This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Fifth generation of video game consoles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The fifth generation era (also known as the 32-bit era, the 64-bit era, or the 3D era) refers to computer and video games, video game consoles, and handheld gaming consoles dating from approximately October 4, 1993, to March 23, 2006.[note 1] For home consoles, the best-selling console was the Sony PlayStation, followed by the Nintendo 64, and then the Sega Saturn. The PlayStation also had a redesigned version, the PSone, which was launched on July 7, 2000.

Some features that distinguished fifth generation consoles from previous fourth generation consoles include:

This era is known for its pivotal role in the video game industry's leap from 2D to 3D computer graphics, as well as the shift in home console games from being stored on ROM cartridges to optical discs. This was also the first generation to feature internet connectivity: some systems had additional hardware which provided connectivity to an existing device, like the Sega Net Link for the Sega Saturn. The Apple Pippin, a commercial flop, was the first system to feature on-board internet capabilities.

For handhelds, this era was characterized by significant fragmentation, because the first handheld of the generation, the Sega Nomad, had a lifespan of just two years, and the Nintendo Virtual Boy had a lifespan of less than one. Both of them were discontinued before the other handhelds made their debut. The Neo Geo Pocket was released on October 28, 1998, but was dropped by SNK in favor of the fully backward compatible Neo Geo Pocket Color just a year later. Nintendo's Game Boy Color (1998) was the most successful handheld by a large margin. There were also two minor updates of the original Game Boy: the Game Boy Light (released in Japan only) and the Game Boy Pocket.

There was considerable time overlap between this generation and the next, the sixth generation of consoles, which began with the launch of the Dreamcast in Japan on November 27, 1998. The fifth generation ended with the discontinuation of the PlayStation (specifically its re-engineered form, the "PSOne") on March 23, 2006, a year after the launch of the seventh generation.

History

Transition to 3D

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2007)

The 32-bit/64-bit era is most noted for the rise of fully 3D polygon games. While there were games prior that had used three-dimensional polygon environments, such as Virtua Racing and Virtua Fighter in the arcades and Star Fox on the Super NES, it was in this era that many game designers began to move traditionally 2D and pseudo-3D genres into 3D on video game consoles. Early efforts from then-industry leaders Sega and Nintendo saw the introduction of the 32X and Super FX, which provided rudimentary 3D capabilities to the 16-bit Genesis and Super NES. Starting in 1996, 3D video games began to take off with releases such as Virtua Fighter 2 on the Saturn, Tomb Raider on the PlayStation and Saturn, Tekken 2 and Crash Bandicoot on the PlayStation, and Super Mario 64 on the Nintendo 64. Their 3D environments were widely marketed and they steered the industry's focus away from side-scrolling and rail-style titles, as well as opening doors to more complex games and genres. 3D became the main focus in this era as well as a slow decline of cartridges in favor of CDs, due to the ability to produce games less expensively and the media's high storage capabilities.

CD vs cartridge

See also: ROM cartridge

After allowing Sony to develop a CD-based prototype console for them and a similar failed partnership with Philips,[3] Nintendo decided to make the Nintendo 64 a cartridge-based system like its predecessors. Publicly, Nintendo defended this decision on the grounds that it would give games shorter load times than a compact disc (and would decrease piracy due to a certain chip in the ROM cartridge).[4][5] However, it also had the dubious benefit of allowing Nintendo to charge higher licensing fees, as cartridge production was considerably more expensive than CD production. Many third-party developers like EA Sports viewed this as an underhanded attempt to raise more money for Nintendo and many of them became more reluctant to release games on the N64.[citation needed]

Nintendo's decision to use a cartridge based system sparked a small scale war among gamers as to which was better. The chief advantages of the CD-ROM format were (1) larger storage capacity, allowing for a much greater amount of game content;[6][7] (2) considerably lower manufacturing costs, making them much less risky for game publishers;[7][8] (3) lower retail prices due to the reduced need to compensate for manufacturing costs;[6][7][9] and (4) shorter production times, which greatly reduced the need for publishers to predict the demand for a game.[10][11] Its disadvantages compared to cartridge were (1) considerable load times;[6][8][10] (2) their inability to load data "on the fly", making them reliant on the console RAM;[6] and (3) the greater manufacturing costs of CD-ROM drives compared to cartridge slots, resulting in generally higher retail prices for CD-based consoles.[6][8] A Nintendo Power ad placed a Space Shuttle (representing cartridges) next to a snail (representing a CD), as an analogy for their respective speeds, stating that "the future doesn't belong to snails".[12]

Almost every other contemporary system used the new CD-ROM technology (the Nintendo 64 was the last major home video game console to use cartridges, until the Nintendo Switch in 2017). Consequent to the storage and cost advantages of the CD-ROM format, many game developers shifted their support away from the Nintendo 64 to the PlayStation. One of the most influential game franchises to change consoles during this era was the Final Fantasy series, beginning with Final Fantasy VII, which was originally being developed for the N64 but due to storage capacity issues was shifted to and released on the PlayStation;[13] prior Final Fantasy games had all been published on Nintendo consoles – either the NES or Super NES, with the only other entries being on the Wonderswan, or computers like the MSX.

Overview of the fifth generation consoles

The fifth generation was characterized by a highly fragmented market. More competing consoles comprised this generation than any other since the video game crash of 1983, leading video game magazines of the time to frequently predict a second crash.[14]

Major consoles

The 3DO Interactive Multiplayer was one of the earliest fifth generation consoles and was released in October 1993. Despite having massive third-party support and an unprecedented amount of hype for a first-time entrant into the industry, it had early difficulties due to software development delays and its high price. For its initial release, the 3DO had a $700 retail price tag and only a single available game ready for market. The 3DO would be discontinued only three years later. While generally regarded as a failed system, the 3DO was this generation's fourth best-selling console in a crowded field with sales of 2 million units.

The Sega Saturn was Sega's entry into the stand-alone 32-bit console market. It was released in Japan simultaneously with the 32X in November 1994, although it would not have a North American release until six months later.[3] It became Sega's most successful console in Japan. In America and Europe however, a disastrous launch and an MSRP of $399 compared to the PlayStation's $299 caused it to be a commercial failure,[15] selling far fewer units than the Master System and Mega Drive/Genesis before it.

The PlayStation, released in early December 1994, was the most successful console of this generation. With attention given by third-party developers and a more mature marketing campaign aimed at the 20–30 age group enabling it to achieve market dominance, it became the first home console to ship 100 million units worldwide.[citation needed]

The Nintendo 64, originally announced as the "Ultra 64", was released in 1996. The system's delays and use of the expensive cartridge format made it an unpopular platform among third-party developers.[citation needed] Several popular first-party titles allowed the Nintendo 64 to maintain strong sales in the United States, but it remained a distant second to the PlayStation.[citation needed]

Other consoles

The Amiga CD32 was released in September 1993 and sold in Europe, Australia, Canada and Brazil. It was never released in the United States due to Commodore's bankruptcy and court-ordered import restrictions.[16][17] Despite promising initial sales, the console was hampered by poor software quality with many titles being simply re-releases of older games.[18] Production of the Amiga CD32 was discontinued after only eight months.[17]

The Atari Jaguar was released in November 1993 and was marketed as the world's first 64-bit system. However, sales at launch were well below the incumbent fourth generation consoles, and a small games library rooted in a shortage of third-party support made it impossible for the Jaguar to catch up, selling below 250,000 units. The system's 64-bit nature was also questioned by many. Its only add-on, the Jaguar CD, was released in 1995 and was produced in limited quantities due to the low install base of the system.[citation needed] The 32-bit Atari Panther, set to be released in 1991, was canceled due to unexpectedly rapid progress in developing the Jaguar.[19]

The Sega 32X, an add-on console produced by Sega for the Genesis, was launched in November 1994. The Sega Neptune, a standalone version of the 32X, was announced but ultimately canceled. Sega failed to deliver a steady flow of games for the 32X platform. With customers anticipating the PlayStation on the horizon, and with Sega's more technically advanced Saturn already competing on the market in Japan, sales of the 32X were poor.[20]

NEC, creator of the TurboGrafx-16 of the previous generation, entered the market with the PC-FX in late December 1994. The system had a 32-bit processor, 16-bit stereo sound, and video capability. Despite its impressive specifications, it did not have a polygon processor and was marketed as a platform for 2D and full motion video games. The PC-FX game library was criticized for being low in quality, and having titles that relied more on animation than gameplay.[21][22] Due to low expected sales, it was never released outside of Japan.

Because of many delays in the release of the upcoming Nintendo 64, in 1995 Nintendo released the Virtual Boy, a supposedly portable system capable of displaying true 3D graphics, albeit in monochromatic red and black. Despite being marketed as a portable system, it is not actually portable in practice due to the lack of a head strap.[23] Also, because of the nature of its display, the system reportedly caused headaches and eye strain.[23] It was discontinued within a year,[24] with fewer than 25 games being released for it.[23] Although it sold over 750,000 units, Nintendo felt that it was a failure compared to consoles such as the Super Nintendo, which sold over 20 million.[24]

Aftermath of the fifth generation

By the end of the 1995 Christmas shopping season, the fifth generation had come down to a struggle between the Sony PlayStation, Sega Saturn, 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, and the upcoming Nintendo 64. The Amiga CD32 had already been discontinued; the Jaguar and Genesis 32X were still on the market but were considered a lost cause by industry analysts; the Neo Geo CD had proven to appeal only to a niche market; and industry analysts had already determined that the yet-to-launch Apple Bandai Pippin was too expensive to make any impact in the market.[25] Moreover, even the leading fifth generation consoles were still facing sluggish sales. Combined sales for the PlayStation, Saturn, and 3DO barely topped 1 million units for the Christmas shopping season, as compared to combined sales of 4 million for the Sega Genesis and Super NES.[26] Focus groups showed that most children under 12 years old were equally happy playing on fourth generation consoles as they were playing on fifth generation consoles, making the fourth generation consoles more appealing to adults buying gifts for children, since they were cheaper.[8] Industry analysts began putting forth the possibility that the fifth generation of consoles would never overtake the fourth generation in sales, and become superseded by a new generation of DVD player consoles before they could achieve mass acceptance.[27]

1996 saw the fifth generation consoles' fortunes finally turn around. With the Saturn, PlayStation, and Nintendo 64 all showing dramatic increases in sales over the previous year, they claimed a combined 40% of the retail market for hardware and software, putting them in position to finally overtake the fourth generation consoles in 1997.[28]

The Sega Saturn suffered from poor marketing and comparatively limited third-party support outside Japan.[3] Sega's decision to use dual processors was roundly criticized, as this made it difficult to efficiently develop for the console.[29] Sega was also hurt by the Saturn's surprise four-month-early U.S. launch of their console; third-party developers, who had been planning for the originally scheduled launch, could not provide many launch titles and were angered by the move. Retailers were caught unprepared, resulting in distribution problems; some retailers, such as the now defunct KB Toys, were so furious that they refused to stock the Saturn thereafter.[30]

Due to numerous delays, the Nintendo 64 was released one year later than its competitors. By the time it was finally launched in 1996, Sony had already established its dominance, the Saturn was starting to struggle, and the 3DO and Jaguar had been discontinued.[citation needed] Its use of cartridge media rather than compact discs alienated some developers and publishers due to the space limits, the relatively high cost involved, and a considerably longer production time.[citation needed] In addition, the initially high suggested retail price of the console may have driven potential customers away, and some early adopters of the system who had paid the initial price may have been angered by Nintendo's decision to cut the price of the system by $50 six months after its release.[31] However, the Nintendo 64 turned out to be a commercial success, particularly in the United States, where it sold 20.63 million units, nearly two thirds of its worldwide sales of 32.93 million units. It was also home to highly successful games such as Star Fox 64, Mario Kart 64, The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask, Super Mario 64, GoldenEye 007, Banjo-Kazooie, and Super Smash Bros. While Nintendo 64 sold far more units than the Sega Saturn, Atari Jaguar, and 3DO combined, it posed no challenge to the PlayStation's lead in the market.

By 1997, 40% to 60% of American homes played on video game consoles.[further explanation needed] 30% to 40% of these homes owned a console, while an additional 10% to 20% rented or shared a console.[32]

Changes in the industry

After the dust settled in the fifth generation console wars, several companies saw their outlooks change drastically.

Atari

Atari Corporation, which was not able to recover its losses, ended up merging into JTS Corporation in 1996.[33][34] This caused the Atari name to virtually disappear from the gaming market until 1998, when Hasbro Interactive purchased the Atari assets from JTS for $5 million.[35]

On May 14, 1999, Hasbro Interactive announced that all rights to the Atari Jaguar were released into the public domain,[36] thus declaring the platform open; this allowed anyone to freely create and publish games for the Jaguar without endorsement or licensing from Hasbro Interactive. Since then, homebrew developers began to release uncompleted Jaguar games as well as several brand new titles to satisfy the system's cult following.[37]

Sega

Sega's loss of consumer confidence (coupled with its previous console failures), along with their financial difficulties, set the company up for a similar fate in the next round of console wars.

Home systems

Comparison

Comparison of fifth-generation video game home consoles
Name 3DO Interactive Multiplayer Atari Jaguar Sega Saturn PlayStation Nintendo 64
Manufacturer The 3DO Company Atari Sega Sony (SCE) Nintendo
Image(s)





Top: Panasonic FZ-1 R·E·A·L
Bottom: GoldStar GDO-101M
Top: Atari Jaguar and controller
Bottom: Atari Jaguar CD connected to the console and ProController
Top: North American Saturn Model 1 and controller
Bottom: Japanese Saturn Model 1 and updated controller
Top: Original PlayStation with controller and memory card
Bottom: Revised PSOne with DualShock controller and memory card
Top: Nintendo 64 with controller and game cartridge
Bottom: Nintendo 64DD
Launch price (USD) US$699.99 (equivalent to $1,476 in 2023) US$249.99 (equivalent to $527 in 2023) US$399.99 (equivalent to $800 in 2023) US$299.99 (equivalent to $600 in 2023)[38] US$199.99 (equivalent to $389 in 2023)
Release date
  • NA: October 4, 1993
  • JP: March 20, 1994
  • EU: June 11, 1994
  • NA: November 23, 1993
  • EU: June 27, 1994
  • JP: December 8, 1994
  • JP: November 22, 1994
  • NA: May 11, 1995
  • EU: July 8, 1995
  • JP: December 3, 1994
  • NA: September 9, 1995
  • EU: September 29, 1995
  • AU: November 15, 1995
  • JP: June 23, 1996
  • NA: September 29, 1996
  • EU: March 1, 1997
  • AU: March 1, 1997
Media CD-ROM
  • CD-ROM
  • Cartridge (limited, Japan and Europe only)
CD-ROM
Best-selling game Gex, over 1 million[39][40] Alien vs Predator, more than 50,000[41] Virtua Fighter 2, 1.7 million in Japan[42] Gran Turismo, 10.85 million shipped (as of April 30, 2008)[43][44] Super Mario 64, 11.62 million (as of May 21, 2003)[45][46]
CPU ARM60 (32‑bit RISC) @ 12.5 MHz (8.75 MIPS[47])
  • LSI LR333x0 (labelled as the Sony CXD8530CQ on the package) (based on the MIPS R3051 core) @ 33.8688 MHz (30 MIPS[53])
  • System control coprocessor (inside CPU)

NEC VR4300 (64‑bit RISC) @ 93.75 MHz (125 MIPS)[54][55]

GPU
  • 2× accelerated video co-processors
  • Math co-processor (inside CPU)
  • Tom chip: GPU, object processor, blitter
  • Jerry chip: DSP
  • Sega VDP1 (32‑bit video display processor) @ 28.63 MHz (sprites, textures, polygons)[56]
  • Sega VDP2 (32‑bit video display processor) @ 28.63 MHz (backgrounds, scrolling)[57]
  • SCU DSP (inside SCU (32‑bit Saturn Control Unit)[52]
Reality Co-Processor (64‑bit MIPS R4000 based, 128‑bit vector register processor) @ 62.5 MHz
Sound chip(s) 13 channel unnamed custom 20‑bit DSP embedded in the CLIO chip[59] "Jerry" chip: DSP, 2× DAC (converts digital data to analog signals) Sony SPU (sound processing unit) Reality Signal Processor (DSP)
Memory MB RAM 2 MB FPM DRAM (4× 512 KB chips, 790 MB with Jaguar CD) 4.5 MB RAM 3587 KB RAM
  • 2 MB DRAM
  • 1026 KB VRAM (1 MB frame buffer, 2 KB texture cache, 64 bytes FIFO buffer)
  • 512 KB sound RAM
  • 1 KB non-associative SRAM data cache
4 MB RDRAM (8 MB with Expansion Pak)
Video
  • Resolution: 320 × 220 to 360 × 220 (progressive), 320 × 440 to 720 × 440 (interlaced)[48]
  • Colors: 79,200 (360 × 220) on screen, out of 16,777,216 (24‑bit) palette
  • Polygons: 10,000/sec,[62] flat shading, Gouraud shading support
  • Sprites/textures: 1,000/frame[63] (blitter objects),[48] scaling, rotation, texture mapping
  • Background: 1 bitmap plane

Atari Jaguar CD:

  • Resolution: 256×224 to 640×240 (progressive), 256×448 to 640×480 (interlaced)
  • Colors: 153,600 (640×240) on screen, out of 16,777,216 (24‑bit) palette
  • Polygons: 90,000/sec (textured, lighting, Gouraud shading)[67] to 360,000/sec[68] (flat shading)
  • Sprites/textures: 4,000/frame[69] (bitmap objects[58]), scaling, rotation, texture mapping
  • Background: 1 bitmap plane
Audio Stereo audio, with: Stereo audio, with: Stereo audio, with:[60]
  • 32 sound channels on SCSP
  • FM synthesis on all 32 SCSP channels
  • 16‑bit PCM audio with 44.1 kHz sampling rate on all 32 SCSP channels
  • 1 streaming CD-DA channel (16‑bit PCM, 44.1 kHz)
Stereo audio, with:
  • 24 ADPCM channels on SPU
  • 16‑bit audio and 44.1 kHz sampling rate on all 24 ADPCM channels
  • 1 streaming CD-DA channel (16‑bit PCM, 44.1 kHz)
  • Optional Dolby Surround support
Stereo audio, with:
  • Variable number of channels (up to 100 if all system resources are devoted to audio)
  • Capable of playing back different types of audio (including PCM, MP3, MIDI and tracker music)
  • 16‑bit audio and 44.1 kHz sampling rate on all channels
  • Optional Dolby Surround support
Accessories (retail)
  • Jaguar TeamTap
  • Jaguar Pro Controller
  • Jaguar CD
  • Jaguar MemoryTrack Cartridge
  • Jaguar JagLink Interface
Online services No online service held. Jaguar Voice/Data Communicator 19.2k modem (no mass production) (1995–present)
  • NetLink 28.8k modem in North America (1996–present)
  • SegaNet and 14.4k Modem in Japan (1996–2000)
  • Lightspan Online Connection CD in the U.S. (1997)
  • i-mode Mobile Phone Connection Cable in Japan (2000–present)

Other consoles

These consoles are either less notable, never saw a worldwide release, and/or sold particularly poorly, and are therefore listed as 'Other'.

Worldwide sales standings

See also: List of best-selling game consoles

Bar chart showing the sales of the main 5th generation consoles
System Units sold
PlayStation 102.49 million shipped (74.34 million PlayStation, 28.15 million PSone) (as of March 31, 2005)[71]
Nintendo 64 32.93 million (as of March 31, 2005)[72]
Sega Saturn 9.26 million[73][74]
3DO 2 million
32X 800,000[75]
PC-FX 400,000
Atari Jaguar 250,000 (as of May 15, 2007)[76]
Amiga CD32 100,000
Apple Bandai Pippin 42,000 (as of May 4, 2007)[77]

From 1996 to 1999 (when the PlayStation, N64 and Saturn were the major 5th-generation consoles still on the market) Sony managed a 47% market share of the worldwide market, followed by Nintendo with 28% (with a percentage of that figure from the 16‑bit Super NES), while Sega was third with 23% (with a percentage of that from the Dreamcast).[78]

Production of the Sega Saturn was discontinued in 1998. Its demise was accelerated by rumors that work on its successor was underway; these rumors hurt the systems' sales in the west as early as 1997.[citation needed] The N64 was succeeded by the GameCube in 2001, but continued its production until 2004; however, PlayStation production was not ceased as it was redesigned as the PSone, further extending the life of the console around the release of the follow-up PlayStation 2. The PlayStation console production was discontinued in 2006, the same year that the PlayStation 3 was released in Japan and North America.

Handheld systems

See also: List of handheld game consoles and Comparison of handheld game consoles

Handheld comparison

Name Virtual Boy Game Boy Color Neo Geo Pocket / Neo Geo Pocket Color
Manufacturer Nintendo SNK
Console
Release dates
  • JP: July 21, 1995
  • NA: August 14, 1995
  • JP: October 21, 1998
  • NA: November 18, 1998
  • EU: November 23, 1998
  • AU: November 27, 1998
Neo Geo Pocket:
  • JP: October 28, 1998
  • EU: 1999
Neo Geo Pocket Color:
  • JP: March 16, 1999
  • NA: August 6, 1999
  • EU: October 1, 1999
Discontinued
  • JP: December 22, 1995
  • NA: August 1996
  • WW: March 23, 2003
  • NA: June 13, 2000
  • EU: June 13, 2000
  • JP: October 22, 2001
Logo
Launch prices
US$179.95 (equivalent to $350 in 2023)
US$69.99 (equivalent to $130 in 2023)
Neo Geo Pocket:
¥7,800
£59.99

Neo Geo Pocket Color:

US$$69.95 (equivalent to $130 in 2023)
Media ROM cartridge Game Boy Game Pak
Game Boy Color Game Pak
ROM cartridge
Best-selling game Mario's Tennis (pack-in) Pokémon Gold and Silver, approximately 23 million units ?
Accessories
(retail)
Virtual Boy controller
  • Mobile Adapter GB
  • Magic Card
  • Boom Box Boy
  • Neo Geo Pocket Link Cable
  • Neo Geo Pocket/Dreamcast Setsuzoku Cable
  • Neo Geo Pocket Wireless Communication Unit
CPU NEC V810 at 20 MHz Sharp LR35902 core at 4.19/8.38 MHz Toshiba TLCS900H core (16-bit) clocked at 6.144 MHz, Zilog Z80 clocked at 3.072 MHz for sound
Memory 64 KB work PSRAM
128 KB graphics DRAM
128 KB VRAM
32 kilobyte RAM, 16 kilobyte VRAM 12 kilobyte RAM for 900H, 4 kilobyte RAM for Z80, 64 kilobyte ROM
Display Stereoscopic LED display (50.27 Hz) 2.3 inch TFT LCD
32,768 colors; 10, 32 or 56 simultaneous
4,096 colors, 146 simultaneous
Audio Virtual Sound Unit with:
  • Five wave channels
  • One noise channel
  • 32 PCM samples
Stereo audio (using headphones), with:
  • Two square wave channels
  • One wave channel
  • One noise channel
  • Mono speaker
Stereo audio (using headphones), with:
Backward compatibility N/A Game Boy N/A
Resolutions 384 × 224 160 × 144 160 × 152
Units sold 770,000 (less than 1 million) 118.69 million, including Game Boy units 2 million (Neo Geo Pocket Color)

Other handhelds

Software

Milestone titles

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The fifth generation of video game consoles began when Panasonic released the 3DO Interactive Multiplayer on October 4, 1993, in the American market.[1] Then the fifth generation of video game console ended when the last console of the generation, the Sony PlayStation, was discontinued on March 23, 2006.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Which Game System is the Best?". Next Generation. No. 12. Imagine Media. December 1995. pp. 36–85.
  2. ^ Sinclair, Brendan (March 24, 2006). "Sony stops making original PS". GameSpot. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  3. ^ a b c Christopher Dring, 2013-07-11, A Tale of Two E3s – Xbox vs Sony vs Sega Archived October 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, MCV
  4. ^ "Iwata Asks". iwataasks.nintendo.com. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  5. ^ "Nintendo 64 (Project Reality) · RetroReversing". www.retroreversing.com. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e "The Format of the Future: CD-ROM or Cartridge?". GamePro. No. 69. IDG. June 1994. p. 8.
  7. ^ a b c "Ultra 64: Nintendo's Shot at the Title". Next Generation. No. 14. Imagine Media. February 1996. pp. 36–44.
  8. ^ a b c d "10 Reasons Why Nintendo 64 Will Kick Sony's and Sega's Ass (& 20 Reasons Why it Won't)". Next Generation. No. 20. Imagine Media. August 1996. pp. 39–41.
  9. ^ Ryan, Michael E. "'I Gotta Have This Game Machine!' (Cover Story)". Familypc 7.11 (2000): 112. MasterFILE Premier. Web. July 24, 2013.
  10. ^ a b "The Future of Consoles: Sony, Nintendo, and Sega Talk Back". Next Generation. No. 34. Imagine Media. October 1997. p. 53.
  11. ^ Bacani, Cesar & Mutsuko, Murakami (April 18, 1997). "Nintendo's new 64-bit platform sets off a scramble for market share". Asiaweek. Archived from the original on December 26, 2005. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
  12. ^ Oxford, David (February 1, 2018). "Why Cartridges Instead of CDs for the Nintendo 64? - Old School Gamer Magazine". Old School Gamer Magazine. Archived from the original on July 25, 2022. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  13. ^ "Squaresoft Head for Sony". Maximum: The Video Game Magazine (4). Emap International Limited: 105. March 1996.
  14. ^ Carpenter, Danyon (July 1994). "The Flood Waters Are Rising...". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 60. EGM Media, LLC. p. 6.
  15. ^ Keith Stuart (May 14, 2015). "Sega Saturn: how one decision destroyed PlayStation's greatest rival | Technology | The Guardian". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 26, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
  16. ^ Perelman, M: "Steal This Idea", page 60. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004
  17. ^ a b ""Amiga history guide", the Amiga CD32 section". January 11, 2001. Archived from the original on June 16, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  18. ^ James Matson (July 25, 2013). "Idiots Guide To Consoles – Amiga CD32". Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  19. ^ Atari Jaguar History Archived May 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, AtariAge.
  20. ^ "32X/Project Mars: Anatomy of a Failure". goodcowfilms.com. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2007.
  21. ^ "What is the NEC PC-FX then?". No. 5. Future Publishing. Ultimate Future Games. April 1995. pp. 40–41. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  22. ^ "早期CD-ROMの導人による時代の先躯NEC. FXに対する本音はどこにあるのか. PC-FX" (in Japanese). No. 1–4. Micro Magazine. Game Criticism. 1995. pp. 30–33. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  23. ^ a b c William Seibert (December 21, 2017). "Virtual Reality Then: A Look Back at the Nintendo Virtual Boy - TechSpot". TechSpot. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
  24. ^ a b Matt Brian (July 18, 2017). "Tech Hunters: Looking back at Nintendo's failed Virtual Boy". endgadget. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
  25. ^ "1996". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 78. Sendai Publishing. January 1996. pp. 18–20.
  26. ^ "16-Bit Surge". GamePro. No. 91. IDG. April 1996. p. 16.
  27. ^ "1996: The Year of the Videogame". Next Generation. No. 13. Imagine Media. January 1996. p. 65.
  28. ^ "Don't Call it a Comeback". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 91. Ziff Davis. February 1997. p. 20.
  29. ^ Copetti, Rodrigo (August 3, 2019). "Sega Saturn Architecture". copetti.org. Archived from the original on April 30, 2020. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  30. ^ Helgeson, Matt. "Top 10 Embarrassing E3 Moments", Game Informer(208): 40–41.
  31. ^ "Nintendo 64 Price Shock". GameSpot. April 26, 2000. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  32. ^ "CHAPTER ONE". Archived from to Mortal Combat.doc the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2015. ((cite web)): Check |url= value (help)
  33. ^ "The Life and Death of Atari". GamePro. No. 92. IDG. May 1996. p. 20.
  34. ^ "Video Game Timeline". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 102. Ziff Davis. January 1998. p. 137.
  35. ^ Johnston, Chris (April 8, 2000). "Atari Goes to Hasbro". GameSpot. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  36. ^ "Hasbro Releases Jaguar Publishing Rights". Hasbro Interactive. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2008. Beverly, MA (May 14, 1999) – Leading entertainment software publisher, Hasbro Interactive announced today it has released all rights that it may have to the vintage Atari hardware platform, the Jaguar.
  37. ^ Goss, Patrick. "Redundant gadgets (Atari Jaguar entry)". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.
  38. ^ "Will the Release of the PSX Ignite Gamers' Interests?". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 74. Ziff Davis. September 1995. pp. 26–27.
  39. ^ "At the Deadline". GamePro. No. 85. IDG. October 1995. p. 174.
  40. ^ "Tidbits...". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 76. Ziff Davis. November 1995. p. 19.
  41. ^ "Atari Jaguar Lifetime Sales". Beta Phase Games. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  42. ^ "Japan Platinum Game Chart". The Magic Box. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  43. ^ "Gran Turismo Series Shipment Exceeds 50 Million Units Worldwide" (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. May 9, 2008. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2008.
  44. ^ ""Gran Turismo" Series Software Title List". Polyphony Digital. April 2008. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007. Retrieved June 3, 2008.
  45. ^ "Mario sales data". GameCubicle.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2018. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  46. ^ "All Time Top 20 Best Selling Games". May 21, 2003. Archived from the original on February 21, 2006. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  47. ^ "ARM60 Data Sheet – Preface" (PDF). ARM60 Data Sheet. Zarlink Semiconductor. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  48. ^ a b c d "Technical Reference Manual Tom & Jerry" (PDF). Hillsoftware.com. February 28, 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 14, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  49. ^ a b Ludovic Drolez. "Lud's Open Source Corner". Archived from the original on March 9, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  50. ^ "The Sega Saturn – A 32-BIT Untamed Monster". Archived from the original on October 21, 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  51. ^ "Saturn Overview Manual" (PDF). Sega of America. June 6, 1994. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 18, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
  52. ^ a b c "Sega Saturn FAQ". Console Database. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  53. ^ "Inside the PlayStation". Next Generation. No. 6. Imagine Media. June 1995. p. 51.
  54. ^ "The Power Behind Nintendo 64". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  55. ^ "VR 4300 TM, VR 4305 TM, VR 4310 TM User's Manual – Page 230" (PDF). Datasheets.chipdb.org. NEC. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 7, 2018. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  56. ^ a b "General notice" (PDF). Koti.kapsi.fi. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 6, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  57. ^ a b "General notice" (PDF). Koti.kapsi.fi. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 18, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  58. ^ a b "GPU information". Archived from the original on November 16, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
  59. ^ "Audio Hardware". Arts Union. Archived from the original on August 11, 2018. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
  60. ^ a b c "General notice" (PDF). Koti.kapsi.fi. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 18, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  61. ^ "Game Pilgrimage". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  62. ^ "Welcome to The Atari Times". Ataritimes.com. Archived from the original on January 10, 2019. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  63. ^ [1] [dead link]
  64. ^ a b "System 16 – Sega STV (ST-V) Hardware (Sega)". Archived from the original on December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  65. ^ "VDP1 (Saturn)". Sega Retro. October 2, 2020. Archived from the original on October 4, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
  66. ^ "sega-saturn.com – Sega Saturn Tech Specs". Archived from the original on December 19, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  67. ^ "Game Pilgrimage". Archived from the original on December 30, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  68. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). 8-bitcentral.com. Archived from the original on November 7, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  69. ^ "NEXT Generation Issue #1 January 1995". January 1995. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  70. ^ "Inside Nintendo 64". Archived from the original on December 27, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  71. ^ "PlayStation Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2008.
  72. ^ "05 Nintendo Annual Report – Nintendo Co., Ltd" (PDF). Nintendo Co., Ltd. May 26, 2005. p. 33. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 15, 2005. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  73. ^ Ernkvist, Mirko (August 21, 2012). Zackariasson, Peter; Wilson, Timothy (eds.). The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State, and Future. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 9781136258244. Archived from the original on February 7, 2023. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  74. ^ Zackariasson, Peter; Wilson, Timothy L.; Ernkvist, Mirko (2012). "Console Hardware: The Development of Nintendo Wii". The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State, and Future. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 978-1138803831.
  75. ^ Stuart, Keith (2014). Sega Mega Drive Collected Works. Read-Only Memory. ISBN 9780957576810. "Finally with regards the launch of the 32X Shinobu Toyoda of Sega of America recalls, "We had an inventory problem. Behind the scenes, Nakayama wanted us to sell a million units in the US in the first year. Kalinske and I said we could only sell 600,000. We shook hands on a compromise - 800,000. At the end of the year we had managed to shift 600,000 as estimated, so ended up with 200,000 units in our warehouse, which we had to sell to retailers at a steep discount to get rid of the inventory."
  76. ^ Greg Orlando (May 15, 2007). "Console Portraits: A 40-Year Pictorial History of Gaming". Wired News. Condé Nast Publications. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2008.
  77. ^ Blake Snow (May 4, 2007). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro.com. p. 2. Archived from the original on September 5, 2008. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  78. ^ "New Versatility in Video Game Consoles Helps Boost Sales". In-Stat (NPD Group). January 23, 2001. Archived from the original on February 19, 2005. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
  79. ^ Retro Gamer staff. "Retroinspection: Sega Nomad". Retro Gamer (69). Imagine Publishing: 46–53.
  80. ^ Varanini, Giancarlo. "GameSpot Greatest Games of All Time: Castlevania: Symphony of the Night". GameSpot. Archived from the original on July 16, 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  81. ^ "Top 100 games of All Time (2005)". ign.com. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  82. ^ a b c d Cork, Jeff (November 16, 2009). "Game Informer's Top 100 Games of All Time (Circa Issue 100)". Game Informer. Archived from the original on February 19, 2016. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  83. ^ "From Rags to Riches: Way of the Warrior to Crash 3". Game Informer. Vol. 66, no. October 1998. 1998. pp. 18–19.
  84. ^ "[ Crash Bandicoot – Time Line ]". Naughty Dog. Archived from the original on July 29, 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
  85. ^ "Dragon Quest VII Reaches Quadruple Platinum". IGN. April 6, 2001. Archived from the original on December 23, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  86. ^ Poole, Steven (2000). Trigger Happy: The Inner Life of Videogames. London: Fourth Estate. p. 207. ISBN 1-84115-121-1. ... the tangible connection between the controls in your physical hands and the action of the little toy on screen is a clever semiotic trick that fools you into ever-increasing absorption into the cartoon world. A similar trick is worked by the videogame paradigm of the sniper rifle, introduced by MDK (1997), perfected by Goldeneye (1997) and then cropping up everywhere—for example in Metal Gear Solid (1999) and Perfect Dark (2000). This gadget zooms in on an area and lets you view it in close-up, usually for the purpose of delivering an exquisite head shot to a bad guy. A virtual environment that reveals more detail when viewed telescopically is naturally more convincing than one which only works on one informational scale.
  87. ^ "The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on September 13, 2008. Retrieved November 26, 2008.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  88. ^ "IGN Top 100 Games, #001–010 (2005)". IGN. Archived from the original on February 28, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
  89. ^ "IGN Top 100 Games, #4 (2007)". IGN. Archived from the original on December 2, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
  90. ^ "NP Top 200", Nintendo Power 200: 58–66, February 2006.
  91. ^ "The Greatest 200 Games of Their Time", Electronic Gaming Monthly 200: February 2006.
  92. ^ "All-Time Best Rankings". GameRankings. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
  93. ^ "1996 Top 30 Best Selling Japanese Console Games". The-MagicBox.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
  94. ^ McDonald, Andy (November 4, 2020). "20 Years Ago, Paper Mario Made the Mushroom Kingdom Feel Like a Real Place". VICE. Archived from the original on November 28, 2020. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
  95. ^ Bramwell, Thomas (October 18, 2001). "Paper Mario". Eurogamer.net. Gamer Network Limited. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2007.
  96. ^ "Panzer Dragoon Saga". Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  97. ^ "IGN Top 100 Games 2007". IGN.com. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
  98. ^ Top 100 Games of All Time: No.22 Archived November 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, G4.
  99. ^ DeVries, Jack (January 16, 2009). "IGN: Pokemon Report: World Records Edition". IGN. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  100. ^ "Pokemon Blue Version Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010.
  101. ^ "Pokemon Red Version". Gamerankings.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  102. ^ Craig Harris (June 24, 1999). "Pokemon Red Review". IGN. Archived from the original on April 9, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  103. ^ "Pokemon Gold & Silver". TechRaptor. October 4, 2017. Archived from the original on March 24, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  104. ^ "The Making Of: Sega Rally Championship 1995". Edge. Future plc. October 2, 2009. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  105. ^ a b Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition 2009, page 103.
  106. ^ Edge Staff, "The Making Of: Colin McRae Rally" Archived October 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Edge, February 5, 2010: "The basic premise for the game was based around the car handling in Sega Rally,' confirms Guy Wilday, producer of the first four CMR games. 'Everyone who played it loved the way the cars behaved on the different surfaces, especially the fact that you could slide the car realistically on the loose gravel. The car handling remains excellent to this day and it's still an arcade machine I enjoy playing, given the chance."
  107. ^ "Top 25 Racing Games... Ever! Part 2". Retro Gamer. September 21, 2009. pp. 5–6. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  108. ^ CESA Games White Papers. Computer Entertainment Supplier's Association.
  109. ^ "The Essential 50 Part 36: Super Mario 64". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  110. ^ O'Malley, James (September 11, 2015). "30 Best-Selling Super Mario Games of All Time on the Plumber's 30th Birthday". Gizmodo. Univision Communications. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
  111. ^ PlayStation: The Official Magazine asserts in its January 2009 issue that Tekken 3 "is still widely considered one of the finest fighting games of all time". See "Tekken 6: A History of Violence", PlayStation: The Official Magazine (January 2009): 46.
  112. ^ "Reviews and News Articles – GameRankings". Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  113. ^ Staff (September 1997). "Top 25 PlayStation Games of All Time". PSM. Vol. 1, no. 1. p. 34.
  114. ^ "Playstation History". Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
  115. ^ Gard, Toby; Smith, Jeremy Heath; Livingstone, Ian (interviews); Hawes, Keeley (narrator) (2007). Unlock the Past: A Retrospective Tomb Raider Documentary (Tomb Raider Anniversary Bonus DVD). Eidos Interactive / GameTap. Also known as Ten Years of Tomb Raider: A GameTap Retrospective
  116. ^ Marshall, Rick (March 9, 2013). "History of Tomb Raider: Shaking the Dust Off 17 Years of Lara Croft". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  117. ^ "Record-Breaking Lara Croft Battles her Way Into New Guinness World Records" Archived August 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, MCV. January 21, 2010.
  118. ^ Virtua Cop Archived February 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, IGN, July 7, 2004.
  119. ^ Martin Hollis (September 2, 2004). "The Making of GoldenEye 007". Zoonami. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  120. ^ Leone, Matt, Essential 50: Virtua Fighter Archived July 19, 2012, at archive.today, 1UP.
  121. ^ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 502. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
  122. ^ Feit, Daniel (September 5, 2012). "How Virtua Fighter Saved PlayStation's Bacon". Wired. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved October 9, 2014. Ryoji Akagawa: If it wasn't for Virtua Fighter, the PlayStation probably would have had a completely different hardware concept.
  123. ^ "Platinum Pick: Virtua Fighter 2". Next Generation. Vol. 2, no. 13. Imagine Media. January 1996. p. 179.
  124. ^ "Sega Three Pack Extension". Archived from the original on January 7, 1997. Retrieved March 11, 2016.