The Christmas tree counting down at SIR, outside Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Note the blinder, to prevent the driver from being distracted by the lights for the other lane.
The Christmas tree counting down at SIR, outside Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Note the blinder, to prevent the driver from being distracted by the lights for the other lane.

Drag racing is a type of motor racing in which automobiles or motorcycles compete, usually two at a time, to be first to cross a set finish line. The race follows a short, straight course from a standing start over a measured distance, most commonly 14 mi (1,320 ft; 402 m), with a shorter (1,000 ft (305 m)) distance becoming increasingly popular, as it has become the standard for Top Fuel dragsters and funny cars, where some major bracket races and other sanctioning bodies have adopted it as the standard. The 18 mi (660 ft; 201 m) is also popular in some circles. Electronic timing and speed sensing systems have been used to record race results since the 1960s.

The history of automobiles and motorcycles being used for drag racing is nearly as long as the history of motorized vehicles themselves, and has taken the form of both illegal street racing and as a regulated motorsport.

History

Drag racing started in the 1940s. World War II veterans were prominently involved, and some early drag races were done at decommissioned aircraft bases with landing strips that made them an ideal place for the sport. In 1951, Wally Parks formed the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA).[1][2] The organization banned the use of nitromethane in 1957, calling it unsafe, in part through the efforts of C. J. Hart; the ban would be lifted in 1963.[3]

Basics of drag racing

The launch of a drag race. The Camaro pops a wheelie with Altered on the right lane.
The launch of a drag race. The Camaro pops a wheelie with Altered on the right lane.

Starting

Push starts to get engines running were necessary until the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) mandated self-starters in 1976.[4] After burnouts, cars would be pushed back by crews; this persisted until NHRA required reversing systems in 1980.[4] Don Garlits was the first to do burnouts across the starting line, which is now standard practice.[5] Each driver then backs up to and stages at the starting line.

Prerace preparations

Before each race (commonly known as a pass), each driver is allowed to perform a burnout, which heats the driving tires and lays rubber down at the beginning of the track, improving traction. The cars run through a "water box" (formerly a "bleach box", before bleach was replaced[when?] by flammable traction compound, which produced spectacular, and dangerous, flame burnouts; the hazard led NHRA to mandate use of water in the 1970s[5]).

Modern races are started electronically by a system known as a Christmas tree, which consists of a column of lights for each driver/lane, and two light beam sensors per lane on the track at the starting line. Current NHRA trees, for example, feature one blue light (split into halves), then three amber, one green, and one red.[6] When the first light beam is broken by a vehicle's front tire(s), the vehicle is "pre-staged" (approximately 7 inches (180 mm) from the starting line), and the pre-stage indicator on the tree is lit. When the second light beam is broken, the vehicle is "staged", and the stage indicator on the tree is lit.[7] Vehicles may then leave the pre-stage beam, but must remain in the stage beam until the race starts.

Staging

Once one competitor is staged, their opponent has a set amount of time to stage or they will be instantly disqualified, indicated by a red light on the tree. Otherwise, once both drivers are staged, the system chooses a short delay at random (to prevent a driver being able to anticipate the start), then starts the race. The light sequence at this point varies slightly. For example, in NHRA Professional classes, three amber lights on the tree flash simultaneously, followed 0.4 seconds later by a green light (this is also known as a "pro tree"). In NHRA Sportsman classes, the amber lights illuminate in sequence from top to bottom, 0.5 seconds apart, followed 0.5 seconds later by the green light (this is also known as a "sportsman tree" or "full tree"). If a vehicle leaves the starting line before the green light illuminates, the red light for that lane illuminates instead, and the driver is disqualified (also known as red lighting). In a handicap start, the green light automatically lights up for the first driver, and the red light is only lit in the proper lane after both cars have launched if one driver leaves early, or if both drivers left early, the driver whose reaction time is worse (if one lane has a -.015 and the other lane has a -.022, the lane of the driver who committed a 0.022 is given the red light after both cars have left), as a red light infraction is only assessed to the driver with the worse infraction, if both drivers leave early. Even if both drivers leave early, the green light is automatically lit for the driver that left last, and they still may win the pass (as in the 2014 NHRA Auto Club Pro Stock final, Erica Enders-Stevens and Jason Line both committed red light infractions; only Line was assessed with a red light, as he was -.011 versus Enders-Stevens' -.002).

Measurements

Several measurements are taken for each race: reaction time, elapsed time, and speed. Reaction time is the period from the green light illuminating to the vehicle leaving the staging beams or breaking the guard beam. Elapsed time is the period from the vehicle leaving the starting line to crossing the finish line. Speed is measured through a speed trap covering the final 66 feet (20 m) to the finish line, indicating average speed of the vehicle in that distance.

Except where a breakout rule is in place, the winner is the first vehicle to cross the finish line, and therefore the driver with the lowest combined reaction time and elapsed time. Because these times are measured separately, a driver with a slower elapsed time can actually win if that driver's advantage in reaction time exceeds the elapsed time difference. In heads-up racing, this is known as a holeshot win.[8] In categories where a breakout rule is in effect (for example, NHRA Junior Dragster, Super Comp, Super Gas, Super Stock, and Stock classes, as well as some dial-in classes), if a competitor is faster than his or her predetermined time (a "breakout"), that competitor loses. If both competitors are faster than their predetermined times, the competitor who breaks out by less time wins. Regardless, a red light foul is worse than a breakout, except in Junior Dragster where exceeding the absolute limit is a cause for disqualification.

Bracket system

Most race events use a traditional bracket system, where the losing car and driver are eliminated from the event while the winner advances to the next round, until a champion is crowned. Events can range from 16 to over 100 car brackets. Drivers are typically seeded by elapsed times in qualifying. In bracket racing without a breakout (such as NHRA Competition Eliminator), pairings are based on times compared to their index (faster than index for class is better). In bracket racing with a breakout (Stock, Super Stock, but also the NHRA's Super classes), the closest to the index is favorable.

A popular alternative to the standard eliminations format is the Chicago Style format (also called the Three Round format in Australia), named for the US 30 Dragstrip in suburban Gary, Indiana where a midweek meet featured this format.[9] All entered cars participate in one qualifying round, and then are paired for the elimination round. The two fastest times among winners from this round participate in the championship round. Depending on the organization, the next two fastest times may play for third, then fifth, and so forth, in consolation rounds. Currently, an IHRA 400 Thunder championship race in Australia uses the format.[10]

Distances

The standard distance of a drag race is 1,320 feet, 402 m, or 1/4 mile( +- 0,2% FIA & NHRA rules). However, due to safety concerns, certain sanctioning bodies (notably the NHRA for its Top Fuel and Funny Car classes) have shortened races to 1,000 feet. Some drag strips are even shorter and run 660 feet, 201 m, or 1/8 mile. The 1,000 foot distance is now also popular with bracket racing, especially in meets where there are 1/8 mile cars and 1/4 mile cars racing together, and is used by the revived American Drag Racing League for its primary classes (not Jr Dragster). Some organizations that deal with Pro Modified and "Mountain Motor" Pro Stock cars (Professional Drag Racers Association) use the 1/8 mile distance, even if the tracks are 1/4 mile tracks.

An early example, a 1958 Fuel dragster (technically, a rail), on display at the California Automobile Museum
An early example, a 1958 Fuel dragster (technically, a rail), on display at the California Automobile Museum
Funny Car with body up.
Funny Car with body up.

Racing organizations

Chief Timer delivering timeslips to competitors after their passes.
Chief Timer delivering timeslips to competitors after their passes.
Blown altered doing a burnout at Interlake Dragways, Gimli, Manitoba.
Blown altered doing a burnout at Interlake Dragways, Gimli, Manitoba.

North America

The National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) oversees the majority of drag racing events in North America. The next largest organization is the International Hot Rod Association (IHRA). Nearly all drag strips are associated with one sanctioning body or the other.

Besides NHRA and IHRA, there are niche organizations for muscle cars and nostalgia vehicles. The Nostalgia Drag Racing League (NDRL) based in Brownsburg, IN, runs a series of 1/4 mile (402 m) drag races in the Midwest for 1979 and older nostalgic appearing cars, with four classes of competition running in an index system. Pro 7.0 and Pro 7.50 run heads up 200 mile per hour (320 kilometre per hour) passes, while Pro Comp and Pro Gas run 8.0 to 10.0 indices. NDRL competition vehicles typically include Front Engine Dragsters, Altereds, Funny Cars, early Pro Stock clones, Super Stocks and Gassers.[11]

The National Electric Drag Racing Association (NEDRA) races electric vehicles against high performance gasoline-powered vehicles such as Dodge Vipers or classic muscle cars in 1/4 and 1/8 mile (402 m & 201 m) races. The current electric drag racing record is [12] 6.940 seconds at 201.37 mph (324.0736 km/h) for a quarter mile (402 m). Another niche organization is the VWDRC which run a VW-only championship with vehicles running under 7 seconds.

Prior to the founding of the NHRA and IHRA, smaller organizations sanctioned drag racing in the early years, which included the competing AHRA in the United States from 1955 to 2005.

Australia

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2012)

The first Australian Nationals event was run in 1965 at Riverside raceway, near Melbourne. The Australian National Drag Racing Association (ANDRA) was established in 1973, and today they claim they are the "best in the world outside the United States".[13] ANDRA sanctions races throughout Australia and throughout the year at all levels, from Junior Dragster to Top Fuel.

The ANDRA Drag Racing Series is for professional drivers and riders and includes Top Fuel, Top Alcohol, Top Doorslammer (similar to the USA Pro Modified class), Pro Stock (using 400 cubic inch engines (6.5 litres)), Top Bike and Pro Stock Motorcycle.

The Summit Sportsman Series is for ANDRA sportsman drivers and riders and includes Competition, Super Stock, Super Compact, Competition Bike, Supercharged Outlaws, Top Sportsman, Modified, Super Sedan, Modified Bike, Super Street and Junior Dragster.

In 2015, after a dispute with ANDRA, Sydney Dragway, Willowbank Raceway and the Perth Motorplex invited the International Hot Rod Association (IHRA) to sanction events at their tracks. Shortly thereafter the Perth Motorplex reverted to ANDRA sanction. Although greatly assisted by ANDRA prior to its construction, Springmount Raceway opted for IHRA sanction. The 400 Thunder Series targets professional racers to its races. Intended to be the premier Drag racing series in Australia it has never been able to run a truly National series and has been on a steady decline since its inception. Most recently Top Fuel Australia (the organization that represents the Top Fuel owners) recently extracted itself from the 400 Thunder series. ANDRA recently launched a new National series that will initially cater for Top Doorslammer and Top Fue Motorcycle. This series will provide a greater National coverage than the 400 Thunder Series did and will soon add other Professional categories. In 2021 Heathcote Park Raceway in Victoria was sold to new ownership and has since been sanctioned by IHRA for small regional events.

Europe

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2009)

Drag racing was imported to Europe by American NATO troops during the Cold War.[14] Races were held in West Germany beginning in the 1960s at the airbases at Ramstein and Sembach[15] and in the UK at various airstrips and racing circuits[16] before the opening of Europe's first permanent drag strip at Santa Pod Raceway in 1966.

The FIA organises a Europe-wide four wheeled championship for the Top Fuel, Top Methanol Dragster, Top Methanol Funny Car, Pro Modified and Pro Stock classes. FIM Europe organises a similar championship for bike classes. In addition, championships are run for sportsman classes in many countries throughout Europe by the various national motorsport governing bodies.

New Zealand

Drag racing in New Zealand started in the 1960s. The New Zealand Hot Rod Association (NZHRA) sanctioned what is believed to have been the first drag meeting at an open cut coal mine at Kopuku, south of Auckland, sometime in 1966. In 1973, the first and only purpose built drag strip opened in Meremere by the Pukekohe Hot Rod Club. In April 1993 the governance of drag racing was separated from the NZHRA and the New Zealand Drag Racing Association (NZDRA) was formed. In 2014, New Zealand's second purpose built drag strip – Masterton Motorplex – opened.

The first New Zealand Drag Racing Nationals was held in the 1966/67 season at Kopuku, near Auckland.

There are now two governing bodies operating drag racing in New Zealand with the Florida-based International Hot Rod Association sanctioning both of New Zealands major tracks at Ruapuna (Pegasus Bay Drag Racing Association) in the South Island and Meremere Dragway Inc in the North Island which is now become the best drag strip in NZ. However, the official ASN of the sport, per FIA regulations, is the New Zealand Drag Racing Association.

South America

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2011)

Many countries in South America race 200 meters, unlike in the United States and Australia, where the quarter-mile, or, 400 meters, respectively, is typical.

Organized drag racing in Colombia is the responsibility of Club G3, a private organization. The events take place at Autódromo de Tocancipá.

Caribbean

Curaçao

On the island of Curaçao, organization of drag racing events is handled by the Curaçao Autosport Foundation (FAC)[17]
All racing events, including street legal competitions, happen at the Curaçao International Raceway.

Aruba

On the island of Aruba, all racing events, including street legal competitions, happen at Palomarga International Raceway.[18]

Barbados

On the island of Barbados, organization of drag racing events is done by the Barbados Association of Dragsters and Drifters.[19] Currently the drag racing is done at Bushy Park racing circuit[20] over 1/8 mile, while "acceleration tests" of 1/4 mile are done at the Paragon military base.

Saint Lucia

On the Island of Saint Lucia, organization of drag racing events is done by no-one. All local groups are tie ups. Currently races are held at the US Old military base also known as the "Ca Ca Beff", "The Base" near the Hewanorra International Airport in Vieux Fort.

Dominican Republic

On Santo Domingo, organization of drag racing events is done by Autodromo Sunix and they happen at the Autodromo Sunix, close to the Airport SDQ.

South Asia

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2009)

Organized drag racing is rapidly growing in India. The country's first drag race meet was organized by Autocar India in Mumbai in 2002. Since then there have been many drag racing events in India. The most popular event is Elite Octanes' Valley Run which is held at Ambey Valley air strip in Loanavla every year.

The biggest drag series event was organized by India Speed Week with three different locations around India. After the series two riders were chosen to represent the country 2017 initiative to bring 11 times world drag racing champion Rickey Gadson to India. The initiative was executed during the Valley Run 2017 event, which gave the participants a platform to perform at the highest level globally. Rickey Gadson, as an extension of the initiative invited two of the top performing drag racers to visit USA to train and get an opportunity to represent India at the World Finals of drag racing held on 16-18 November 2018 in Valdosta GA, USA.[21][22] As a result the two riders performed in their maiden event outside India. Also during the event, Amit Sharma, the fastest drag racer in Indian drag racing history, produced a time slip of 8.87 sec's – the fastest ever by any Indian.[23]

Drag racing is also gaining popularity in Pakistan, with private organizations sponsoring such events. The Bahria Town housing project recently organized a drag racing event in Rawalpindi with the help of some of the country's best drivers.[24]

Sri Lanka has seen an immense growth in drag racing due to legal meets held by the Ceylon Motor Sports Club, an FIA sanctioned body. In recent years, exotic cars and Japanese power houses have been taking part in these popular events.[25]

South Africa

Drag racing is an established sport in South Africa, with a number of strips around the country including Tarlton International Raceway and ODI Raceway. Drag racing is controlled by Motorsport South Africa and all drivers are required to hold a valid Motorsport South Africa license.[26] Drivers can compete in a number of categories including Top Eliminator, Senior Eliminator, Super Competition Eliminator, Competition Eliminator, Pro Street Bikes, Superbike Eliminator, Supersport Shootout (motorcycle), Street Modified, and Factory Stock.[26]

Russian Federation

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Drag racing in Russia started in 2004 in Moscow when the Russian Automotive Federation (RAF) sanctioned it as an official motorsport. Drag Racing became popular in Russia after "The Fast and the Furious" film in 2001, but competitions were illegal before 2004. The most outstanding drag racing event of the early years was "DRAG BITVA" (Drag Battle) which took place in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia from 2005 to 2008. Krasnoyarsk is located in the middle of Russia, so it was the best place to bring all the fastest cars from all over the country. Due to the financial situation "DRAG BITVA" was canceled in 2009 and never came back. It was difficult times for drag racing in Russia from 2009 to 2014, but it was supported by enthusiasts in every region. There were a lot of competitions but it wasn't as big as "DRAG BITVA". In 2014 Dragtimes company in partnership with SMP Racing became the Russian Drag Racing Championship (SMP RDRC) promoters, since then Drag Racing in Russia became more professional. From the very beginning to 2014 only streetcars were allowed to compete in Russia. Now it's also allowed to run promods and dragsters in SMP RDRC. Thanks to the efforts of SMP RDRC promoters in 2019 the first professional dragstrip in Russia "RDRC Racepark" was built. It's located near Moscow in 40 kilometers of downtown at the former airfield Bykovo. It gave many opportunities to test the cars and make new records. Before the track was built, competitions took place on straight parts of circuits, so it wasn't allowed to prepare the whole 1/4 mile, only 1/8 and the tracks were available for drag racers except racing weekends of local or national events. From the very beginning one of the main ideas of the promoters was to increase the quality and reach of live broadcasts, so SMP RDRC became the first racing series with its video production and remains so to this day.

Russian Championship has four classes:

Regional Series also have four classes divided by ET:

The national record belongs to 4-time national champion Dmitry Samorukov: 6.325 seconds at 328.76 km/h (204.28 mph). It was set in a special record run in 2016 on Dodge Viper Doorslammer in Grozny, Chechen Republic at "Fort Grozny" racetrack.

Dmitry Samorukov was the first Russian participant of the FIA European Championship on a newly built Chevrolet Camaro in the most competitive Promod class in 2019. After six stages of the competition, he took 10th of 38 places overall.

Russian driver Dmitry Kapustin on Nissan Skyline GT-R R32 is holding the European record of AWD streetcars: 7.182 seconds at 312.77 km/h (194.35 mph). The record was set in a qualifying run in Grozny, Chechen Republic at "Fort Grozny" racetrack in 2018.

1/2 mile races are also popular in Russia. "Unlim 500+" is the main 1/2 mile race in Russia. It's a supercar and sportscar festival where only 500+ hp cars are allowed (e. g. Nissan GT-R, McLaren 720S, Lamborghini Aventador, Porsche 911, Ferrari 488, etc.). The national record on 1/2 mile distance also belongs to Dmitry Samorukov on Nissan GT-R R 35: 13.305 seconds at 346.48 km/h (215.29 mph). The record was set on a test and tune day at the "RDRC Racepark" track in 2020.

Classes

Caterpillar-sponsored dragster. Note wide slicks and high-mounted wing, to assist traction.
Caterpillar-sponsored dragster. Note wide slicks and high-mounted wing, to assist traction.

There are hundreds of classes in drag racing, each with different requirements and restrictions on things such as weight, engine size, body style, modifications, and many others. NHRA and IHRA share some of these classes, but many are solely used by one sanctioning body or the other. The NHRA boasts over 200 classes, while the IHRA has fewer. Some IHRA classes have multiple sub-classes in them to differentiate by engine components and other features. There is even a class for aspiring youngsters, Junior Dragster, which typically uses an eighth-mile track, also favored by VW racers.

In 1997, the FIA (cars) and UEM (bikes) began sanctioning drag racing in Europe with a fully established European Drag Racing Championship, in cooperation (and rules compliance) with NHRA. The major European drag strips include Santa Pod Raceway in Podington, England; Alastaro Circuit, Finland; Mantorp Park, Sweden; Gardermoen Raceway, Norway and the Hockenheimring in Germany.

Pain Killer J/D. Note the driver, helmet off, is still in the car, which is under tow on the return road, headed for the pits.
Pain Killer J/D. Note the driver, helmet off, is still in the car, which is under tow on the return road, headed for the pits.

There is a somewhat arbitrary definition of what constitutes a "professional" class. The NHRA includes 5 pro classes; Top Fuel, Funny Car, Pro Stock, Pro Modified and Pro Stock Motorcycle. The FIA features a different set of 5 pro classes; Top Fuel, Top Methanol Dragster, Top Methanol Funny Car, Pro Modified and Pro Stock. Other sanctioning bodies have similarly different definitions. A partial list of classes includes:

Top Fuel dragsters
Top Fuel dragsters
Typical Funny Cars
Typical Funny Cars
A typical Pro Stock car.
A typical Pro Stock car.
A typical Comp car.
A typical Comp car.
Super Gas Probe.
Super Gas Probe.
Super Street Mustang
Super Street Mustang
A typical Super Stock car
A typical Super Stock car
Blown Top Dragster[clarification needed]
Blown Top Dragster[clarification needed]

A complete listing of all classes can be found on the respective NHRA and IHRA official websites.

Dragster engine with dual-plug heads, dual ignition magnetos, and intake snorkel
Dragster engine with dual-plug heads, dual ignition magnetos, and intake snorkel

The UEM also has a different structure of professional categories with Top Fuel Bike, Super Twin Top Fuel Bike, and Pro Stock Bike contested, leaving the entire European series with a total of 8 professional categories.

To allow different cars to compete against each other, some competitions are raced on a handicap basis, with faster cars delayed on the starting line enough to theoretically even things up with the slower car. This may be based on rule differences between the cars in stock, super stock, and modified classes, or on a competitor's chosen "dial-in" in bracket racing.

For a list of drag racing world records in each class, see Dragstrip#Quarter mile times.

Dial-in

A 'dial-in' is a time the driver estimates it will take his or her car to cross the finish line, and is generally displayed on one or more windows so the starter can adjust the starting lights on the tree accordingly. The slower car will then get a head start equal to the difference in the two dial-ins, so if both cars perform perfectly, they would cross the finish line dead even. If either car goes faster than its dial-in (called breaking out), it is disqualified regardless of who has the lower elapsed time; if both cars break out, the one who breaks out by the smallest amount wins. However, if a driver had jump-started (red light) or crossed a boundary line, both violations override any break out (except in some classes with an absolute break out rule such as Junior classes).

The effect of the bracket racing rules is to place a premium on consistency of performance of the driver and car rather than on raw speed, in that victory goes to the driver able to precisely predict elapsed time, whether it is fast or slow. This in turn makes victory much less dependent on budget, and more dependent on skill, making it popular with casual weekend racers.

Blazing Angel Jet Dragster
Blazing Angel Jet Dragster

Historic cars

Smokin' White Owl, built by "Ollie" Morris in 1954
Smokin' White Owl, built by "Ollie" Morris in 1954

Glossary

Main article: List of motorsport terminology

Popular Culture

See also

References

  1. ^ Post, R. (2001). High performance: The culture and technology of drag racing, 1950–2000 (Rev. ed., Johns Hopkins studies in the history of technology). Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  2. ^ NHRA history. (n.d.). https://www.nhra.com/nhra-history. Accessed 22 March 2021.
  3. ^ Nostalgiadragworld.com (retrieved 5 May 2017)
  4. ^ a b Burgess, Phil, National Dragster editor. "Obsolete skills, part 1: On the track", at NHRA.com (retrieved 22 September 2018)
  5. ^ a b Tocher, Ian. "'Big Daddy' Describes Birth of the Burnout", published 18 March 2018, at Drag Illustrated (retrieved 23 September 2018)
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) New Tree implemented for NHRA VisitMyrtleBeach.com Four-Wide Nationals
  7. ^ NHRA.com Basics of Drag Racing
  8. ^ "NHRA Glossary". NHRA. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  9. ^ "Encore Feature: Chicago Once a Funny Car Heaven". Competition Plus. Archived from the original on 6 May 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  10. ^ "Revolutionary new event format promises Easter thrills at Willowbank Raceway". Australian National Drag Racing Association. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  11. ^ Mullin. "NDRL – Nostalgia Drag Racing League". Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  12. ^ "National Electric Drag Racing Association – Roger Hedlund 200 mph Club". Nedra.com. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  13. ^ Australian National Drag Racing Association Archived 18 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine ANDRA History
  14. ^ "History". francedrag.com.
  15. ^ "Drag racing history in Germany". dragracinghistory.de.
  16. ^ "UK drag racing history 1960–1964". www.trakbytes.co.uk.
  17. ^ "Drag racing on Curacao". curacaodrag.com.
  18. ^ "aruba.com". Aruba.com. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  19. ^ "The Barbados Association of Dragsters & Drifters – BADD". The Barbados Association of Dragsters & Drifters – BADD. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  20. ^ "Bushy Park Barbados". www.bushyparkbarbados.com. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  21. ^ "Indian riders to compete in World Finals of Motorcycle Drag Racing". Autocar India.
  22. ^ "Man Cup: Indian Riders to Compete in World Finals". 26 October 2018.
  23. ^ "Men in Drag". The Telegraph. Calcutta.
  24. ^ "The News International: Latest News Breaking, Pakistan News". www.thenews.com.pk. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010.
  25. ^ "CMSC – SLAF Drag Race on 24 August". Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  26. ^ a b "2010 MSA Drag Racing Handbook" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  27. ^ "SFWD rules". Ogs1320.com. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  28. ^ "Sport Front-Wheel-Drive Class Explained – Honda Tuning Magazine". 23 June 2013.
  29. ^ "Sport Front-Wheel-Drive Class Explained – Honda Tuning Magazine". SuperStreetOnline. 23 June 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  30. ^ a b c Hot Rod, 12/86, p. 29 sidebar.
  31. ^ "Smokin' White Owl". Hot Rod. November 1954.
  32. ^ Post, Robert C. (2001). High Performance The Culture and Technology of Drag Racing 1950–2000. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-8018-6664-2.
  33. ^ Hot Rod, 12/86, p.28.
  34. ^ Street Rodder, 7/94, p.144.
  35. ^ Super Chevy, 5/94, p.16.
  36. ^ "British Drag Racing Hall of Fame — Sammy Miller". British Drag Racing Hall of Fame. 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  37. ^ "This is Bracket Racing with Luke Bogacki". Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  38. ^ Ultimate Hot Rod Dictionary: A-Bombs to Zoomies ISBN 978-0-760-31823-2 p. 217
  39. ^ "NHRA Glossary". NHRA. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  40. ^ Emmons, Don, "R&C Modelrama" in Rod & Custom, 9/00, p.147.
  41. ^ Graaf, Nathalie. "Reglementen Dragrace 2016" (PDF). The Basics of Drag Racing. KNAC Nationale Autosport Federatie. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  42. ^ Breitenstein, Jeff. Ultimate Hot Rod Dictionary: A-Bombs to Zoomies. MotorBooks International. ISBN 978-1-61059-235-2.
  43. ^ "Drag Race Central – Presented by Summitracing.com 1-800-230-3030". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  44. ^ Nitrous Oxide Performance Handbook ISBN 978-0-760-32624-4 p. 85
  45. ^ Ultimate Hot Rod Dictionary: A-Bombs to Zoomies ISBN 0-7603-1823-9 p. 142
  46. ^ ":::Drag Racing Online::: ANDRA Nationals at Sydney, Australia – 11/12/2012". Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  47. ^ Its invention is credited to Vic King and Pete Wolley for their X/Gas digger in 1959. Dain Gingerelli, "Midnight Oil!" in American Rodder, 6/94, p.81.
  48. ^ "Guide to Troubleshooting Drag Race Traction Issues". OnAllCylinders. 28 August 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2021.