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Various Goat cheeses
Goat cheese on bread

Goat cheese, goat's cheese or chèvre (/ˈʃɛvrə/ or /ˈʃɛv/; from the French fromage de chèvre, lit.'goat cheese')[1] is cheese made from goat's milk. Goats were among the first animals to be domesticated for producing food.[2] Goat cheese is made around the world with a variety of recipes, giving many different styles of cheeses, from fresh and soft to aged and hard.[3]

Properties

History

Goats produce high-quality, nutrient-rich milk under even the most difficult environments, making them valuable to arid or mountainous areas where cattle and sheep cannot survive.[4] In addition, like all animal products, goat milk is heavily influenced by what the goats are eating. Because goats have hardy digestive systems, they tend to eat many bitter plants that more delicate animals such as cows and horses will not.[5] Goats were one of the earliest animals domesticated to suit human needs—more specifically milk production—going back to 8,000 BC, 10,000 years ago.[2] Goat cheese has been made for at least as far back as 5,000 BC;[6] the first documented proof of humans making cheese of any kind dates to 7,500 years ago in Poland.

Nutritional value

Goat milk has higher proportions of medium-chain fatty acids, such as caproic and caprylic, which contribute to the characteristic tart/"goat" flavor of the cheese.[7] They also make goat milk and cheeses more easily digestible.[8]

Goat milk, and therefore goat cheeses, contain anti-inflammatory enzymes, probiotics, antioxidants, proteins, and lipids and help maintain a healthy metabolism. These fatty acids take their name from the Latin for 'goat', capra.[9] It is also high in calcium, vitamins A and K, phosphorus, thiamin, and niacin.[4] Overall, the consumption of 60 grams (2.1 oz) per day of cheese (both control and enriched), within the context of a balanced hypocaloric diet and recommendations for physical activity, was effective for the reduction of body weight, body mass index and waist circumference.[10]

Process

Goat cheese is made like other cheeses. The milk is filtered to remove unwanted impurities or deposits. A curdling starter agent is added, which can be rennet, or one or more starter bacteria that affect the curds' size and eventually the cheese's consistency. Some examples of starters are Lactococcus lactis lactis, L. l. cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Next, the cheese is molded and separated from the whey (the uncurdled liquid part of the milk). The curds are then molded, dried, flavored, and cured. Any variations in this process—the type of starter, the time or pressure of the draining, the temperature and duration of the curing process—can change the texture (soft, semihard, hard) and the flavor.[11]

Regional varieties

See also: List of goat cheeses

Asia

China

Japan

Philippines

Kesong puti cheese: Moisture content can also vary, ranging from almost gelatinous to pressed and firm. It can be eaten as is, paired with bread (usually pandesal), or used in various dishes in Filipino cuisine.

Middle East

Europe

Armenia

Goat cheese from Yeghegnadzor, Armenia

Balkans

Sirene cheese

North Caucasia

Cyprus

Denmark

There are many different goat cheeses made in Denmark.

Finland

France

Chevre with lavender and wild fennel

France produces a great number of goat milk cheeses, especially in the Loire Valley and Poitou.

Greece

Ireland

Italy

Ricotta cheese

Malta

A selection of fresh and cured ġbejniet

Netherlands

Norway

Portugal

Russia

Serbia

Spain

Turkey

Varieties of tulum, center "Otlu tulum peyniri", or Tulum with herbs, in Ankara

Ukraine

Bryndza cheese
Bryndza cheese on a piece of bread

United Kingdom

Americas

Canada

North and South America

Mexico

United States

Humboldt Fog

Venezuela

Australian and Oceanian

Australia

Africa

Egypt

Domiati cheese

South Africa

See also

References

  1. ^ ""goat" in French | Lingopolo". lingopolo.org. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  2. ^ a b Sepe, Lucia; Argüello, Anastasio (2019-07-18). "Recent advances in dairy goat products". Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 32 (8): 1306–1320. doi:10.5713/ajas.19.0487. ISSN 1011-2367. PMC 6668858. PMID 31357271.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Rubino, R., Morand-Fehr, P., Sepe, L. (2004). Atlas of goat products. Italy: La Biblioteca di Caseus. ISBN 88-900631-4-9.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ a b Zsolt, Csapo; Adam, Pentek; Tunde, Csapone Risko (2019). "Perception And Acceptance Of Goat Cheese In Comparision [sic] With Sheep And Cow Cheese €" An Empirical Study". Annals of Faculty of Economics. 1 (2): 248–260.
  5. ^ "Types-of-Cheese" (PDF).
  6. ^ "NATIONAL GOAT CHEESE MONTH - August". National Day Calendar. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  7. ^ "Goaty - Cheese Science Toolkit". www.cheesescience.org. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  8. ^ Meira, Quênia Gramile Silva; Magnani, Marciane; de Medeiros Júnior, Francisco Cesino; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egito; Madruga, Marta Suely; Gullón, Beatriz; Gomes, Ana Maria Pereira; Pintado, Maria Manuela Estevez; de Souza, Evandro Leite (2015-10-01). "Effects of added Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics on the quality characteristics of goat ricotta and their survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions". Food Research International. 76 (Pt 3): 828–838. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.08.002. ISSN 0963-9969. PMID 28455069.
  9. ^ "Capric acid" Archived 2011-06-07 at the Wayback Machine, Chemical LAND21.com. Accessed 26 June 2008.
  10. ^ Santurino, López-Plaza, Fontecha, Calvo, Bermejo, Gómez-Andrés, and Gómez-Candela, Cristina, Bricia, Javier, María V., Laura M., David, and Carmen (May 5, 2020). "Consumption of Goat Cheese Naturally Rich in Omega-3 and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Improves the Cardiovascular and Inflammatory Biomarkers of Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial". Nutrients. 12 (5): 1315. doi:10.3390/nu12051315. PMC 7285099. PMID 32380746.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Nayik, Gulzar Ahmad; Jagdale, Yash D.; Gaikwad, Sailee A.; Devkatte, Anupama N.; Dar, Aamir Hussain; Dezmirean, Daniel Severus; Bobis, Otilia; Ranjha, Muhammad Modassar A. N.; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Alotaibi, Saqer S. (2021). "Recent Insights Into Processing Approaches and Potential Health Benefits of Goat Milk and Its Products: A Review". Frontiers in Nutrition. 8: 789117. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.789117. ISSN 2296-861X. PMC 8685332. PMID 34938763.
  12. ^ "A Comprehensive Guide to Goat Cheese". The Manual. 2021-04-14. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  13. ^ "Goat cheese – Cheese for you". cheeseforyou.com. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  14. ^ Archived Copy Türk Patent Kurumu. (in Turkish) Archived 2021-05-01 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Cheese Description: Bryndza". Cheese.com. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
  16. ^ Idalia De León. "Estampas" (in Spanish). El Universal. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05.