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Web syndication technologies were preceded by metadata standards such as the Meta Content Framework (MCF) and the Resource Description Framework (RDF), as well as by 'push' specifications such as Channel Definition Format (CDF). Early web syndication standards included Information and Content Exchange (ICE) and RSS. More recent specifications include Atom and GData.


Web syndication specifications were preceded by several formats in push and metadata technologies, few of which achieved widespread popularity, as many, such as Backweb and Pointcast, were intended to work only with a single service.[1]

Between 1995 and 1997, Ramanathan V. Guha and others at Apple Computer's Advanced Technology Group developed the Meta Content Framework (MCF).[2] MCF was a specification for structuring metadata information about web sites and other data, implemented in HotSauce, a 3D flythrough visualizer for the web. When the research project was discontinued in 1997, Guha left Apple for Netscape.

Guha and the XML co-creator Tim Bray extended MCF into an XML application[3] that Netscape submitted to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as a proposed web standard in June 1997.[4] This submission contributed towards the emergence of the Resource Description Framework (RDF).[5][6][7][8]

In March 1997, Microsoft submitted a detailed specification for the 'push' technology Channel Definition Format (CDF) to the W3C.[9] This format was designed for the Active Channel feature of Internet Explorer 4.0. CDF never became popular, perhaps because of the extensive resources it required at a time when people were mostly on dial-up. Backweb and Pointcast were geared towards news, much like a personal application programming interface (API) feed. Backweb later morphed into providing software updates, a precursor to the push update features used by various companies now.

In September 1997, Netscape previewed a new, competing technology named "Aurora," based on RDF,[10] a metadata model whose first public working draft would be posted the next month[2] by a W3C working group that included representatives of many companies, including R.V. Guha of Netscape.[5]

In December 1997, Dave Winer designed his own XML format for use on his Scripting News weblog.[11]

Early web syndication: ICE and RSS

The first standard created specifically for web syndication was Information and Content Exchange (ICE),[12] which was proposed by Firefly Networks and Vignette in January 1998.[13] The ICE Authoring Group included Microsoft, Adobe, Sun, CNET, National Semiconductor, Tribune Media Services, Ziff Davis and Reuters, amongst others,[14] and was limited to thirteen companies. The ICE advisory council included nearly a hundred members.[12]

ICE was submitted to the World Wide Web Consortium standards body on 26 October 1998,[15] and showcased in a press event the day after.[16] The standard failed to benefit from the open-source implementation that W3C XML specifications often received.[17]

RDF Site Summary, the first web syndication format to be called "RSS", was offered by Netscape in March 1999 for use on the My Netscape portal. This version became known as RSS 0.9.[18]

In July 1999, responding to comments and suggestions, Dan Libby produced a prototype tentatively named RSS 0.91[19] (RSS standing for Rich Site Summary at that time), that simplified the format and incorporated parts of Winer's scripting news format. This they considered an interim measure, with Libby suggesting an RSS 1.0-like format through the so-called Futures Document.[20]

In April 2001, in the midst of AOL's acquisition and subsequent restructuring of Netscape properties, a re-design of the My Netscape portal removed RSS/XML support. The RSS 0.91 DTD was removed during this re-design, but in response to feedback, Dan Libby was able to restore the DTD, but not the RSS validator previously in place. In response to comments within the RSS community at the time, Lars Marius Garshol, to whom authorship of the original 0.9 DTD is sometimes attributed, commented, "What I don't understand is all this fuss over Netscape removing the DTD. A well-designed RSS tool, whether it validates or not, would not use the DTD at Netscape's site in any case. There are several mechanisms which can be used to control the dereferencing of references from XML documents to their DTDs. These should be used. If not the result will be as described in the article."[21]

Effectively, this left the format without an owner, just as it was becoming widely used.

Initial adoption of RSS (2000–2003)

A working group and mailing list, RSS-DEV, was set up by various users and XML notables to continue its development. At the same time, Winer unilaterally posted a modified version of the RSS 0.91 specification to the Userland website, since it was already in use in their products. He claimed the RSS 0.91 specification was the property of his company, UserLand Software.[22]

Since neither side had any official claim on the name or the format, arguments raged whenever either side claimed RSS as its own, creating what became known as the RSS fork.

The RSS-DEV group went on to produce RSS 1.0 in December 2000.[23] Like RSS 0.9 (but not 0.91) this was based on the RDF specifications, but was more modular, with many of the terms coming from standard metadata vocabularies such as Dublin Core.

Nineteen days later, Winer released by himself RSS 0.92,[24] a minor and supposedly compatible set of changes to RSS 0.91 based on the same proposal. In April 2001, he published a draft of RSS 0.93 which was almost identical to 0.92.[25] A draft RSS 0.94 surfaced in August, reverting the changes made in 0.93, and adding a type attribute to the description element.

In September 2002, Winer released a final successor to RSS 0.92, known as RSS 2.0 and emphasizing "Really Simple Syndication" as the meaning of the three-letter abbreviation. The RSS 2.0 spec removed the type attribute added in RSS 0.94 and allowed people to add extension elements using XML namespaces. Several versions of RSS 2.0 were released, but the version number of the document model was not changed.

In November 2002, The New York Times began offering its readers the ability to subscribe to RSS news feeds related to various topics. In January 2003, Winer called the New York Times' adoption of RSS the "tipping point" in driving the RSS format's becoming a de facto standard.

In July 2003, Winer and Userland Software assigned ownership of the RSS 2.0 specification to his then workplace, Harvard's Berkman Center for the Internet & Society.[26]

Development of Atom (2003)

In 2003, the primary method of web content syndication was the RSS family of formats. Developers who wished to overcome the limitations of these formats were unable to make changes directly to RSS 2.0 because the specification was copyrighted by Harvard University and "frozen," stating that "no significant changes can be made and it is intended that future work be done under a different name".[1]

In June 2003, Sam Ruby set up a wiki to discuss what makes "a well-formed log entry."[27] This posting acted as a rallying point. [2] People quickly started using the wiki to discuss a new syndication format to address the shortcomings of RSS. It also became clear that the new format could also form the basis of a more robust replacement for blog editing protocols such as Blogger API and LiveJournal XML-RPC Client/Server Protocol.

The project aimed to develop a web syndication format that was: [3]

In short order, a project road map was built. The effort quickly attracted more than 150 supporters including Dave Sifry of Technorati, Mena Trott of Six Apart, Brad Fitzpatrick of LiveJournal, Jason Shellen of Blogger, Jeremy Zawodny of Yahoo!, Timothy Appnel of the O'Reilly Network, Glenn Otis Brown of Creative Commons and Lawrence Lessig. Other notables supporting Atom include Mark Pilgrim, Tim Bray, Aaron Swartz, Joi Ito, and Jack Park. [4] Also, Dave Winer, the key figure behind RSS 2.0, gave tentative support to the Atom endeavor (which at the time was called Echo.)[5]

After this point, discussion became chaotic, due to the lack of a decision-making process. The project also lacked a name, tentatively using "Pie," "Echo," and "Necho" before settling on Atom. After releasing a project snapshot known as Atom 0.2 in early July 2003, discussion was shifted off the wiki.

The discussion then moved to a newly set up mailing list. The next and final snapshot during this phase was Atom 0.3, released in December 2003. This version gained widespread adoption in syndication tools, and in particular it was added to several Google-related services, such as Blogger, Google News, and Gmail. Google's Data APIs (Beta) GData are based on Atom 1.0 and RSS 2.0.

Atom 1.0 and IETF standardization

In 2004, discussions began about moving the Atom project to a standards body such as the W3C or the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The group eventually chose the IETF and the Atompub working group was formally set up in June 2004, finally giving the project a charter and process. The Atompub working group is co-chaired by Tim Bray (the co-editor of the XML specification) and Paul Hoffman. Initial development was focused on the syndication format.

The final draft of Atom 1.0 was published in July 2005 and was accepted by the IETF as a "proposed standard" in August 2005. Work then continued on the further development of the publishing protocol and various extensions to the syndication format.

The Atom Syndication Format was issued as a proposed "internet official protocol standard" in IETF RFC 4287 in December 2005 with the help of the co-editors Mark Nottingham and Robert Sayre.

Post-Atom technical developments related to web syndication

In January 2005, Sean B. Palmer, Christopher Schmidt, and Cody Woodard produced a preliminary draft of RSS 1.1.[28] It was intended as a bugfix for 1.0, removing little-used features, simplifying the syntax and improving the specification based on the more recent RDF specifications. As of July 2005, RSS 1.1 had amounted to little more than an academic exercise.

In April 2005, Apple released Safari 2.0 with RSS Feed capabilities built in. Safari delivered the ability to read RSS feeds, and bookmark them, with built-in search features. Safari's RSS button is a blue rounded rectangle with "RSS" written inside in white. The favicon displayed defaults to a newspaper icon.

In November 2005, Microsoft proposed its Simple Sharing Extensions to RSS.[29]

In December 2005, Microsoft announced in blogs that Internet Explorer 7[30] and Microsoft Outlook 12 (Outlook 2007)[31] will adopt the feed icon first used in the Mozilla Firefox, effectively making the orange square with white radio waves the industry standard for both RSS and related formats such as Atom. Also in February 2006, Opera Software announced they too would add the orange square in their Opera 9 release.[32][33]

In January 2006, Rogers Cadenhead relaunched the RSS Advisory Board in order to move the RSS format forward.[34]

In January 2007, as part of a revitalization of Netscape by AOL, the FQDN for was redirected to a holding page in preparation for an impending relaunch, and as a result some news feeders using RSS 0.91 stopped working.[35] The DTD has again been restored.


In 2013 the Candidate Recommendation for HTML5 included explicit provision for syndication by introducing the 'article' element.[36]

See also


  1. ^ Kelly, Kevin; Wolf, Gary (1 March 1997). "Push!". Wired. Vol. 5, no. 3. Archived from the original on 13 October 1999.
  2. ^ a b Lash, Alex (3 October 1997). "W3C takes first step toward RDF spec". CNET. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
  3. ^ Andreessen, Marc (8 January 1999). "Innovators of the Net: R.V. Guha and RDF". Netscape. Archived from the original on 6 June 2002. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
  4. ^ Guha, Ramanathan V.; Bray, Tim (6 June 1997). "Meta Content Framework Using XML". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  5. ^ a b Miller, Eric; Schloss, Bob; Lassila, Ora; Swick, Ralph R.; Sakata, Tsuyoshi; Maloney, Murray; Schloss, Bob; URAMOTO, Naohiko; Roberts, Bill; Daniel, Ron; Layman, Andrew; McConnell, Chris; Paoli, Jean; Guha, Ramanathan V.; Lassila, Ora; LeVan, Ralph; Miller, Eric; Wolf, Misha; Wood, Lauren; Bray, Tim; Resnick, Paul; Berners-Lee, Tim; Connolly, Dan; Miller, Jim; Swick, Ralph (2 October 1997). "Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax". Retrieved 6 January 2011.
  6. ^ Brickley, Dan; Guha, Ramanathan V. (3 March 1999). "Resource Description Framework (RDF) Schema Specification". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  7. ^ Lassila, Ora; Swick, Ralph R. (22 February 1999). "Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  8. ^ Bray, Tim (21 May 2003). "The Challenge". Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  9. ^ Ellerman, Castedo (9 March 1997). "Channel Definition Format (CDF)". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
  10. ^ Clark, Tim (29 September 1997). "Netscape previews Aurora". CNET. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
  11. ^ Winer, Dave (15 December 1997). "Scripting News in XML". Scripting News. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  12. ^ a b Werbach, Kevin (July 1999). "The Web Goes into Syndication" (PDF). Release 1.0. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  13. ^ Clark, Tim (29 January 1998). "Software to help Net stores". Archived from the original on 2 February 1999. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  14. ^ Votsch, Victor (10 March 1998). "Vignette and Firefly propose the ICE protocol". Archived from the original on 2 March 2003. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  15. ^ Webber, Neil; Conlet O'Connell; Bruce Hunt; Rick Levine; Laird Popkin; Gord Larose (26 October 1998). The Information and Content Exchange (ICE) Format and Protocol. W3C. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  16. ^ Copeland, Lee (28 October 1998). "Authoring Group Launches ICE". Computer Reseller News. Archived from the original on 2 October 1999. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  17. ^ Dumbill, Edd (17 July 2000). "XML in news syndication".
  18. ^ "My Netscape Network: Quick Start". Netscape. Archived from the original on 8 December 2000. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  19. ^ Libby, Dan (10 July 1999). "RSS 0.91 Spec, revision 3". Netscape. Archived from the original on 4 December 2000. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  20. ^ "MNN Future Directions". Netscape. Archived from the original on 4 December 2000. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  21. ^ King, Andrew (13 April 2003). "The Evolution of RSS". QuinStreet. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  22. ^ Winer, Dave (4 June 2000). "RSS 0.91: Copyright and Disclaimer". UserLand Software. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
  23. ^ Beged-Dov, Gabe; Brickley, Dan; Dornfest, Rael; Davis, Ian; Dodds, Leigh; Eisenzopf, Jonathan; Galbraith, David; Guha, Ramanathan V.; MacLeod, Ken; Miller, Eric; Swartz, Aaron; van der Vlist, Eric (9 December 2000). "RDF Site Summary (RSS) 1.0". RSS-DEV Working Group. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  24. ^ Winer, Dave (24 August 2003). "RSS 0.92 Specification". UserLand Software. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  25. ^ Winer, Dave (21 April 2001). "RSS 0.93 Specification". UserLand Software. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  26. ^ "RSS 2.0 Specification moves to Berkman". Berkman Center for the Internet & Society. 15 July 2003. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
  27. ^ Ruby, Sam (16 June 2003). "Anatomy of a Well Formed Log Entry". Intertwingly.
  28. ^ Palmer, Sean B. and Christopher Schmidt (23 January 2005). "RSS 1.1: RDF Site Summary". Retrieved 31 October 2006.
  29. ^ "Simple Sharing Extensions for RSS and OPML". Microsoft. 12 January 2006. Archived from the original on 12 November 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
  30. ^ Jane (14 December 2005). "Icons: It's still orange". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  31. ^ Affronti, Michael (15 December 2005). "RSS icon goodness". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  32. ^ Goldman, Daniel (15 February 2006). "Opera partially adopts new RSS feed icon". Opera Watch. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  33. ^ Borg, Johan (15 June 2006). "It's Friday again! (well, in Asia)". Opera Desktop Team. Opera Software. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  34. ^ Cadenhead, Rogers (30 January 2006). "RSS Advisory Board Goes Public". Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  35. ^ Thompson, Bill (15 January 2007). "For want of a file, the net was lost". BBC. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  36. ^ W3C org draft proposal for article element

Early RSS history from several different personal points of view