The Marquess of Linlithgow
Viceroy and Governor-General of India
In office
18 April 1936 – 1 October 1943
MonarchsEdward VIII
George VI
Prime MinisterStanley Baldwin
Neville Chamberlain
Winston Churchill
Preceded byThe Marquess of Willingdon
Succeeded byThe Viscount Wavell
Personal details
Born24 September 1887
South Queensferry, Linlithgowshire, Scotland
Died5 January 1952(1952-01-05) (aged 64)
South Queensferry, Linlithgowshire, Scotland
(m. 1911)
Alma materLudgrove School and Eton College
  • Politician
  • agriculturalist
  • colonial administrator

Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow, KG, KT, GCSI, GCIE, OBE, TD, PC, FRSE (24 September 1887 – 5 January 1952) was a British Unionist politician and statesman, agriculturalist, and colonial administrator. He served as Governor-General and Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. He also served as vice president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh and Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. He was usually referred to as Lord Linlithgow, or simply Linlithgow.

Early life and family

Hope was born at Hopetoun House, South Queensferry, Linlithgowshire, Scotland, on 24 September 1887.[1]

He was the eldest son of John Adrian Louis Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, later 1st Marquess Linlithgow, and Hersey Everleigh-de-Moleyns, Countess of Hopetoun and later Marchioness of Linlithgow, daughter of the fourth Baron Ventry.[2] His godmother was Queen Victoria.[3]

He was educated at Ludgrove School and Eton College and on 29 February 1908 succeeded his father as 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow.[1]

In 1912, aged only 25, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.[1] His proposers were William Turner, Alexander Crum Brown, Cargill Gilston Knott and James Haig Ferguson. He served as the society's vice president from 1934 to 1937.[4]

Early career

Linlithgow served as an officer on the Western Front during the First World War. Transferred from Lothians and Border Horse, he commanded a battalion of the Royal Scots.[1] He was mentioned in dispatches and appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire, ending the war with the rank of colonel.

He then served in various minor roles in the Conservative governments of the 1920s and '30s. From 1922 till 1924 he served as the civil lord of the Admiralty, becoming chairman of the Unionist Party Organisation in 1924 for two years. He also served as president of the Navy League from 1924 until 1931. He was chairman of the Medical Research Council and of the governing body of the Imperial College London. Linlithgow was also chairman of the committee on the distribution and prices of agricultural produce and president of the Edinburgh and East of Scotland College of Agriculture until 1933. In 1926 he was chairman of the Royal Commission on Agriculture in India, which published its findings in 1928.[5] Influenced by submissions to the Royal Commission, "a decade later, when (he) became Viceroy of India he showed a personal interest in nutrition, pushing it to the top of the research agenda".[6] The reason for sending a Commission on Agriculture under Linlithgow was 'because constitutional reform without economic and educational reform will do nothing to ameliorate the condition of life of the mass of the population of India, and this is what matters most.'[7]

From April 1933 to November 1934 he was chairman of the Parliamentary Joint Select Committee on Indian constitutional reform, drawn up to consider the proposals for Indian self-government contained in the government's March 1933 White Paper. He agreed to take the job after Lord Salisbury declined it (although he agreed to serve on the committee) and Sidney Peel, the second choice, fell ill with phlebitis. Linlithgow told the Joint Select Committee that he would show no favouritism between the Indian factions (Hindus, Muslims and Princely States) and would be neutral just as he was between his own five children. The committee's proposals became the Government of India Act 1935.[8]


Hopetoun House

Having previously declined both the governorship of Madras and the governor-generalship of Australia (his father was the first Governor-General of Australia),[9] he became the Viceroy of India,[2] succeeding Lord Willingdon. Travelling out to India on the P&O liner RMS Strathmore, he arrived in Bombay, with his wife, daughters, and personal staff, on 17 April 1936.[10] Linlithgow implemented the plans for local self-government embodied in the Government of India Act 1935, which led to provincial governments led by the Congress Party in five of the eleven provinces of British India, but the recalcitrance of the princes prevented the establishment of elected governments in most of the princely states.[citation needed]

With the outbreak of the Second World War, Linlithgow's rejection of the request by the Congress for a declaration that India would be given the chance to determine its own future after the war[citation needed] led to the resignation of the Congress ministries. He declared India to be at war with Germany in September 1939, without consulting Indian politicians. On 8 August 1940 Lord Linlithgow made a statement on behalf of the British government. It was known as the August Offer and offered greater rights in the governance of India to the Indian people. The proposal was rejected by most Indian politicians, including the Congress Party and the Muslim League. Disputes between the British administration and Congress ultimately led to massive Indian civil disobedience in the Quit India Movement. Linlithgow suppressed the disturbances and arrested the Congress leaders. Some historians have partly blamed Linlithgow for the Bengal famine of 1943 which resulted in three million deaths.[11]


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His seven-year tenure as viceroy, the longest in the history of the Raj, ended in 1 October 1943, succeeded by Field Marshal Sir Archibald Wavell who had been military commander in British India since January 1942.

Indians were not kind in their assessments of his career. V. P. Menon in The Transfer of Power in India stated: "His 7½ year regime – longer than that of any other Viceroy – was conspicuous by its lack of positive achievement. When he left India, famine stalked portions of the countryside. There was economic distress due to the rising cost of living and the shortage of essential commodities. On the political side, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru expressed the general feeling thus: 'Today, I say, after seven years of Lord Linlithgow's administration the country is much more divided than it was when he came here'."

A sincere Presbyterian, he served as Lord High Commissioner to the Church of Scotland in 1944 and 1945. He died in 1952.



Doreen Maud Hope (née Milner), Marchioness of Linlithgow, published 1909

On 19 April 1911 he married Doreen Maud Milner (1886–1965), the younger daughter of Sir Frederick Milner.[1][12] They had twin sons and three daughters:

In some circles the three girls were known as Faint Hope, Little Hope, and No Hope.[16]


  1. ^ a b c d e (Hesilrige 1921)
  2. ^ a b Viceroy at Bay: Lord Linlithgow in India, 1936–43, by John Glendevon
  3. ^ Dictionary of Australian Artists Online
  4. ^ Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0-902-198-84-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  5. ^ Linlithgow (Chairman); et al. (1928), Royal Commission on Agriculture in India. Volume I, Part II, Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publication Branch, retrieved 12 August 2010 (Full text at Internet Archive)
  6. ^ Arnold, David (2000), Science, technology, and medicine in Colonial India, The New Cambridge History of India. Part III, Volume 5, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 201, ISBN 0-521-56319-4, retrieved 12 August 2010
  7. ^ Church, A. G. (May 1928). "The Development of Indian Agriculture". Nature. 121 (3053): 698–700. Bibcode:1928Natur.121..698C. doi:10.1038/121698a0. S2CID 44552204.
  8. ^ Butler, Rab (1971). The Art of the Possible. London: Hamish Hamilton. pp. 46–55. ISBN 978-0241020074.
  9. ^ Cunneen, Chris. "Hopetoun, seventh Earl of (1860–1908)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via Australian Dictionary of Biography.
  10. ^ News and Views (1936), p. 5: "Lord and Lady Linlithgow, together with their three daughters and personal staff, arrived by the new P & O liner S. S. Strathmore on Friday, April 17, in the early morning, and were escorted into Bombay harbor by the ships of the Royal Indian Navy".
  11. ^ Richard Stevenson, Bengal Tiger and British Lion: An Account of the Bengal Famine of 1943
  12. ^ John Glendevon, Viceroy at Bay: Lord Linlithgow in India, 1936–43
  13. ^ "Lady Anne Adeline Southby (née Hope) – Person – National Portrait Gallery". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Lady Joan Isabella Gore-Langton (née Hope) – Person – National Portrait Gallery". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  15. ^ "Lady Doreen Prior-Palmer". HeraldScotland. 31 January 1998. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  16. ^ "Lt-Col James Allason: War hero who became an MP and formulated the Tory policy of selling council houses to tenants". The Independent. London. 23 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 August 2022.
Government offices Preceded byThe Earl of Willingdon Viceroy of India 1936–1943 Succeeded byThe Viscount Wavell Honorary titles Preceded byThe Earl of Rosebery Lord Lieutenant of West Lothian 1929–1952 Succeeded byHenry Moubray Cadell Academic offices Preceded byBaron Tweedsmuir Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh 1946–1952 Succeeded byThe Duke of Edinburgh Peerage of the United Kingdom Preceded byJohn Adrian Louis Hope Marquess of Linlithgow 1908–1952 Succeeded byCharles William Frederick Hope