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Disemboweling a fish during food preparation
Swine inspection by USDA of disemboweled hogs

Disembowelment, disemboweling, evisceration, eviscerating or gutting is the removal of organs from the gastrointestinal tract (bowels or viscera), usually through an incision made across the abdominal area. Disembowelment is a standard routine operation during animal slaughter.[1] In ancient Rome, disembowelment of animals was practiced for divination, and was known as haruspicy. Disembowelment of humans may result from an accident, but has also been used as a method of torture, execution, or suicide. In such practices, disembowelment may be accompanied by various forms of torture or the removal of other vital organs.

Dressing of animals

Deer hunter in the state of Michigan in the United States field-dressing a deer
Men cleaning, dressing, gutting and cutting chickens in the Philippines

The removal of internal organs is a typical operation in meat processing also known as dressing.[2] Land animals and birds are typically killed and bled before the dressing. The process of dressing includes the removal of heart, liver and lungs (pluck) as well as disembowelment by an abdominal cut.[3] Disembowelment is typically accompanied by bung dropping or bunging.[4] Bung dropping is the circumcision of the rectum from the carcass and is the first step of the gutting.[4] Puncturing of bowels are avoided during the evisceration. Otherwise, bacteria from the intestinal contents might spread over the carcass.[5] In case of birds, the abdominal cut extends up to the cloaca separating it from the rest of the skin.[6]

Industrial dressing line

A bung dropper is a device used in slaughterhouses for fast bung dropping in a dressing line.[7] The probe of a bung dropper is inserted into the rectum to loosen it from the carcass by circumcising with a sharp rotating cylinder.[8] Belly opener is a device for performing the abdominal cut.[9]

Mummification and embalming

Some types of animal mummification include evisceration.[10] The process of embalming sometimes includes removing the internal organs. Mummification, especially as practiced by the ancient Egyptians, entailed the removal of internal organs prior to the preservation of the remainder of the body. The removed organs were embalmed, stored in canopic jars and then placed in the tomb with the body.

James Cook, on his second voyage, noted an embalming custom on some of the Pacific islands his crew visited, a custom utilizing transanal evisceration:[11]

We found the body not only entire in every part; but, what surprised us much more, was, that putrefaction had scarcely begun (...); though the climate is one of the hottest, and Tee had been dead above five months.(...) Such were Mr. Anderson's remarks to me, who also told me, on his enquiring into the method of effecting this preservation of their dead bodies, he had been informed, that, soon after their death, they are disemboweled, by drawing their intestines, and other viscera, out at the anus; and the whole cavity is then filled or stuffed with cloth; introduced through the same part(...)

Transanal evisceration of humans

See also: Pelvic exenteration

When a portion of the intestinal tract is forcefully pulled from or expelled from the body through the anus, it is referred to as transanal evisceration. Following the first report of transanal evisceration by Brodie in 1827, more than 70 cases have been reported to date, the majority occurring spontaneously in elderly individuals. Straining, chronic constipation, and rectal ulcerations predispose to spontaneous perforation in elderly individuals.[12]

Cases of transanal evisceration of children whilst sitting over uncovered swimming pool drains have been reported; notable cases include Valerie Lakey (1993) and Abigail Taylor (2007). In Taylor's case, the suction dislodged and damaged her liver and pancreas; several meters of her small intestine were forcefully pulled through her anus. In both these cases, the victims were left with short bowel syndrome and required feeding by total parenteral nutrition. After multiple operations, Taylor later died from transplant-related cancer.[13][14]

A person, usually a child, can suffer a similar injury if a heavy weight is applied directly over the abdomen. Large intestine (rectosigmoid) rupture with transanal evisceration has been reported from blunt abdominal trauma and suction injuries. A direct blow or impingement of intestine between the vertebrae and anterior abdominal wall results in sudden increase in the intra-abdominal or intraluminal pressure of the intestine and rupture.[12] The downward pressure forces a portion of the intestine to burst from the anus.

Disembowelment of humans as torture

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Martyrdom by disembowelling and by decapitation of two men

If a living person is disemboweled, it is invariably fatal without major medical intervention. Historically, disembowelment has been used as a severe form of capital punishment. If the intestinal tract alone is removed, death follows after several hours of gruesome pain. The victim will often be fully conscious while the torture is performed if the vital organs aren't damaged, and will be able to see their intestine being removed, but will eventually lose consciousness due to blood loss. However, in some forms of intentional disembowelment, decapitation or the removal of the heart and lungs would hasten the victim's death.[citation needed]

Asia

Vietnam

Various accounts have asserted that during the Vietnam War, members of the Viet Cong sometimes made calculated use of disembowelment as a means of psychological warfare, to coerce and intimidate rural peasants.[15][16] Peer De Silva, former head of the Saigon department of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), wrote that from as early as 1963, Viet Cong units were using disembowelment and other methods of mutilation as psychological warfare.[17] The extent, however, to which this punishment was perpetrated may be impossible to gauge and while detailed accounts survive regarding how civilians were disemboweled by Viet Cong,[citation needed] the use of this torture appears to have been quite arbitrary and there is no record that such actions were sanctioned by the North Vietnamese government in Hanoi. Disembowelment and other methods of intimidation and torture were intended to frighten civilian peasants at a local level into cooperating with the Viet Cong or discourage them from cooperating with the South Vietnamese Army or its allies.[17][citation needed]

Palestine

Two Israeli people were disemboweled during the 2000 Ramallah lynching.

Europe

Romania

In early 1941, during the Bucharest pogrom in which 125 Jewish civilians were killed, multiple cases of torture including disembowelment were recorded.[18]

Netherlands

On 10 July 1584, Balthasar Gérard shot and killed William of Orange, who had advocated for Dutch independence from the King of Spain.[19] The assassin was interrogated and condemned to death almost immediately.[20] On 14 July, after suffering various tortures during each of the five days since the assassination, Gérard was disemboweled and dismembered while still alive, after which his heart was torn out and then he was beheaded by his Dutch executioners.[19][21]

Roman Empire

Martyrdom of saint Erasmus

Christian tradition states that Erasmus of Formiae, also known as Saint Elmo, was finally executed by disembowelment in about A.D. 303, after he had suffered extreme forms of torture during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian and Maximian.[citation needed]

England

The execution of Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason in 1326

In England, the punishment of being "hanged, drawn and quartered" was typically used for men convicted of high treason. This referred to the practice of dragging a man by a hurdle (similar to a fence) through the streets, removing him from the hurdle and (1) hanging him from the neck (but removing him before death), (2) drawing (i.e. disembowelling) him slowly on a wooden block by slitting open his abdomen, removing his entrails and his other organs (which were frequently thrown on a fire), and then decapitating him and (3) quartering, i.e. dividing the body into four pieces. The man's head and quarters would often be parboiled and displayed as a warning to others. As part of the disembowelment, the man was also typically emasculated and his genitals and entrails would be burned.[citation needed]

William Harrington, Hugh le Despenser the Younger and William Parry are examples of men who were hanged, drawn and quartered – tortured on the rack, hanged until not quite dead, subjected to emasculation, disembowelment and then chopped into quarters.[22]

Germany

From the 15th century, ordinances are retained that threaten with a terrible punishment those who stripped off the bark of a standing tree in the common woods. A typical wording is found in the 1401 ordinance from Oberursel:[23]

"...and whoever is caught stripping off a standing tree, mercy would have been more beneficial to him than the law is; for when law is to be fulfilled, then one is to cut up his stomach at the navel, and pull out a length of the gut. The gut is to be nailed to the tree, and one is keep going around that tree with the person, so long as he still has any part of the gut left in his body."

Jacob Grimm observes that no case of the punishment being carried out has been found in records from that period (15th century), but 300 to 500 years earlier, the Western Slavic tribes like the Wends are said to have revenged themselves upon Christians by binding the guts to an erect pole and driving them around until the person was fully eviscerated.[24] In the 13th century, members of the now extinct Baltic ethnic group of Old Prussians in one of the battles against the Teutonic Knights, are said to have captured one such knight in 1248 and made him undergo this punishment.[25]

Americas

Nezahualcoyotl as shown in the Codex Ixtlilxochitl, folio 106R, painted roughly a century after Nezahualcoyotl's death

Nezahualcoyotl, a 15th-century Acolhuan ruler of Texcoco, a member of the Aztec Triple Alliance (now Mexico), promulgated a law code that was partially preserved. Those who had engaged in the passive role of homosexual anal intercourse had their intestines pulled out, then their bodies were filled with ash, and finally, were burnt. The active or penetrating partner was simply suffocated in a heap of ash.[26][better source needed]

Suicide

Ukiyo-e woodblock print of warrior about to perform seppuku, from the Edo period

In Japan, disembowelment played a central part as a method of execution or the ritualized suicide of a samurai. In killing themselves by this method, they were deemed to be free from the dishonor resulting from their crimes. The most common form of disembowelment was referred to in Japanese as seppuku (or, colloquially, hara-kiri), literally "stomach cutting," involving two cuts across the abdomen, sometimes followed by pulling out one's own viscera.[citation needed]

The act of decapitation by a second (kaishaku-nin) was added to this ritual suicide in later times in order to shorten the suffering of the samurai or leader, an attempt at rendering the ritual more humane. Even later the knife was just a simple formality and the swordsman would decapitate before the subject could reach for it. The commission of a crime or dishonorable act was only one of many reasons for the performance of seppuku; others included the atonement of cowardice, as a means of apology, or following the loss of a battle or the surrender of a castle.[citation needed]

The Japanese tradition of seppuku is a well known example of highly ritualized suicide, within a wider cultural world of norms and symbolism. However, reported examples of suicides exist, in which a person performed disembowelment on himself or herself, without any ambient culture of approved, or expected, suicide.[citation needed]

The Spartan king Cleomenes I is reported, in a fit of madness, to have slit his stomach open, and ripped his own bowels out.[27]

Roman statesman Cato the Younger committed suicide in Utica, after his side lost to Caesar, by plunging a knife in his own gut, in the dead of night. According to Plutarch, Cato's son heard the commotion from a nearby room, and called a doctor who stitched the wound close; after his son and the doctor left, Cato tore the stitching open with his hand and died. On account of his tragic, highly symbolic suicide, Cato is often termed Uticensis ("of Utica"), in order to differentiate him from his homonymous ancestor, Cato "the Elder" or "the Censor".[citation needed]

In 1593, a suicide occurred in Wimpfen. A young, pregnant woman, who had become a widow a few weeks before, was lying in her bed. She took a large knife, opened her belly in a cross, and threw out the fetus, her own intestines, and dug out her spleen and flung that out as well. She lived for 10 hours after the act, and when the priests sought to bring her a final consolation and blessing, she said it would all be in vain, because she was a daughter of the devil, and was beyond any sort of redemption. Then, she died, was put in a sack, and was thrown in the river. She was affluent, so it was clear that poverty had not driven her to this act.[28]

In 1617, a merchant in the municipality Grossglockau[29] slit up his abdomen so that the intestines fell out; he then pulled out his stomach and threw it on the bed. The chronicler notes he lived long enough to regret his action.[30]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Wilkanowska, Anna; Kokoszyński, Dariusz (19 July 2011). "COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER VALUE IN PHARAOH QUAIL OF DIFFERENT AGES". Journal of Central European Agriculture. doi:10.5513/jcea.v12i1.943 (inactive 31 January 2024). ISSN 1332-9049.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
  3. ^ Swanenburg, M; Urlings, H. A. P; Snijders, J. M. A; Keuzenkamp, D. A; van Knapen, F (8 November 2001). "Salmonella in slaughter pigs: prevalence, serotypes and critical control points during slaughter in two slaughterhouses". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 70 (3): 243–254. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00545-1. ISSN 0168-1605. PMID 11764190.
  4. ^ a b "At-Home Hog Slaughter". extension.sdstate.edu. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  5. ^ Van Ba, Hoa; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Seong, Pil-Nam; Kang, Sun-Moon; Cho, Soo-Huyn; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Park, Beom-Young; Moon, Sung-Sil; Kang, Se-Ju; Choi, Yong-Min; Kim, Jin-Hyoung (2 April 2019). "The fates of microbial populations on pig carcasses during slaughtering process, on retail cuts after slaughter, and intervention efficiency of lactic acid spraying". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 294: 10–17. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.01.015. ISSN 0168-1605. PMID 30711888. S2CID 73414634.
  6. ^ Engelbrecht, A. (2014). "Slaughter-Bird Production And Product Quality.". Ostrich manual (PDF). Western Cape Department of Agriculture. p. 74.
  7. ^ de Medeiros Esper, Ian; From, Pål J.; Mason, Alex (1 February 2021). "Robotisation and intelligent systems in abattoirs". Trends in Food Science & Technology. 108: 214–222. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2020.11.005. hdl:11250/2828986. ISSN 0924-2244. S2CID 230599141.
  8. ^ Stijn, Hofkens (2017). The decontaminating effects of lactic acid on pig-associated Salmonella and Yersinia enterocolitica (PDF). Diss. Ghent University.
  9. ^ Crotta, Matteo; Luisi, Elena; Dadios, Nikolaos; Guitian, Javier (1 April 2019). "Probabilistic modelling of events at evisceration during slaughtering of pigs using expert opinion: Quantitative data in support of stochastic models of risk of contamination". Microbial Risk Analysis. 11: 57–65. doi:10.1016/j.mran.2018.10.001. ISSN 2352-3522. S2CID 125223101.
  10. ^ ikram, salima (2005). divine creatures: animal mummies in ancient egypt. American Univ in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-977-424-858-0.
  11. ^ * Potts, James (1784). The Hibernian Magazine, Or, Compendium of Entertaining Knowledge. Dublin: James Potts. p. 693, col 2. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  12. ^ a b Medappil, Noushif (Jan–Mar 2013). "Blunt abdominal trauma with transanal small bowel evisceration". J Emerg Trauma Shock. 6 (1): 56–57. doi:10.4103/0974-2700.106328. PMC 3589862. PMID 23493429.
  13. ^ "Wading Pool Drain Sucks Out Girl's Organ". WSB Atlanta. MINNEAPOLIS. 5 Jul 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  14. ^ "Family Reaches Settlement that Guarantees $25 Million Payment". WRAL-TV. RALEIGH. January 14, 1997. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  15. ^ Hubbel, John G. (November 1968). "The Blood-Red Hands of Ho Chi Minh". Reader's Digest: 61–67.
  16. ^ "Off With Their Hands". Newsweek. 15 May 1967.
  17. ^ a b De Silva, Peer (1978). Sub Rosa: The CIA and the Uses of Intelligence. New York: Time Books. ISBN 0-8129-0745-0.
  18. ^ Ancel, Jean (2002). History of the Holocaust – Romania (in Hebrew). Israel: Yad Vashem. ISBN 965-308-157-8. For details of the Pogrom itself, see volume I, pp. 363–400.
  19. ^ a b Jardine, Lisa (2005). The Awful End of William the Silent: The First Assassination of A Head of State With A Handgun. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-719257-6.
  20. ^ Motley, John L. (1856). The Rise of the Dutch Republic, Vol. 3.
  21. ^ Foucault, Michel. "The Spectacle of the scaffold.". Discipline and Punish.
  22. ^ Schama, Simon (26 May 2009). "Simon Schama's John Donne". BBC2. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
  23. ^ For a number of such ordinances, see * Grimm, Jacob (1854). Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer. Göttingen: Dieterich. pp. 519–20. Retrieved 2013-03-13. German original: "und wo der begriffen wird, der einen stehenden baum schälet, dem wäre gnad nützer dan recht u. wann man deme sol recht thun, soll man ihm seinen nabel bei seinem bauch aufschneiden u. ein darm daraus thun, denselbigen nageln an den stamm u. mit der person herumgehen, so ,lang er ein darm in seinem leib hat"
  24. ^ i) General comment, with connotations of this being a type of human sacrifice Hübner, Johann (1703). Kurtze Fragen aus der politischen Historia, volume 6. Gleditsch. p. 500. Retrieved 2013-03-13., ii) 8th century description from 772-73, Caesar, Aquilin Julius (1786). Beschreibung des Herzogthum Steyermarks, Volume 1. Gräz: Zaunrith. pp. 88–89. Retrieved 2013-03-13., iii) Danish 1096 retaliation on Wends, by like execution method, Sell, Johann Jakob (1819). Geschichte des Herzogthums Pommern, volume 1. Berlin: Flittner. pp. 88–89. Retrieved 2013-03-13., iv) 1131 pagan attacks on Christians by Wends, Röper, Friedrich L. (1808). Geschichte und Anekdoten von Dobberan in Mecklenburg. Dobberan: Self-published. pp. 111–13. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  25. ^ Voigt, Johannes (1827). Geschichte Preussens: Von den altesten Zeiten bis zum Untergange der Herrschaft des Deutschen Ordens. Die Zeit von der Ankunft des Ordens bis zum Frieden 1249, Volume 2. Königsberg: Bornträger. pp. 613–614. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  26. ^ Täubel, Gottlob (1796). Allgemeines Historienbuch von den Merkwurdigsten Entdeckungen fremder ehedem ganz unbekannter Länder und Inseln. Vienna: Gottlob Täubel. pp. 206–07. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  27. ^ Lauremberg, Peter (1708). Neue und vermehrte Acerra philologica. Frankfurt and Leipzig: Johann A. Plener. p. 985. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  28. ^ Forty years earlier, in 1555 Seidenberg (nowadays Zawidow), a woman who had become pregnant by another man than her (absent) husband sought to preserve her honour by cutting out the fetus. Having pulled it out, along with much else, she began screaming of pain, but no one could help her, and she died three days later. Döpler, Jacob (1697). Theatrum Poenarum, volume 2. Leipzig: Friedrich Lanckischen Erben. pp. 313–14. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  29. ^ For status as municipality, see:Janssen, Johannes (1896). History of the German People at the Close of the Middle Ages. London: Taylor and Francis. p. 336. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  30. ^ Khevenhüller, Franz C. (1723). Annales Ferdinandei, volume 7-8. Leipzig: M.G. Weidmann. p. column 1158. Retrieved 2013-03-16.