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Indian Agricultural Research Institute
AbbreviationIARI
Formation1 April 1905; 118 years ago (1905-04-01)
PurposeAgricultural research and education
Location
Coordinates28°04′48″N 77°07′12″E / 28.080°N 77.120°E / 28.080; 77.120
Director[2]
Ashok Kumar Singh[1]
Parent organisation
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Websitewww.iari.res.in

The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), commonly known as the Pusa Institute,[3] is India's national institute for agricultural research, education and extension. The name Pusa Institute is derived from the fact that the institute was originally located in Pusa, Bihar as the Imperial Institute of Agricultural Research in 1911. It was then renamed as the Imperial Agricultural Research Institute in 1919 and following a major earthquake in Pusa in 1934, it was relocated to Delhi in 1936. The current institute in Delhi is financed and administered by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). The IARI was responsible for the research leading to the "Green Revolution in India" of the 1970s.[4][5] IARI ranked First among Agriculture and Allied Universities in the National Institutional Ranking Framework NIRF (India Rankings 2023). [6][7]

History

Logo of the Imperial Agricultural Research Institute
Imperial Agricultural Research Institute, at its original location Pusa, Bihar, circa 1927

The institute was established in 1905 at Pusa, Bihar, with financial assistance of Henry Phipps, Jr., an American philanthropist. Phipps was a family friend of Lady Curzon, who was a daughter of an American millionaire, and the wife of Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India. Phipps stayed as a guest of the Curzons during his visit to India and left behind a donation of £30,000, which was used to establish the institute. He laid the foundation stone of the Agricultural Research Institute and college on 1 April 1905.[8] The institute was originally called the Agricultural Research Institute (ARI). Its name was changed to the Imperial Institute of Agricultural Research in 1911, and to the Imperial Agricultural Research Institute in 1919.[3] The choice of establishing it in Pusa in northern Bihar was the proximity to the indigo plantations which were in need of revival following the German synthesis of aniline in 1899. One of the first scientists to be deputed to the institute was the English chemist John Walter Leather who had worked from 1892 with the agricultural department in India. He moved to the institute in 1906.[9][10]

However, the institute was damaged during the devastating Bihar earthquake of 15 January 1934. The Secretary of State approved the transfer in July, 1934.[11] The Standing Finance Committee of the Union Assembly finally announced on 25 August 1934 in Shimla, the decision to shift the institute to New Delhi at the approximate cost of 3.8 million (US$48,000).[12] to a place that is now called Pusa in New Delhi. The director B. Viswanath, a soil scientist was to be the first Indian to head the institute. The new campus at New Delhi was inaugurated on 29 July 1936,[3] while the new building of the Imperial Institute of Agricultural Research was inaugurated by the then Viceroy of India, Lord Linlithgow on 7 November 1936.[13]

Post-independence: 1947–present

Directors
Bernard Coventry1904–1916
E.J. Butler1920–1920
William McRae1929–1929
W.H. Harrison1929–1930
William McRae1931–1934
Bernard Keen1930–1931
F.J.F. Shaw1934–1935
B. Viswanath1935–1944
H.S. Pruthi1944–1945
J.N. Mukherjee1945–1950
B.P. Pal1950–1965
A.B. Joshi1965–1966
M.S. Swaminathan1966–1972
A.B. Joshi1972–1977
H.K. Jain1977–1984
A.M. Michael1986–1990
S.K. Sinha1991–1994
R.B. Singh1995–1999
Panjab Singh2000–2002
S. Nagarajan2002-2005
S. A. Patil2006-2009
H. S. Gupta2009-2014
Trilochan Mohapatra2015-2016
Ashok Kumar Singh2020-

Post-independence, the institute was renamed the Indian Agricultural Research Institute,[3] and in 1950 the Shimla sub-station of institute developed Rust-resistant varieties of wheat, including Pusa 718, 737, 745, and 760.[14] In 1958, it was recognized as a "deemed university" under the UGC act of 1956[15] of Parliament and since then it has awarded MSc and PhD degrees.[3]

What remained of the institute at the original location was downgraded to an agricultural research station until 1970, when the Government of Bihar established the Rajendra Agricultural University at the location.[8]

Campus

The campus is spread over 500 hectares (5.0 km2), 8 km west of New Delhi Railway Station. This was initially outside Delhi, but over the decades the city has grown much beyond the campus.[16] Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute is affiliated with and is located in the campus of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute.[17]

Schools at IARI

See also

References

  1. ^ "Director". www.iari.res.in. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  2. ^ "Administration". Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e "About IARI". Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  4. ^ "History of Research in Indian Agriculture". Indian Agricultural Research Institute. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007.
  5. ^ "'Pusa Institute' is still the best". The Times of India. 30 September 2001. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  6. ^ "NIRF Rankings 2023: Top 40 institutes in Agriculture and Allied Sectors category".
  7. ^ "MoE, National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF)".
  8. ^ a b "About Pusa". Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa Samastipur , Bihar. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  9. ^ Borthakur, Anwesha; Singh, Pardeep (2013). "History of agricultural research in India". Current Science. 105 (5): 587–593.
  10. ^ Mukherjee, S.K. (1992). "Progress of Indian agriculture: 1900-1980". Indian Journal of History of Science. 27 (4): 445–452.
  11. ^ "Pusa Agricultural Research Institute". The Indian Express, Madras. 4 July 1934. p. 1. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  12. ^ "Pusa Institute To Be Removed To Delhi". The Indian Express, Madras. 27 August 1934. p. 1. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  13. ^ "Agricultural Research Institute Building Opened". Indian Express. 9 November 1936. p. 2. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  14. ^ "Rust-resistant Wheat Varieties .Work At Pusa Institute". The Indian Express. 7 February 1950. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  15. ^ "UGC Act-1956" (PDF). mhrd.gov.in/. Secretary, University Grants Commission. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  16. ^ "Our Campus". Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  17. ^ "Origin & Growth". Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  18. ^ "Schools of IARI". Retrieved 13 September 2013.