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After the 1494 territorial division of South America between Spain and Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas, the colonial administration of the continent was divided into Governorates.

Caribbean and Tierra Firme

Tierra Firme, Governorate of Castilla de Oro and New Andalucia (Mainland of Colombia)

South America

Four enclaves after Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire:

The adelantado grants of Charles V prior to the establishment of the Viceroyalty of Peru.


  1. ^ Arreola, Daniel D. (2002). "3 • Territory Shaped". Tejano South Texas: A Mexican American Cultural Province. University of Texas Press. p. 25. doi:10.7560/705104. ISBN 9780292757189. Northeastern New Spain was first given formal administrative au- thority as the gobierno of San Esteban de Panuco in 1523. Its assumed boundaries were the Rio Tuxpan on the south and the Rio Panuco on the north [...] When Guzman transferred to Nueva Galicia, the Panuco was absorbed as a political unit by the gobierno of Nueva España in 1534 - Access date: 6 May 2022 Read online at DeGruyter