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Goat Cheese
Goat Cheese

Goat cheese, or chèvre (/ˈʃɛvrə/ or /ˈʃɛv/; from French fromage de chèvre 'goat cheese'),[1] is cheese made from goat's milk. Goats were among the first animals to be domesticated for producing food.[2] Goat cheese is made around the world with a variety of recipes, giving many different styles of cheese, from fresh and soft to aged and hard.[3]

Properties

History

Goats produce high quality, nutrition-rich milk under even the most difficult environments making them valuable to arid or mountainous areas where cows and sheep can not survive.[4] Goats were one of the earliest animals domesticated to suit human needs- more specifically milk production- going back to 8,000 B.C., 10,000 years ago.[2] Goat cheese has been made for at least as far back as 5,000 B.C.[5] Meanwhile, the first documented proof of humans making cheese is 7,500 years ago in Poland.

Nutritional value

Goat milk has a higher proportion of medium-chain fatty acids such as caproic and caprylic which contributes to the characteristic tart flavor of the cheese.[6] It also makes goat milk and cheeses more easily digestible.[7]

Goat milk and, therefore, cheeses contain anti-inflammatory enzymes, probiotics, antioxidants, proteins, and lipids and help maintain a healthy metabolism. These fatty acids take their name from the Latin for "goat": capra.[8] It is also high in calcium, vitamins A and K, phosphororus, thiamin and niacin.[9]

Process

Goat cheese is made like other cheeses. The milk is filtered to remove unwanted bacteria or deposits. A curdling starter agent is added, which can be rennet, or one or more starter bacteria that will affect the curds' size and eventually the cheese's consistency. Some examples of starters are Lactococcus Lactis, Lactis, Lactococcus Lactis subsp. cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Next, the cheese is molded and separated from the whey (the uncurdled liquid part of the milk). The curds are then molded, dried, flavored and cured. Any variations- the type of starter, the time or pressure of the draining, the temperature and duration of the curing process- will change the texture (soft, semi-hard, hard) and the flavor. [10]

List of goat cheeses by region

See also: List of goat cheeses

Asia

China

Japan

Middle East

France

Chevre with lavender and wild fennel
Chevre with lavender and wild fennel

France produces a great number of goat milk cheeses, especially in the Loire Valley and Poitou.

Greece

Italy

Malta

A selection of fresh and cured ġbejniet
A selection of fresh and cured ġbejniet

Netherlands

Norway

Portugal

Goat cheese from Yeghegnadzor, Armenia
Goat cheese from Yeghegnadzor, Armenia

Spain

Turkey

United Kingdom

Americas

United States

Humboldt Fog

Venezuela

See also

References

  1. ^ ""goat" in French | Lingopolo". lingopolo.org. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  2. ^ a b Sepe, Lucia; Argüello, Anastasio (2019-07-18). "Recent advances in dairy goat products". Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 32 (8): 1306–1320. doi:10.5713/ajas.19.0487. ISSN 1011-2367. PMC 6668858. PMID 31357271.
  3. ^ Rubino, R., Morand-Fehr, P., Sepe, L. (2004). Atlas of goat products. Italy: La Biblioteca di Caseus. ISBN 88-900631-4-9.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Zsolt, Csapo; Adam, Pentek; Tunde, Csapone Risko (2019). "Perception And Acceptance Of Goat Cheese In Comparision [sic] With Sheep And Cow Cheese €" An Empirical Study". Annals of Faculty of Economics. 1 (2): 248–260.
  5. ^ "NATIONAL GOAT CHEESE MONTH - August". National Day Calendar. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  6. ^ "Goaty - Cheese Science Toolkit". www.cheesescience.org. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  7. ^ Meira, Quênia Gramile Silva; Magnani, Marciane; de Medeiros Júnior, Francisco Cesino; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egito; Madruga, Marta Suely; Gullón, Beatriz; Gomes, Ana Maria Pereira; Pintado, Maria Manuela Estevez; de Souza, Evandro Leite (2015-10-01). "Effects of added Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics on the quality characteristics of goat ricotta and their survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions". Food Research International. 76 (Pt 3): 828–838. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.08.002. ISSN 0963-9969. PMID 28455069.
  8. ^ "Capric acid", Chemical LAND21.com. Accessed 26 June 2008.
  9. ^ Zsolt, Csapo; Adam, Pentek; Tunde, Csapone Risko (2019). "Perception And Acceptance Of Goat Cheese In Comparision [sic] With Sheep And Cow Cheese €" An Empirical Study". Annals of Faculty of Economics. 1 (2): 248–260.
  10. ^ Nayik, Gulzar Ahmad; Jagdale, Yash D.; Gaikwad, Sailee A.; Devkatte, Anupama N.; Dar, Aamir Hussain; Dezmirean, Daniel Severus; Bobis, Otilia; Ranjha, Muhammad Modassar A. N.; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Alotaibi, Saqer S. (2021). "Recent Insights Into Processing Approaches and Potential Health Benefits of Goat Milk and Its Products: A Review". Frontiers in Nutrition. 8: 789117. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.789117. ISSN 2296-861X. PMC 8685332. PMID 34938763.
  11. ^ "A Comprehensive Guide to Goat Cheese". The Manual. 2021-04-14. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Rubino, R., Morand-Fehr, P., Sepe, L. (2004). Atlas of goat products. Italy: La Biblioteca di Caseus. ISBN 88-900631-4-9.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ "Goat cheese – Cheese for you". cheeseforyou.com. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  14. ^ https://www.turkpatent.gov.tr/TURKPATENT/resources/temp/4F11197A-3EED-4B62-8126-B371301EF18A.pdf;jsessionid=93BFF886346FA9112B56F8E457A4B6E3[bare URL PDF]
  15. ^ Idalia De León. "Estampas" (in Spanish). El Universal. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05.