was created by a law of April 2, 1915, proposed by French deputy Émile Briant. The Croix reinstated and modified an older system of mentions in dispatches, which were only administrative honours with no medal accompanying them. The sculptor Paul-André Bartholomé created the medal, a bronze cross with swords, showing the effigy of the republic.

The French Croix represents a mention in dispatches awarded by a commanding officer, at least a regimental commander. Depending on the officer who issued the mention, the ribbon of the Croix is marked with extra pins.

The French Croix de guerre des TOE was created in 1921 for wars fought in theatres of operation outside France. It was awarded during the Indochina War, Korean War, and various wars in the decades that followed. It is the only version of the Croix de Guerre still considered active, though it has not been presented since the Kosovo War in 1999.

When World War II broke out in 1939, a new Croix de Guerre was created by Édouard Daladier. It was abolished by Vichy Government in 1941, which created a new Croix de Guerre. In 1943 General Giraud in Algiers created another Croix de Guerre. Both the Vichy and Giraud Croix were abolished by General de Gaulle in 1944, who reinstated the 1939 Croix.

The Croix de Guerre takes precedence between the Ordre national du Mérite and the Croix de la Valeur Militaire, the World War I Croix being senior to the World War II one, itself senior to the TOE Croix.

Unit award

The coat of arms of Leuven, featuring a French Croix de Guerre presumably to commemorate acts of heroism during the sacking of the city by Germany in 1914.
The coat of arms of Leuven, featuring a French Croix de Guerre presumably to commemorate acts of heroism during the sacking of the city by Germany in 1914.

The Croix can be awarded to military units, as a manifestation of a collective Mention in Despatches. It is then displayed on the unit's flag. A unit, usually a regiment or a battalion, is always mentioned at the army level. The Croix is then a Croix de Guerre with palm. Other communities, such as cities or companies can be also awarded the Croix.

When a unit is mentioned twice, it is awarded the fourragère of the Croix de Guerre. This fourragère is worn by all men in the unit, but it can be worn on a personal basis: those permanently assigned to a unit, at the time of the mentions, were entitled to wear the fourragère for the remainder of service in the military.

Temporary personnel, or those who had joined a unit after the actions which had been mentioned, were authorized to wear the award while a member of the unit but would surrender the decoration upon transfer. This temporary wearing of the fourragère only applied to the French version of the Croix de Guerre.

The 2nd Battalion Devonshire Regiment of the British Army along with 5 Battery RA were awarded the French Croix de Guerre with palm for its gallant defence of Bois des Buttes on 27 May 1918, the first day of the Third Battle of the Aisne. The Croix de Guerre with palm was also awarded to 2nd Battalion Kings Shropshire Light Infantry for Gallantry near Bligny, part of the Second Battle of the Marne. Several other British Army battalions would receive the award before the end of the war.

United States acceptance

In the United States military, the Croix de Guerre was accepted as a foreign decoration. It remains one of the more difficult foreign awards to verify entitlement. The Croix de Guerre unit and individual award were often presented with original orders only and rarely entered into a permanent service record. The 1973 National Archives Fire destroyed most of the World War II personnel records which are needed to verify a veteran's entitlement to the Croix de Guerre award. However, foreign unit award entitlements can be checked and verified through official unit history records. Veterans must provide proof of service in the unit cited at the time of action in order to be entitled to the award. Individual foreign awards can be checked through foreign government (France) military records.

Regarding the United States in WWI, on April 10, 12, and 13, 1918, the lines being held by the troops of the 104th Infantry Regiment, of the 26th "Yankee" Division, in Bois Brûlé, near Apremont in the Ardennes, were heavily bombarded and attacked by the Germans. At first the Germans secured a foothold in some advanced trenches which were not strongly held but, thereafter, sturdy counterattacks by the 104th Infantry - at the point of the bayonet - succeeded in driving the enemy out with serious losses, entirely re-establishing the American line. For its gallantry the 104th Infantry was cited in a general order of the French 32nd Army Corps on April 26, 1918. In an impressive ceremony occurring in a field near Boucq on April 28, 1918, the 104th Infantry's regimental flag was decorated with the Croix de Guerre by French General Fenelon F.G. Passaga. "I am proud to decorate the flag of a regiment which has shown such fortitude and courage," he said. "I am proud to decorate the flag of a nation which has come to aid in the fight for liberty." Thus, the 104th Infantry became the very first American unit to be honored by a foreign country for exceptional bravery in combat. In addition, 117 members of the 104th Infantry received the award, including its commander, Colonel George H. Shelton.[2]

In World War II, the 320th Bombardment Group received the Croix de Guerre avec Palme for action in preparation for and in support of Allied offensive operations in central Italy, April–June 1944. It was the first American unit in this war to be awarded the citation.[3] Members of the 440th AAA AW Battalion (Anti-Aircraft Artillery - Automatic Weapons) of the U.S. Army also received the Croix de Guerre avec Palme (unit award) for stopping the German Ardennes counter-offensive in holding the town of Gouvy, Belgium for 412 days at the beginning of the Battle of the Bulge on December 16, 1944. Gouvy is midway between St. Vith and Bastogne. Commanding Officer of the 440th, Lt. Col. Robert O. Stone, and Pfc. Joseph P. Regis, also received an individual award of the Croix de Guerre avec Palme. On June 21, 1945, French General De Gaulle presented the following citation to the 34th United States Infantry Division: "A 'division d'elite', whose loyal and efficient cooperation with French divisions, begun in TUNISIA, was gloriously continued throughout the Italian campaign, in particular during the operations of BELVEDERE when the 34th Division, despite the difficulties of the moment, displayed most courageous efforts in support of the operations of the 3rd Algerian Division. This citation bears with it the award of Croix de Guerre with Palm." Soldiers of the US Army 509th Parachute Infantry Regiment "Geronimos" were awarded the Croix de Guerre with Silver Star, For Service in the Southern France campaign. The 369th Infantry Regiment, known as the Harlem Hellfighters by the Germans they killed, were as a unit awarded this medal. 171 members were personally awarded the medal along with the nations highest award, the Legion of Honor. The 509th Unit colors bear the Streamer embroidered "MUY EN PROVENCE".[4]

On March 30, 1951, the President of the French Republic, Vincent Auriol, pinned not only the Croix de Guerre with Palm but also the Legion of Honour on the flag of the Brigade of Midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy in recognition of historic contributions of the Naval Academy, particularly the contributions of alumni to victory in World War II. The flag of the Brigade of Midshipmen does not display streamers for either award, nor do Midshipmen wear the fourragère, despite apparent entitlement to do both.[5]

Today, members of several US Army and Marine Corps units that received the fourragère for combat service during World Wars I and/or II are authorized to wear the award while assigned to the unit. Upon transfer from the unit the individual is no longer authorized to wear the fourragère. Wearing of the decoration is considered ceremonial only and it is not entered as an official military individual or unit award in the service member's permanent service records. Units currently authorized to wear the French fourragère are:

106th Cavalry Regiment - For service during WW II - 121st CRS: Fourragère; 121st CRS: French Croix de Guerre with Palm; 106th Group: French Croix de Guerre with Palm

Notable recipients

Individuals in World War I

Individuals in World War II

Doughboys of the 369th Infantry Regiment posing after World War I with their Croix de Guerre medals
Doughboys of the 369th Infantry Regiment posing after World War I with their Croix de Guerre medals
Colonel Jimmy Stewart being awarded the Croix de Guerre with Palm in 1944.
Colonel Jimmy Stewart being awarded the Croix de Guerre with Palm in 1944.

Other recipients

During World War I, Cher Ami, a carrier pigeon with the 77th Division, helped save the lives of 194 American soldiers by carrying a message across enemy lines in the heat of battle. Cher Ami was shot in the chest and leg, losing most of the leg to which the message was attached, and blinded in one eye, but continued the 25-mile flight avoiding shrapnel and poison gas to get the message home. Cher Ami was awarded the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for heroic service. He later died from the wounds received in battle and was enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution.[23]

Aram Karamanoukian, a lieutenant-general of the Syrian army of Armenian descent, who participated in the First Arab-Israeli war, was awarded the Croix de Guerre.[24]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ At the time of the Algerian War, Algeria was considered part of France and war actions labelled "law enforcement operations", so soldiers were awarded the Croix de la Valeur Militaire instead of the Croix de guerre des TOE.

References

  1. ^ "Error". Archived from the original on 2012-10-28. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
  2. ^ Brief History of the 26th Division in Pictures, published by the "Committee of Welcome" appointed by the Governor of Massachusetts, Hon. Calvin Coolidge, and the Mayor of Boston, Hon. Andrew J. Peters, Official Welcome Home Programme, April 25, 1919. Also, the Massachusetts State House mural "Decoration of the Colors of the 102nd United States Infantry," painted in 1927 by Richard Andrew. Also, the memorial honoring the 102nd Infantry Regiment, 26th Division, A.E.F., in Westfield, MA.
  3. ^ Tannehill, Victor C. (1978). Boomerang, the story of the 320th Bomb Group. Racine, Wisconsin. ISBN 0-9605900-0-5. LCCN 79-105410.
  4. ^ "The United States Army - 4/25 ABCT". Archived from the original on 2015-12-16.
  5. ^ "Flags of the U.S. Naval Academy". Sea Flags - Joseph McMillan.
  6. ^ Blackmore, Kate, 'Armstrong, Millicent Sylvia (1888–1973)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, accessed 1 May 2012.
  7. ^ Devil Dogs: Fighting Marines in World War I, by George B. Clark
  8. ^ 75 Years With The Fighting Hawkeyes, by Bert McCrane & Dick Lamb, Page 60 (ASIN: B0007E01F8)
  9. ^ Hawkeye Legends, Lists, & Lore, by Mike Finn & Chad Leistikow, Page 25 (ISBN 1-57167-178-1)
  10. ^ Hochedez, D., 'Un Historien au Front: Marc Bloch en Argonne (1914-1916)', Horizons d'Argonne (Centre d'Études Argonnais) 89 (2012) p.59.
  11. ^ "Vernon Castle Airplane Crash Site Memorial, Benbrook, Texas". RoadsideAmerica.com.
  12. ^ "THE AMBULANCE DRIVER Maud Fitch — What'shername". What'shername. 2018-11-05. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  13. ^ "French Croix de Guerre Recipients from WWI-Surnames L thru R - 32D 'Red Arrow' Veteran Association". www.32nd-division.org. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  14. ^ "Freeborn County standard". Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  15. ^ File:Donald Swartout, American, Jackson, Michigan, awarded French Croix de Guerre.jpg
  16. ^ "Full text of "Michigan in the World War. Military and Naval honors of Michigan men and women. Congressional Medal of Honor. Distinguished Service Cross. Distinguished Service Medal. Naval Decorations. Foreign Decorations. Comp. by Charles H. Landrum, M.A. Ed. by George N. Fuller, PH. D. Pub. by the Michigan Historical Commission by authority the Michigan War Preparedness Board."". archive.org.
  17. ^ "Whitfield Jack (Class of 1928)". West Point, New York: United States Military Academy. October 30, 1989. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  18. ^ "Last Word: Jimmy Greaves (pictured), Sir Clive Sinclair, Olivia Jordan, Carolyn Shoemaker, 6.57 - 14.02 minutes". BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  19. ^ Briggs, Ward W., Jr. "KNOX, Bernard, Macgregor Walker". Database of Classical Scholars. Rutgers School of Arts and Science. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  20. ^ "LTC Matt Urban" Honoring America's Most Decorated Combat Veteran, Congressional Record Extension of Remarks 107th Congress, May 24, 2001, Congressional Record Online through the Government Publishing Office, Retrieved March 22, 2019 Congressional Record
  21. ^ Hartford Courant, 21 July 1965 page 46
  22. ^ Register Star, Rockford, Illinois,February 01, 1992 page 2B
  23. ^ National Pigeon Day. "History of Cher Ami". Retrieved 2011-03-31.
  24. ^ Karamanoukian, Hasmik; Kazanchian, Garbis (1998). Զօրավար Արամ Գարամանուկեանի կեանքն ու գործը (in Armenian). Mayreni Publishing. ISBN 9780965371865.

2011

CMH HomeLineage And Honors Information Lineage and Honors Information as of 4 November 2011

(Department of the Army Emblem)

Department of the Army - Lineage and Honors 313th REGIMENT

Constituted 5 August 1917 in the National Army as the 313th Infantry and assigned to the 79th Division

Organized in August 1917 at Camp Meade, Maryland

Demobilized in June 1919 at Camp Meade, Maryland

Reconstituted 24 June 1921 in the Organized Reserves as the 313th Infantry and assigned to the 79th Division (later redesignated as the 79th Infantry Division)

Organized in November 1921 with Headquarters at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

Ordered into active military service 15 June 1942 and reorganized at Camp Pickett, Virginia

Inactivated 9 December 1945 at Camp Myles Standish, Massachusetts

Relieved 16 August 1946 from assignment to the 79th Infantry Division

(Organized Reserves redesignated 25 March 1948 as the Organized Reserve Corps; redesignated 9 July 1952 as the Army Reserve)

Assigned 16 March 1950 to the 79th Infantry Division and activated in the Organized Reserve Corps with Headquarters at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Reorganized 6 April 1959 as a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System to consist of the 1st Battle Group, an element of the 79th Infantry Division

Reorganized 7 January 1963 to consist of the 1st Battalion, an element of the 157th Infantry Brigade

1st Battalion inactivated 1 February 1975 and relieved from assignment to the 157th Infantry Brigade

313th Infantry withdrawn 17 October 1999 from the Combat Arms Regimental System, redesignated as the 313th Regiment, and reorganized to consist of the 1st, 2d, and 3d Battalions, elements of the 78th Division (Training Support)

Elements ordered into active military service in support of the War on Terrorism

           (1st, 2d, and 3d Battalions relieved 1 April 2007 from assignment to the 78th Division [Training Support])

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

World War I Meuse-Argonne Lorraine 1918

World War II Normandy Northern France Rhineland Ardennes-Alsace Central Europe

DECORATIONS

French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II, Streamer embroidered NORMANDY TO PARIS

French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II, Streamer embroidered PARROY FOREST

French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II, Fourragere

3d Battalion additionally entitled to:

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered ALSACE

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY:

ROBERT J. DALESSANDRO Director, Center of Military History

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