HMS Tamar
Stonecutter's Island, Hong Kong
HMS Tamar Emblem.jpg
Gate emblem
TypeNaval base
Site information
Controlled byRN
Site history
Built1897–1997
In use1897–1997
Battles/warsBattle of Hong Kong 1941
Garrison information
Past
commanders
Commodore-in-Charge, Hong Kong
GarrisonBritish Forces Overseas Hong Kong (naval)

HMS Tamar (Chinese: 添馬艦) was the name for the British Royal Navy's base in Hong Kong from 1897 to 1997. It took its name from HMS Tamar, a ship that was used as the base until replaced by buildings ashore.

History

19th century

The British Navy arrived during the First Opium War to protect the opium traders. Sir Edward Belcher, aboard HMS Sulphur landed in Hong Kong on 25 January 1841.[1] Possession Street still exists to mark the event,[1] although its Chinese name is 水坑口街 ("Mouth of the ditch Street").

Naval Dockyard buildings (centre), Queen's Road, 1894
Naval Dockyard buildings (centre), Queen's Road, 1894

Commodore Sir Gordon Bremer raised the Union Jack and claimed Hong Kong as a colony on 26 January 1841.[1] Naval store sheds were erected there in April 1841.[2] The site had been referred to as the "HM Victualling Yard" in the Navy's own register.[3] The first naval storekeeper and agent victualler, Thomas McKnight, appointed on 21 March 1842, served until October 1849. Early maps show that major construction was also carried out at another, slightly more westward site, between 1845 and 1855.[2] In fact, the naval authorities demolished the West Point store sheds and surrendered the land to the colonial government in 1854 in exchange for a plot of land where the Admiralty station of the Mass Transit Railway stands.[4]

The Second Opium War in China (1856–1860) caused a military build-up, in which the yard expanded westwards in April 1858. A victualling yard was added at what was then the North Barracks. Two officers were initially appointed as responsible for the machinery and spare parts, respectively, needed to maintain and repair ships in the dockyard, and for dry goods and foodstuff in the victualling yard.[4]

HMS Tamar, was a 3,650 ton British troopship laid down in 1862[5] and launched in 1863. She first visited Hong Kong in 1878 with reliefs crews, returned once in 1886.[4] She finally arrived in Victoria City on 11 April 1897.[1] She was stationed permanently in the harbour from 1897 to 1941, when she was scuttled during the Battle of Hong Kong during World War II, to avoid being used by the invading Japanese Imperial forces.

20th century

HMS Tamar (white vessel) anchored off the Naval Dockyard (1905)
HMS Tamar (white vessel) anchored off the Naval Dockyard (1905)
The Prince of Wales Building, the main headquarters building of HMS Tamar from 1978 to 1997
The Prince of Wales Building, the main headquarters building of HMS Tamar from 1978 to 1997

At the turn of the 20th century, land adjacent to the site was needed for expansion. Unable to obtain it, as the site was surrounded by army barracks, the Navy began work on the construction of a floating basin (sheltered bay) and the reclamation of the east arm of the dockyard, in 1902. This project, involving 160,000 square metres of land reclamation, a 36,000 square metre floating basin to repair and refit vessels afloat, and also a 183-metre graving dock,[4] was completed by 1908.[3]

At the end of World War II, the Royal Navy re-established their naval base at Wellington Barracks, vacated by the British Army.[6]

On 28 November 1957, the Navy announced that the dockyard would be closed down over a 2-year period. However, in 1959, the Navy, which had retained some land on the waterfront, began planning a compact naval base on the site.[3]

From 1959 to 1962, the Wellington Barracks were upgraded to better serve the colony and reflect the changing times for the Royal Navy in the Pacific region. Old naval buildings were demolished, and the rubble used as landfill for the reclamation of the dry dock in October 1959.[3]

The Royal Navy decided to demolish the Wellington Barracks and build a modern naval facility in Hong Kong. The Prince of Wales Building was completed in 1978 and became the headquarters of the new naval base, HMS Tamar.

Shortly before the departure of British forces in 1997, the Tamar basin was reclaimed, and the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China occupied the Prince of Wales Building (now Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building, or collectively with other buildings and the area enclosed by walls, the Central Barracks).

HM Naval Base was relocated to the northern side of Stonecutter's Island, off Kowloon, prior to the handover in 1997. On 11 April 1997, just under over hundred years of HMS Tamar's definitive arrival for service as a base depot ship (the Tamar had arrived in Hong Kong for conversion on 30 September 1895) and just under a century after her commissioning on 1 October 1897, the British naval shore establishment in Hong Kong was de-commissioned.

The last HMS Tamar on Stonecutters Island is now a government marine facility, now known as the Government Dockyard. The vacated site in Central, Hong Kong Central, now known as the Tamar site, became a valuable piece of real estate and after much debate as to how to best use the site has now become the location of the new Hong Kong Government's Central Government Complex.

Administration

Commodore-in-Charge, Hong Kong

Post holders included:[7]

Captain-in-Charge, Hong Kong

Post holders included:[8]

Squadrons in Hong Kong

The following is a list of naval squadrons and fleets that called Tamar home:

Naval facilities

A list of facilities used or built by the Royal Navy in Hong Kong:

A list of facilities used or built by the Royal Navy in Hong Kong:

Ships

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Base closure to end Royal Navy's Far East presence Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press, 4 November 1997
  2. ^ a b Eric Cavaliero, Harbour bed holds memories Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, The Standard, 13 November 1997, quoting P J Melson: White Ensign – Red Dragon: the History of the Royal Navy in Hong Kong 1841 to 1997
  3. ^ a b c d HMS TAMAR and the China Fleet Club, The Gun Plot
  4. ^ a b c d Eric Cavaliero, Harbour bed holds memories Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, The Standard, 13 November 1997
  5. ^ "All about the ship that gave Hong Kong's Tamar complex its name". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  6. ^ HMS Tamar at The Royal Navy Research Archive
  7. ^ Mackie, Colin. "Royal Navy Senior Appointments from 1865: Commodore Hong Kong" (PDF). gulabin.com. Colin Mackie, July 2018. pp. 177–178. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  8. ^ Mackie, Colin. "Royal Navy Senior Appointments from 1865: Commodore Hong Kong" (PDF). gulabin.com. Colin Mackie, July 2018. pp. 177–178. Retrieved 19 July 2018.

Further reading

Coordinates: 22°16′51″N 114°9′56″E / 22.28083°N 114.16556°E / 22.28083; 114.16556