Part of a series on the
|History of Stuttgart|
|Duchy of Swabia (950-1250)|
|County of Württemberg (1251–1495)|
|Duchy of Württemberg (1496–1806)|
|Electorate of Württemberg (1803–1806)|
|Kingdom of Württemberg (1806-1918)|
|German Empire (1871–1918)|
|Free People's State of Württemberg (1918–45)|
|Weimar Republic (1919-33)|
|Nazi Germany (1933–45)|
|Bombing of Stuttgart in World War II|
|West Germany (1945–90)|
|Federal Republic of Germany (1990-present)|
The history of Stuttgart is long, having its origins in the mid 10th century. However, the history of the land upon which Stuttgart stands has a far longer history dating back several thousands years to prehistoric peoples who sought the fertile soil of the Neckar river valley.
Prehistoric finds made in the area of Zuffenhausen and around the region at the Lemberg in the Swabian Jura and Burgholzhof, Stammheim, and the Viesenhäuser Hof inside the city date back to the Paleolithic. Evidence of settlements of Neolithic peoples all the way up to the Alemanni tribes also exists.
Excavations and findings dated to the Paleolithic period suggest the usage of the hills of the Neckar valley near Stuttgart as rest stops as far back as 300,000 years ago (Middle Paleolithic). Further corroboration is found with the discovery of tools and processed bones discovered in the travertine quarries of Bad Cannstatt.
In 1845, the first gasworks in the city began operation, providing gas lighting. The plant was located on the Seidenstrasse, near the Hoppenlaufriedhof, and came into being after a demonstration at the royal court that so impressed King William I of Württemberg that he requested gas lighting in all of his buildings. At 6 PM, 19 February 1865, a house near St. Leonhard's Churchwas destroyed by the city's first gas explosion, an event that killed four, of whom two were children.
In 1886, Robert Bosch opened his very first workshop in Stuttgart. The automobile and motorcycle were purported to have been invented in Stuttgart (by Karl Benz and subsequently industrialized in 1887 by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach at the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft), earning the city the moniker "Cradle of the Automobile." After a fire in one of the manufacturing plants in 1903, the company moved to Untertürkheim and adopted the name Daimler AG.
See also: Weimar Republic
On 1 October 1920, Erwin Rommel was commissioned as a captain and assigned command of the 13th Infantry Regiment based in Stuttgart. In his nine years at this post, his regiment was involved in the quelling of civil disturbances across Germany.
See also: Nazi Germany
Main article: Bombing of Stuttgart in World War II
Stuttgart endured 53 air raids over the course of the Allied strategic bombing during World War II, the first of which occurred on 25 August 1940 and destroyed 17 buildings.
When the French army entered Stuttgart in 1945, they are alleged to have been responsible for the rape of around 3,000 women and eight men.[discuss][a]
See also: Timeline of Stuttgart § Bibliography