William A. Wellman
Wellman filming The High and the Mighty (1954)
Born
William Augustus Wellman

(1896-02-29)February 29, 1896
DiedDecember 9, 1975(1975-12-09) (aged 79)
Occupations
Years active1919–1958
Spouses
(m. 1921; div. 1923)
Margery Chapin
(m. 1925; div. 1926)
Marjorie Crawford
(m. 1931; div. 1933)
(m. 1934)
Military career
Allegiance France
 United States
Service/branch
Years of service1917–1918 (FR)
1918–1919 (U.S.)
Rank Maréchal des logis
UnitEscadrille Spa.87
Battles/wars

William Augustus Wellman (February 29, 1896 – December 9, 1975) was an American film director, producer, screenwriter, actor and military pilot. He was known for his work in crime, adventure, and action genre films, often focusing on aviation themes, a particular passion. He also directed several well-regarded satirical comedies. His 1927 film, Wings, was the first film to win an Academy Award for Best Picture at the 1st Academy Awards ceremony.[1]

Beginning his film career as an actor, he went on to direct over 80 films, at times co-credited as producer and consultant, from the silent era through the Golden Age of Hollywood. He was nominated for four Academy Awards: three Best Director Oscars for the original A Star Is Born (1937), Battleground (1949), and The High and the Mighty (1954) and one in Best Original Story for A Star is Born, which he won. In 1973, he received the Directors Guild of America's Lifetime Achievement Award. He was previously a decorated combat pilot during World War I, serving in the Lafayette Flying Corps of the French Air Force, and earning a Croix de Guerre with two palms for valorous action.[2]

Early life

Wellman was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. His father, Arthur Gouverneur Wellman, was a Boston Brahmin. William was a great-great-great-great-great-grandson of Puritan Thomas Wellman, who emigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony circa 1640.[3] He was also a great-great-great-grandson of Welsh-born Francis Lewis of New York, one of the signatories to the Declaration of Independence. Wellman's mother, Cecilia McCarthy, was an Irish immigrant.

During his teenage years, Wellman often found himself in trouble with authorities. He was expelled from Newton High School in Newtonville, Massachusetts for dropping a stink bomb on the principal's head.[4][5] He was also arrested and placed on probation for car theft.[6] His mother, who actually worked as a probation officer, was asked to address Congress on the subject of juvenile delinquency.[7] Later, young William worked as a salesman, as a general laborer in a lumber yard, and as a player on a minor-league hockey team.[6]

World War I

Wellman and Celia, his Nieuport 24 fighter, c. 1917 (one of several aircraft named for his mother)
Wellman in a captured German Rumpler (image from his 1918 account Go Get Em!...)

In World War I, Wellman enlisted in the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps to serve as a driver in Europe.[8] While in Paris, Wellman joined the French Foreign Legion and was assigned on December 3, 1917, as a fighter pilot, becoming the first American to join Escadrille N.87 in the Lafayette Flying Corps (not the sub-unit Lafayette Escadrille as usually stated),[9][10] where he earned himself the nickname "Wild Bill", and was awarded the Croix de Guerre with two palms.[2] N.87, les Chats Noir (Black Cat Group) was stationed at Lunéville in the Alsace-Lorraine sector and was equipped with Nieuport 17 and later Nieuport 24 "pursuit" aircraft. Wellman's combat experience culminated in three recorded "kills", along with five probables, although he was ultimately shot down by German anti-aircraft fire on March 21, 1918.[11] Wellman survived the crash but he walked with a pronounced limp for the rest of his life.[8]

Wellman's air-combat credits include the following in 1918:[12][13]

Maréchal des logis (Sergeant) Wellman received a medical discharge from the Foreign Legion and returned to the United States a few weeks later. He spoke at War Savings Stamp rallies in his French uniform. In September 1918 his book about French flight school and his eventful four months at the front, Go Get 'Em! (written by Wellman with the help of Eliot Harlow Robinson), was published. He joined the United States Army Air Service, but was too late to fly for America in the war. Stationed at Rockwell Field in San Diego, he taught combat tactics to new pilots.

Film career

While in San Diego, Wellman flew to Hollywood for the weekends in his Spad fighter, using Douglas Fairbanks' polo field in Bel Air as a landing strip.[8] Fairbanks was fascinated with the true-life adventures of "Wild Bill"[8] and promised to recommend him for a job in the movie business; he was responsible for Wellman being cast in the juvenile lead of The Knickerbocker Buckaroo (1919).[5] Wellman was hired for the role of a young officer in Evangeline (1919), but he was fired for slapping Miriam Cooper, the film's star and also the wife of the production's director, Raoul Walsh.[7]

Wellman as a flight instructor at Rockwell Field, 1919

Wellman hated being an actor, thinking it an "unmanly" profession,[14] and was miserable watching himself on screen while learning the craft.[15] He soon switched to working behind the camera, aiming to be a director, and progressed up the line as "a messenger boy, as an assistant cutter, an assistant property man, a property man, an assistant director, second unit director and eventually... director."[5] His first assignment as an assistant director for Bernie Durning provided him with a work ethic that he adopted for future film work. One strict rule that Durning enforced was no fraternization with screen femme fatales, which almost immediately Wellman broke, leading to a confrontation and a thrashing from the director. Despite his transgression, both men became lifelong friends, and Wellman steadily progressed to more difficult first unit assignments.[8]

Wellman made his uncredited directorial debut in 1920 at Fox with Twins of Suffering Creek. The first films he was credited with directing were The Man Who Won and Second Hand Love, released on the same day in 1923. After directing a dozen low-budget 'horse opera' films,[5] Wellman was hired by Paramount in 1927 to direct Wings, a major war drama dealing with fighter pilots during World War I that was highlighted by air combat and flight sequences. The film culminates with the epic Battle of Saint-Mihiel. In the 1st Academy Awards it was one of two films to win Best Picture (the other was Sunrise), although, due to tensions within the studio regarding time and budget overages, Wellman wasn't invited to the event.[15]

Wellman's other films include The Public Enemy (1931), the first version of A Star Is Born (1937), Nothing Sacred (1937), Beau Geste (1939) starring Gary Cooper, Thunder Birds (1942), The Ox-Bow Incident (1943), Lady of Burlesque (1943), The Story of G.I. Joe (1945), The Iron Curtain (1948), Battleground (1949) and three films starring and produced by John Wayne; Island in the Sky (1953), The High and the Mighty (1954), and Blood Alley (1955).[16]

While he was primarily a director, Wellman also produced 10 films, one of them uncredited, all of which he also directed. His last film was Lafayette Escadrille (1958), which he produced, directed, wrote the story for and narrated. He wrote the screenplay for two other films that he directed, and one film that he did not direct: 1936's The Last Gangster. Wellman wrote the story for A Star Is Born and (with Robert Carson) received the Academy Award for Best Story. Wellman is credited for the story in the remakes released in 1954, 1976, and 2018. Wellman's work was influenced by his good friend and fellow film director Howard Hawks, with whom he rode motorcycles together in a group called the Moraga Spit and Polish Club.[17]

Wellman reportedly worked fast, usually satisfied with a shot after one or two takes.[15] Despite his reputation for not coddling his leading men and women, he coaxed Oscar-nominated performances from seven actors: Fredric March and Janet Gaynor (A Star Is Born), Brian Donlevy (Beau Geste), Robert Mitchum (The Story of G.I. Joe), James Whitmore (Battleground), and Jan Sterling and Claire Trevor (The High and Mighty). Regarding actors, Wellman in a 1952 interview stated, "Movie stardom isn't about acting ability, it's personality and temperament". He then added, "I once directed Clara Bow. She was mad and crazy but what a personality!"[18]

Innovations

Wings led to several firsts in filmmaking including newly invented camera mounts that could be secured to plane fuselages and motor-driven cameras to shoot actors while flying as the cameramen ducked out of frame in their cockpits. Star Richard Arlen had some flying experience but co-star Buddy Rogers had to learn to fly for the film, as stunt pilots could not be used during close-up shots. Towers up to 100 feet (30 m) were used to shoot low-flying planes and battle action on the ground.[15]

During the filming of Beggars of Life (1928), a silent film starring Wallace Beery, Richard Arlen and Louise Brooks, sound was added to Beery's introductory scene at the behest of Paramount Studio. Wellman reportedly hung a microphone from a broom so Beery could walk and talk within the scene, avoiding the static shot required for early sound shoots.[15] During the filming of Chinatown Nights (1929), he sat under the camera on a dolly with the mic between his legs, essentially inventing a shotgun mic.[19]

Awards

Wellman won a single Academy Award, for the story of A Star Is Born. He was nominated as best director three times: for A Star Is Born, Battleground and The High and Mighty, for which he was also nominated by the Directors Guild of America as best director. In 1973, the DGA honored him with a Lifetime Achievement Award. Copies of both Wings and The Story of G.I. Joe are preserved in the Academy Film Archive.[20] Wellman also has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[21]

Personal life and death

Wellman revealed near the end of his life that he had married a French woman named Renee during his time in The Lafayette Flying Corps. She was killed in a bombing raid during the war.[15] Later, between 1918 and 1934, he married four additional times in the United States:

Dorothy starred in Wellman's 1933 film Wild Boys of The Road and had seven children with him, including actors Michael Wellman, William Wellman Jr., Maggie Wellman, and Cissy Wellman.[1] His daughter Kathleen "Kitty" Wellman married actor James Franciscus, although they later divorced. His first daughter is Patty Wellman, and he had a third son, Tim Wellman.

William Wellman died of leukemia in 1975 at his Brentwood home in Los Angeles.[6] He was cremated, and his ashes were scattered at sea. His widow Dorothy, at age 95, died on September 16, 2009, in Brentwood, California.[1]

Career assessments

Decades after Wellman's death, William Jr. wrote two biographies about his father, The Man and His Wings: William A. Wellman and the Making of the First Best Picture (2006) and Wild Bill Wellman—Hollywood Rebel (2015). Fellow filmmakers have also examined Wellman's career. Richard Schickel in 1973 devoted an episode of his PBS series The Men Who Made the Movies to Wellman,[27] and in 1996, Todd Robinson made the feature-length documentary Wild Bill: Hollywood Maverick.[28]

Filmography

Year Title Director Writer Producer Notes
Silent films
1923 The Man Who Won Yes No No Five reels; lost
Second Hand Love Yes No No Five reels; lost
Big Dan Yes No No Six reels
Cupid's Fireman Yes No No Six reels; lost
1924 Not a Drum Was Heard Yes No No Five reels; lost
The Vagabond Trail Yes No No Five reels; lost
The Circus Cowboy Yes No No Five reels; lost
1925 When Husbands Flirt Yes No No Six reels
1926 The Boob Yes No No Six reels
You Never Know Women Yes No No Six reels
The Cat's Pajamas Yes No No Six reels; lost
1927 Wings Yes No No
1928 The Legion of the Condemned Yes No No Lost
Ladies of the Mob Yes No Yes Lost
Sound films
1928 Beggars of Life Yes No No
1929 Chinatown Nights Yes No No
The Man I Love Yes No No
Woman Trap Yes No No
1930 Dangerous Paradise Yes No No
Young Eagles Yes No No
Maybe It's Love Yes No No
1931 Other Men's Women Yes No No
The Public Enemy Yes No No
Night Nurse Yes No No
The Star Witness Yes No No
Safe in Hell Yes No No
1932 The Hatchet Man Yes No No
So Big! Yes No No
Love Is a Racket Yes No No
The Purchase Price Yes No No
The Conquerors Yes No No
Frisco Jenny Yes No No
1933 Central Airport Yes No No
Lilly Turner Yes No No
Heroes for Sale Yes No No
Midnight Mary Yes No No
Wild Boys of the Road Yes No No
College Coach Yes No No
Female Uncredited No No Directed some scenes
1934 Looking for Trouble Yes No No
Viva Villa! Uncredited No No Directed some scenes
Stingaree Yes No No
The President Vanishes Yes No No
1935 Call of the Wild Yes No No
1936 Robin Hood of El Dorado Yes Yes No
Small Town Girl Yes No No
Tarzan Escapes Uncredited No No Directed some scenes
1937 A Star Is Born Yes Story No
The Last Gangster No Story No
Nothing Sacred Yes Uncredited No Script revisions
1938 Men with Wings Yes No Yes
1939 Beau Geste Yes No Yes
The Light That Failed Yes No Yes
1941 Reaching for the Sun Yes No Yes
1942 The Great Man's Lady Yes No Yes
Roxie Hart Yes No No
Thunder Birds Yes No No
1943 Lady of Burlesque Yes No No
The Ox-Bow Incident Yes No No
1944 Buffalo Bill Yes No No
1945 This Man's Navy Yes No No
The Story of G.I. Joe Yes No No
1946 Gallant Journey Yes Yes Yes
1947 Magic Town Yes No Yes
1948 The Iron Curtain Yes No No
Yellow Sky Yes No No
1949 Battleground Yes No No
1950 The Next Voice You Hear... Yes No No
The Happy Years Yes No No
1951 Three Guys Named Mike No Uncredited No Script revisions
Across the Wide Missouri Yes No No
It's a Big Country Partial No No Segment: "Minister in Washington"
Westward the Women Yes No No
1952 My Man and I Yes No No
1953 Island in the Sky Yes No No Also narrator (uncredited)
1954 The High and the Mighty Yes No No
Ring of Fear Uncredited No No Directed some scenes
Track of the Cat Yes No No
1955 Blood Alley Yes No No
1956 Good-bye, My Lady Yes No No
1958 Darby's Rangers Yes No No
Lafayette Escadrille Yes Story Yes

See also

References

Bibliography
  • William A. Wellman, Go, Get 'Em!: The True Adventures of an American Aviator of the Lafayette Flying Corps [etc.]. Boston: The Page Company, 1918
  • William A. Wellman, A Short Time for Insanity: An Autobiography. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1974. ISBN 0-8015-6804-8
  • William A. Wellman, Growing Old Disgracefully. 2nd, unpublished volume of memoirs completed shortly before his death; copies were privately printed and distributed to his wife and each of their children[29]
  • William R. Meyer, Warner Brothers Directors: The Hard-Boiled, the Comic, and the Weepers. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House Publishers, 1978, pp. 327–355. ISBN 0-87000-397-6
  • Frank T. Thompson, William A. Wellman (Filmmakers series, no. 4). Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8108-1594-X
  • Wheeler Winston Dixon, "Wellman, William Augustus". John A. Garraty, Mark C. Carnes (gen. eds.), American National Biography, Volume 23. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 12–14. ISBN 0-19-512802-8
  • William Wellman Jr., The Man and His Wings: William A. Wellman and the Making of the First Best Picture. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2006. ISBN 0-275-98541-5
  • William Wellman Jr., Wild Bill Wellman: Hollywood Rebel. New York: Pantheon Books, 2015. ISBN 978-0-307-37770-8
  • Leonard Maltin, "On Director William Wellman" [10-minute documentary short]. The High and the Mighty (Special Collector's Edition). DVD. Burbank, CA: Paramount Home Entertainment, 2005[30]
Notes
  1. ^ a b c "Dorothy Wellman dies at 95." Variety, September 17, 2009. Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  2. ^ a b Curtiss, Thomas Quinn. "The Film Career of William Wellman." International Herald Tribune (iht.com), February 9, 1994. Retrieved: December 5, 2007.
  3. ^ Wellman, Joshua Wyman Descendants of Thomas Wellman (1918) Arthur Holbrook Wellman, Boston pp. 69-72&441-442
  4. ^ FilmReference.com William Wellman
  5. ^ a b c d "Wild Bill: William A. Wellman," Archived 2008-06-09 at the Wayback Machine Focus on Film #29. Retrieved: December 5, 2007.
  6. ^ a b c Krebs, Albion (1975). "William A. Wellman Dies; Directed Movie Classics", The New York Times, December 11, 1975, p. 48. ProQuest Historical Newspapers (Ann Arbor, Michigan); subscription access through The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.
  7. ^ a b Hopwood, Jon C. William A. Wellman. IMDB biography. Retrieved: July 19, 2008.
  8. ^ a b c d e Silke, James R. "Fists, Dames & Wings." Air Progress Aviation Review, Volume 4, No. 4. October, 1980. pp. 57-58.
  9. ^ "Lafayette Flying Corps." Archived 2009-02-27 at the Wayback Machine angelfire.com. Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  10. ^ "The Foundation." Lafayette Flying Corps Memorial Foundation, 2002. Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  11. ^ Color profile of Corporal Wellman's Nieuport 24 "Celia V"
  12. ^ New York Tribune May 3, 1918
  13. ^ Go, Get 'em!: The True Adventures of an American Aviator of the Lafayette Flying Corps 1918
  14. ^ TCM "William A. Wellman Biography." TCM Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Wellman, William, Jr. (2015). Wild Bill Wellman - Hollywood Rebel, pp. 71, 191, 230, 357. Pantheon Books, New York. ISBN 978-0307377708.
  16. ^ "William A. Wellman", filmography, American Film Institute (AFI), Los Angeles, California. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  17. ^ "Interview with Maggie Wellman". Vintoz. Retrieved October 17, 2021.
  18. ^ Johnson, Erskine. (April 27, 1952) The Lowell Sunday Sun, Lowell, MA.
  19. ^ Eyman, Scott. The Speed of Sound: Hollywood and the Talkie Revolution 1926-1930. Simon and Schuster, New York: 1997.
  20. ^ "Preserved Projects". Academy Film Archive.
  21. ^ All Movie Awards, IMDB Awards
  22. ^ "Gloria Wellman". Biographical Summaries of Notable People. MyHeritage Ltd. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  23. ^ File:Marjorie Crawford, aviator in 1929.png
  24. ^ "A LIST OF WOMEN PILOTS" (PDF). Women and Aviation. 44. Curtiss-Wright Corporation. August 3, 1930. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  25. ^ Wilson, Victoria (2013). A life of Barbara Stanwyck (Simon & Schuster ed.). New York. ISBN 978-0-684-83168-8.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  26. ^ "Dorothy Coonan Wellman: Actress and dancer who became a Sam Goldwyn 'Golden Girl'." The Independent, October 16, 2009. Retrieved: October 16, 2009.
  27. ^ IMDB "The Men Who Made the Movies: William A. Wellman
  28. ^ IMDB "Wild Bill: Hollywood Maverick" imdb.com. Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  29. ^ Frank T. Thompson, William A. Wellman (Filmmakers series, no. 4). Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1983, p. 272
  30. ^ "John Wayne DVD Menu Gallery".