Fredric March
March in 1940
Born
Ernest Frederick McIntyre Bickel

(1897-08-31)August 31, 1897
DiedApril 14, 1975(1975-04-14) (aged 77)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
OccupationActor
Years active1921–1973
Political partyDemocratic
Spouses
Ellis Baker
(m. 1921; div. 1927)
(m. 1927)
Children2

Fredric March (born Ernest Frederick McIntyre Bickel; August 31, 1897 – April 14, 1975) was an American actor, regarded as one of Hollywood's most celebrated stars of the 1930s and 1940s.[1][2] As a performer he was known for his versatility. He received numerous accolades including two Academy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and two Tony Awards as well as nominations for three BAFTA Awards and three Emmy Awards.

He began his career in 1920, by working as an extra in movies filmed in New York City. He made his stage debut on Broadway in 1926 at the age of 29, and by the end of the decade, he signed a film contract with Paramount Pictures. He made seven pictures in 1929. He went on to receive two Academy Awards, for his performances in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1931) and The Best Years of Our Lives (1947). His other Oscar-nominated performances were in the films The Royal Family of Broadway (1930), A Star is Born (1937), and Death of a Salesman (1951).

March gained popularity after establishing himself with leading man roles in films such as Honor Among Lovers (1931), Merrily We Go to Hell (1932), Design for Living (1933), Death Takes a Holiday, The Barretts of Wimpole Street (both 1934), Les Misérables, Anna Karenina, The Dark Angel (all 1935), Nothing Sacred (1937), and I Married a Witch (1942). His later film roles include Executive Suite, The Bridges at Toko-Ri (both 1954), The Desperate Hours (1955), Inherit the Wind (1960), and Seven Days in May (1964). He made his final film appearance in The Iceman Cometh (1973).

March was also known for his stage roles; he made his Broadway debut in the play The Melody Man (1926), and during his stage career twice won the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play, for his performances in the Ruth Gordon play Years Ago (1947) and in Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night (1956). He and Helen Hayes are the only actors to have won both the Academy Award and the Tony Award twice.

Early life

March was born in Racine, Wisconsin, the son of Cora Brown Marcher (1863–1936), a schoolteacher from England,[3] and John F. Bickel (1859–1941), a devout Presbyterian Church elder who worked in the wholesale hardware business.[4] March attended the Winslow Elementary School (established in 1855), Racine High School, and the University of Wisconsin–Madison,[citation needed] where he was a member of Alpha Delta Phi.[5]

March served in the United States Army during World War I as an artillery lieutenant.

He began a career as a banker, but an emergency appendectomy caused him to re-evaluate his life, and in 1920, he began working as an "extra" in movies made in New York City, using a shortened form of his mother's maiden name. He appeared on Broadway in 1926, and by the end of the decade, he signed a film contract with Paramount Pictures.[6]

Career

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"March's special ability was to suggest genuine mental pain. As a portrayer of tortured and distressed men, he has no equal. The complete physical control which allows him convincingly to sag, stoop and collapse is assisted by a face suggesting at the same time both intelligence and sensitivity"—Australian-born film historian John Baxter.[7]

Like Laurence Olivier, March had a rare protean quality to his acting that allowed him to assume almost any persona convincingly, from Robert Browning to William Jennings Bryan to Dr Jekyll - or Mr. Hyde. He received an Oscar nomination for the 4th Academy Awards in 1930 for The Royal Family of Broadway, in which he played a role modeled on John Barrymore. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for the 5th Academy Awards in 1932 for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (tied with Wallace Beery for The Champ, although March accrued one more vote than Beery[8]). This led to roles in a series of classic films based on stage hits and classic novels like Design for Living (1933) with Gary Cooper and Miriam Hopkins; Death Takes a Holiday (1934); Les Misérables (1935) with Charles Laughton; Anna Karenina (1935) with Greta Garbo; Anthony Adverse (1936) with Olivia de Havilland; and as the original Norman Maine in A Star is Born (1937) with Janet Gaynor, for which he received his third Academy Award nomination.

Warner Baxter, June Lang, and March in The Road to Glory (1936)
March with Janet Gaynor in A Star is Born (1937)
1940, Fredric March as Jean Lafitte on original program for movie The Buccaneer, playing in a local cinema in Prilep, Macedonia (Kingdom of Yugoslavia)

March resisted signing long-term contracts with the studios,[8][9] enabling him to play roles in films from a variety of studios. He returned to Broadway after a ten-year absence in 1937 with a notable flop, Yr. Obedient Husband, but after the success of Thornton Wilder's The Skin of Our Teeth, he focused as much on Broadway as on Hollywood. He won two Best Actor Tony Awards: in 1947 for the play Years Ago, written by Ruth Gordon, and in 1957 for his performance as James Tyrone in the original Broadway production of Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey Into Night. He also had major successes in A Bell for Adano in 1944 and Gideon in 1961, and he played in Ibsen's An Enemy of the People on Broadway in 1951. During this period, he also starred in films, including I Married a Witch (1942) and Another Part of the Forest (1948). March won his second Oscar in 1946 for The Best Years of Our Lives.

March also branched out into television, winning Emmy nominations for his third attempt at The Royal Family for the series The Best of Broadway as well as for television performances as Samuel Dodsworth and Ebenezer Scrooge. On March 25, 1954, March co-hosted the 26th Annual Academy Awards ceremony from New York City, with co-host Donald O'Connor in Los Angeles.

Hoagy Carmichael, March, Myrna Loy, Dana Andrews and Teresa Wright in The Best Years of Our Lives (1946)

March's neighbor in Connecticut, playwright Arthur Miller, was thought to favor March to inaugurate the part of Willy Loman in the Pulitzer Prize–winning Death of a Salesman (1949). However, March read the play and turned down the role, whereupon director Elia Kazan cast Lee J. Cobb as Willy and Arthur Kennedy as one of Willy's sons, Biff Loman. Cobb and Kennedy were two actors with whom the director had worked in the film Boomerang (1947). March later regretted turning down the role and finally played Willy Loman in Columbia Pictures's 1951 film version of the play, directed by Laslo Benedek. March earned his fifth and final Oscar nomination as well as a Golden Globe Award. He also played one of two leads in The Desperate Hours (1955) with Humphrey Bogart. Bogart and Spencer Tracy had both insisted upon top billing, and Tracy withdrew, leaving the part available for March.

In 1957, March was awarded the George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for "distinguished contribution to the art of film".[10]

Henry Drummond (Tracy, left) and Matthew Harrison Brady (March, right) in Inherit the Wind. Previously, March had taken the role in The Desperate Hours originally offered to Tracy. Both men had also played Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde.

On February 12, 1959, March appeared before a joint session of the 86th United States Congress, reading the Gettysburg Address as part of a commemoration of the 150th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's birth.[11]

March co-starred with Spencer Tracy in the 1960 Stanley Kramer film Inherit the Wind, in which he played a dramatized version of famous orator and political figure William Jennings Bryan. March's Bible-thumping character provided a rival for Tracy's Clarence Darrow-inspired character. In the 1960s, March's film career continued with a performance as President Jordan Lyman in the political thriller Seven Days in May (1964) in which he co-starred with Burt Lancaster, Kirk Douglas, and Edmond O'Brien; the part earned March a Golden Globe nomination as Best Actor.

March made several spoken word recordings, including a version of Oscar Wilde's The Selfish Giant issued in 1945 in which he narrated and played the title role, and The Sounds of History, a twelve volume LP set accompanying the twelve volume set of books The Life History of the United States, published by Time-Life. The recordings were narrated by Charles Collingwood, with March and his wife Florence Eldridge performing dramatic readings from historical documents and literature.

Following surgery for prostate cancer in 1970, it seemed his career was over; yet, he managed to give one last performance in The Iceman Cometh (1973) as the complicated Irish saloon keeper, Harry Hope.

Marriage and public activities

March in 1946

March was married to actress Florence Eldridge from 1927 until his death in 1975, and they had two adopted children. They appeared in seven films together, the last being Inherit the Wind.[12]

March and Eldridge commissioned Wallace Neff to build their house in Ridgeview Drive, Bel Air, in 1934. It has subsequently been owned by the philanthropist Wallis Annenberg and the actors Brad Pitt and Jennifer Aniston.[13]

Throughout his life, March and Eldridge were supporters of the Democratic Party. In July 1936, March co-founded the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League (HANL),[14] along with the writers Dorothy Parker[15] and Donald Ogden Stewart, the director Fritz Lang, and the composer Oscar Hammerstein.

In 1938, March was one of many Hollywood personalities who were investigated by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and the hunt for Communists in the film community. In July 1940, he was among a number of individuals who were questioned by a HUAC subcommittee which was led by Representative Martin Dies Jr.[16]

Later, in 1948, he and his wife sued the anti-communist publication Counterattack for defamation, seeking $250,000 in damages.[17] The suit was settled out of court.[18]

March died of prostate cancer in Los Angeles on April 14, 1975, at the age of 77. He was buried at his estate in New Milford, Connecticut.[citation needed]

Legacy

Modern assessment

March is regarded as one of the most eminent Hollywood actors of the 1930s and 1940s.[1] Critic and Turner Classic Movies host Ben Mankiewicz opined that "two actors from Hollywood’s golden age really stand in a tier above the rest ... Spencer Tracy and Fredric March".[19] Boston Globe writer Joan Wickersham described March as a Hollywood great who "rejected the Hollywood studio system" and "built a brilliant stage and film career" despite lacking the "instant name recognition" of contemporaries like Humphrey Bogart and Cary Grant.[20] March is also remembered for his later character roles such as those in Inherit the Wind, Seven Days in May, and The Iceman Cometh, roles he played during what was considered a downturn in his film career at the time.[21]

Controversy

March was briefly a member of an interfraternity society composed of leading students formed at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1919 and 1920 named the Ku Klux Klan which is not believed to have been affiliated with the notorious organization of that name.[22][23] In actuality, March was an outspoken proponent of the civil rights movement for five decades, and worked closely with the NAACP.[24][25] When the collegiate organization was named, the (later national) KKK was a small regional organization. As the national KKK became better known, the collegiate organization changed its name in 1922.[23]

False rumors based on a misunderstanding of the organization of which March was a member were spread on social media and alleged that March was a white supremacist.[25] The 500-seat theater at the University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh was formerly named after March.[26] The University of Wisconsin–Madison had named the 168-seat at the Memorial Union as the Fredric March Play Circle Theater; however, in 2018, his name was removed, after student protests following reports of March's membership in a student fraternal organization calling itself Ku Klux Klan.[27][28][29][30] UW–Oshkosh pulled March's name from what is now the Theatre Arts Center shortly before the 2020–21 academic term.[31] After new revelations about the nature of the KKK fraternity, as of autumn 2022, there were discussions for a return of March's name.[32]

Filmography

Film

Films
Year Title Role Notes
1921 The Education of Elizabeth Extra Uncredited
Lost film
The Great Adventure Extra Uncredited
The Devil Extra Uncredited
Paying the Piper Extra Uncredited
Lost film
1929 The Dummy Trumbull Meredith
The Wild Party James 'Gil' Gilmore
The Studio Murder Mystery Richard Hardell
Paris Bound Jim Hutton
Jealousy Pierre Lost film
Footlights and Fools Gregory Pyne Lost film; the soundtrack survives
The Marriage Playground Martin Boyne
1930 Sarah and Son Howard Vanning
Paramount on Parade Doughboy Cameo
Ladies Love Brutes Dwight Howell
True to the Navy Bull's Eye McCoy
Manslaughter Dan O'Bannon
Laughter Paul Lockridge
The Royal Family of Broadway Tony Cavendish
1931 Honor Among Lovers Jerry Stafford
The Night Angel Rudek Berken
My Sin Dick Grady
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Dr. Henry Jekyll / Mr Edward Hyde
1932 Strangers in Love Buddy Drake / Arthur Drake
Merrily We Go to Hell Jerry Corbett
Make Me a Star Himself Behind-the-scenes drama, Uncredited
Smilin' Through Kenneth Wayne
The Sign of the Cross Marcus Superbus
Hollywood on Parade No. A-1 Himself short film
1933 Tonight Is Ours Sabien Pastal
The Eagle and the Hawk Jerry H. Young
Design for Living Thomas B. 'Tom' Chambers
1934 All of Me Don Ellis
Good Dame Mace Townsley
Death Takes a Holiday Prince Sirki / Death
The Affairs of Cellini Benvenuto Cellini
The Barretts of Wimpole Street Robert Browning
We Live Again Prince Dmitri Nekhlyudov
Hollywood on Parade No. B-6 Himself short film
1935 Les Misérables Jean Valjean / Champmathieu
Anna Karenina Count Vronsky
The Dark Angel Alan Trent
Screen Snapshots Series 14, No. 11 Himself short film
1936 The Road to Glory Lieutenant Michel Denet
Mary of Scotland Bothwell
Anthony Adverse Anthony Adverse
Screen Snapshots Series 16, No. 3 Himself short film
1937 A Star Is Born Norman Maine
Nothing Sacred Wallace 'Wally' Cook
Screen Snapshots Series 16, No. 5 Himself short film
1938 The Buccaneer Jean Lafitte
There Goes My Heart Bill Spencer
Trade Winds Sam Wye
1939 The 400 Million Narrator Documentary
1940 Susan and God Barrie Trexel
Victory Hendrik Heyst
Lights Out in Europe Narrator Documentary
1941 So Ends Our Night Josef Steiner
One Foot in Heaven William Spence
Bedtime Story Lucius 'Luke' Drake
1942 I Married a Witch Jonathan Wooley / Nathaniel Wooley / Samuel Wooley
Lake Carrier Narrator Documentary short
1944 Valley of the Tennessee Narrator
The Adventures of Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens
Tomorrow, the World! Mike Frame
1946 The Best Years of Our Lives Al Stephenson
1948 Another Part of the Forest Marcus Hubbard
An Act of Murder Judge Calvin Cooke
1949 Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus
1950 The Titan: Story of Michelangelo Narrator Documentary
1951 It's a Big Country Joe Esposito
Death of a Salesman Willy Loman
1953 Man on a Tightrope Karel Cernik
1954 The Bridges at Toko-Ri Rear Admiral George Tarrant
Executive Suite Loren Phineas Shaw
1955 The Desperate Hours Dan C. Hilliard
1956 Alexander the Great Philip II of Macedon
The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit Ralph Hopkins
Island of Allah Narrator
1957 Albert Schweitzer Narrator Documentary
1959 Middle of the Night Jerry Kingsley
1960 Inherit the Wind Matthew Harrison Brady
1961 The Young Doctors Dr. Joseph Pearson
1962 The Condemned of Altona Albrecht von Gerlach
1964 Seven Days in May President Jordan Lyman
Pieta Narrator Documentary
1967 Hombre Dr. Alex Favor
1970 …tick…tick…tick… Mayor Jeff Parks
1973 The Iceman Cometh Harry Hope

Television

Television
Year Title Role Notes
1949 The Ford Theatre Hour Oscar Jaffe Episode: "The Twentieth Century"
1950 The Nash Airflyte Theater Episode: "The Boor"
1951 Lux Video Theatre Episode: "The Speech"
1952 Lux Video Theatre Captain Matt Episode: "Ferry Crisis at Friday Point"
Toast of the Town Himself later known as The Ed Sullivan Show
1953 Omnibus Don Juan Episode: "The Last Night of Don Juan"
1954 The Best of Broadway Tony Cavendish Episode: "The Royal Family"
based on March's Broadway play and film of the same name
Shower of Stars Ebenezer Scrooge Episode: "A Christmas Carol"
What's My Line? Himself
1956 Producers' Showcase Sam Dodsworth Episode: "Dodsworth"
Shower of Stars Eugene Tesh Episode: "The Flattering World"
1957 Toast of the Town Himself later known as The Ed Sullivan Show
1958 The DuPont Show of the Month Arthur Winslow Episode: "The Winslow Boy"
Tales from Dickens Host March hosted seven episodes during 1958 and 1959
Episodes: "Bardell Versus Pickwick"
"Uriah Heep"
"A Christmas Carol"
"David and Betsy Trotwood"
"David and His Mother"
"Christmas at Dingley Dell"
"The Runaways"
1963 A Tribute to John F. Kennedy from the Arts Host Television special
1964 The Presidency: A Splendid Mystery Narrator Television

Theatre

Theatre
Year Title Role Playwright Venue
1924 The Melody Man Donald Clemens Herbert Richard Lorenz Central Theatre, Broadway
1925 Puppets Bruno Monte Francis Lightner Selwyn Theatre, Broadway
1926 The Half-Caste Dick Chester Jack McClellan National Theatre, Broadway
1926 Devil in the Cheese Jimmie Chard Tom Cushing Charles Hopkins Theatre, Broadway
1938 Your Obedient Husband Richard Steele Horace Jackson Broadhurst Theatre, Broadway
1939 The American Way Martin Gunther George S. Kaufman / Moss Hart Center Theatre, Broadway
1941 Hope for a Harvest Elliott Martin Sophie Treadwell Guild Theatre, Broadway
1942 The Skin of Our Teeth Mr. Antrobus Thorton Wilder Plymouth Theatre, Broadway
1944 A Bell for Adano Major Victor Joppolo Paul Osborn Cort Theatre, Broadway
1946 Years Ago Clifton Jones Ruth Gordon Mansfield Theatre, Broadway
1950 Now Lay Me Down To Sleep General Leonidas Erosa Elaine Ryan Broadhurst Theatre, Broadway
1951 An Enemy of the People Dr. Thomas Stockman Henrik Ibsen
1951 The Autumn Garden Nicholas Denery Lillian Hellman Coronet Theatre, Broadway
1956 Long Day's Journey into Night James Tyrone Eugene O'Neill Helen Hayes Theatre, Broadway
1961 Gideon Angel Paddy Chayefsky Plymouth Theatre, Broadway

Awards and nominations

March has a star for motion pictures on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 1620 Vine Street.[33]

Award Year Category Work Result
Academy Awards 1931 Best Actor The Royal Family of Broadway Nominated
1932 Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Won
1938 A Star Is Born Nominated
1947 The Best Years of Our Lives Won
1952 Death of a Salesman Nominated
BAFTA Awards 1952 Best Foreign Actor Nominated
1955 Executive Suite Nominated
1961 Inherit the Wind Nominated
Golden Globe Awards 1952 Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Death of a Salesman Won
1960 Middle of the Night Nominated
1965 Seven Days in May Nominated
Primetime Emmy Awards 1955 Best Single Performance by an Actor The Best of Broadway (for episode "The Royal Family") Nominated
Shower of Stars (for episode "A Christmas Carol") Nominated
1957 Producers' Showcase (for episode "Dodsworth") Nominated
Tony Awards 1947 Best Actor in a Play Years Ago Won
1957 Long Day's Journey into Night Won
1962 Gideon Nominated
Venice Film Festival Awards 1932 Best Actor Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Won
1952 Volpi Cup for Best Actor Death of a Salesman Won
1954 Special Jury Prize for Ensemble Acting Executive Suite Won (shared with the principal cast)
Berlin Film Festival Awards 1960 Silver Bear for Best Actor Inherit the Wind Won
David di Donatello Awards 1964 Best Foreign Actor Seven Days in May Won
New York Film Critics Circle Awards 1946 Best Actor The Best Years of Our Lives Nominated
Laurel Awards 1967 Top Male Supporting Performance Hombre Nominated

Radio appearances

Year Program Episode/source
1942 Lux Radio Theatre One Foot in Heaven[34]
1946 Academy Award A Star Is Born[35]
1949 The MGM Theater of the Air Citadel
1953 Theatre Guild on the Air Cass Timberlane[36]
1953 Star Playhouse A Bell for Adano[37]
1953 There Shall Be No Night[38]

Biographies

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "Fredric March". Turner Classic Movies.
  2. ^ Obituary Variety, April 16, 1975, page 95.
  3. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Guests: Jill & Dickie Kolmar; Fredric March". What's My Line?. March 21, 1954. 15:00 minutes in. CBS. Retrieved March 5, 2019 – via YouTube.
  4. ^ Ross, Lillian; Ross, Helen (September 22, 1961). The Player A Profile Of An Art. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 359–363 – via Internet Archive.
  5. ^ "Alpha Delts Accept Colby College Charter". The Bangor Daily News. February 23, 1961. p. 19. Retrieved July 18, 2022.
  6. ^ "Fredric March, american actor". Encyclopædia Britannica. August 27, 2018. Archived from the original on March 10, 2018.
  7. ^ Baxter, 1970 p. 176
  8. ^ a b c Tranberg, Charles (2013). Fredric March: A Consummate Actor. Duncan, OK: BearManor Media. ISBN 978-1593937454.
  9. ^ "Fredric March: A Consummate Actor – An Interview with author Charles Tranberg". Let's Misbehave: A Tribute to Precode Hollywood. Blogspot.com.au.
  10. ^ "Awards granted by George Eastman House International Museum of Photography & Film". George Eastman House. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  11. ^ "Nation Honor Lincoln On Sesquicentennial" (PDF). Yonkers Herald-Statesman. Associated Press. February 11, 1959. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 1, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2013. Congress gets into the act tomorrow, when a joint session will be held. Carl Sandburg, famed Lincoln biographer, will give and address, and actor Fredric March will read the Gettysburg Address.
  12. ^ Pryor, Thomas M. (July 6, 1960). "Film Reviews: Inherit the Wind". Variety. p. 6. Retrieved December 4, 2020 – via Internet Archive.
  13. ^ "Hedge Funder Slashes Price of Showbiz Pedigreed Estate by $4.5 Million". Variety. October 22, 2019. Archived from the original on October 23, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  14. ^ "Hollywood Fights Back - In Our Own Backyard: Resisting Nazi Propaganda in Southern California 1933-1945". digital-library.csun.edu. Archived from the original on June 1, 2018. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  15. ^ Longworth, Karina (February 26, 2016). "Dorothy Parker Goes to Hollywood". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  16. ^ "HUAC Goes to Hollywood, Part 1: The Forgotten Investigation of 1940". Cold War & Internal Security (CWIS) Collection: East Carolina University. December 7, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  17. ^ Everitt, David (2007). A Shadow of Red: Communism and the Blacklist in Radio and Television. Ivan R. Dee. pp. 30 (1948), 85 (1950). ISBN 9781683931133. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  18. ^ Cuthbertson, Ken (May 1, 2015). A Complex Fate: William L. Shirer and the American Century. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 9780773597242. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  19. ^ Brookins, Laurie (August 28, 2022). "Supporters Attempt to Redeem Legacy of Hollywood Legend Fredric March, Canceled Over Racism Allegations: 'This Was a Rush to Judgment'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 15, 2024.
  20. ^ Wickersham, Joan (July 27, 2023). "Fredric March — Hollywood's great chameleon". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 15, 2024.
  21. ^ "Fredric March". Encyclopædia Britannica. November 30, 2023. Retrieved January 15, 2024.
  22. ^ "Ask Flamingle". Wisconsin Alumni Association. July 5, 2008.
  23. ^ a b McWhorter, John (September 17, 2021). "The University of Wisconsin Smears a Once-Treasured Alum". The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2022.
  24. ^ "Hollywood Monuments to John Wayne, D.W. Griffith and More Are Under Fire: A Status Report". The Hollywood Reporter. December 18, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  25. ^ a b Gonis, George (November 25, 2020). "A Star Is Shorn: Thanks to Woefully Underinformed Campus Activists, Acting Legend, Badger Alum, and Civil Rights Champion Fredric March Is Suddenly "Off Wisconsin"". Bright Lights Film Journal. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  26. ^ "UW Oshkosh: Theatre Facilities". University of Wisconsin—Oshkosh. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
  27. ^ "Wisconsin Union Theater". Wisconsin Union. Archived from the original on July 4, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  28. ^ Widell, Sydney (May 3, 2018). "Union to cover KKK fraternity members' names on gallery, play circle". The Daily Cardinal. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  29. ^ Erickson, Doug (April 19, 2018). "UW–Madison releases report on student organizations that took name of KKK in 1920s" (Press release). University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  30. ^ "1924 Badger". Wisconsin Alumni Association. July 5, 2008.
  31. ^ Ordonez, Brenda (August 18, 2020). "UW-Oshkosh renames theatre building after troubling discovery". WFRV-TV. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  32. ^ "UW alum and Oscar winner Fredric March's name was removed from a campus theater in 2018. Calls for its return are getting louder".
  33. ^ "Fredric March". Hollywood Walk of Fame. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  34. ^ "Those Were the Days". Nostalgia Digest. Vol. 43, no. 2. Spring 2017. p. 33.
  35. ^ "Those Were The Days". Nostalgia Digest. Vol. 41, no. 3. Summer 2015. pp. 32–39.
  36. ^ Kirby, Walter (February 15, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 42. Retrieved June 21, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Open access icon
  37. ^ Kirby, Walter (October 11, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 50. Retrieved July 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Open access icon
  38. ^ Kirby, Walter (November 29, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 50. Retrieved July 14, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Open access icon
  39. ^ Peterson, Deborah C. (1996). Fredric March: Craftsman First, Star Second. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0313298028.

References