Royal Society of Edinburgh
Established1737 – diverged from the Royal Medical Society
1783 – received royal charter
FounderColin Maclaurin and Alexander Monro, primus (instrumental in founding the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh)
William Cullen, Alexander Monro, secundus and William Robertson (instrumental in obtaining the royal charter)
FocusScience and technology
Social science
Public service
Headquarters22–26 George Street, Edinburgh, EH2 2PQ
Over 1,800 Fellows
OwnerRegistered charity No. SC000470
John Ball
Sarah Skerratt
Key people
Michael Keating, General Secretary
SubsidiariesRSE Scotland Foundation
RSE Young Academy of Scotland
£5.9 million
Formerly called
Philosophical Society of Edinburgh
The cover of a 1788 volume of the journal Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. This is the issue where James Hutton published his Theory of the Earth.

The Royal Society of Edinburgh (RSE) is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity that operates on a wholly independent and non-partisan basis and provides public benefit throughout Scotland. It was established in 1783. As of 2021, there are around 1,800 Fellows.[1]

The Society covers a broader range of fields than the Royal Society of London, including literature and history.[2][3] The Fellowship includes people from a wide range of disciplines: science and technology, arts, humanities, medicine, social science, business, and public service.


Front Hall of Royal Society of Edinburgh building

At the start of the 18th century, Edinburgh's intellectual climate fostered many clubs and societies (see Scottish Enlightenment). Though there were several that treated the arts, sciences and medicine, the most prestigious was the Society for the Improvement of Medical Knowledge, commonly referred to as the Medical Society of Edinburgh, co-founded by the mathematician Colin Maclaurin in 1731.

Maclaurin was unhappy with the specialist nature of the Medical Society,[4] and in 1737 a new, broader society, the Edinburgh Society for Improving Arts and Sciences and particularly Natural Knowledge, was split from the specialist medical organisation, which then went on to become the Royal Medical Society.

The cumbersome name was changed the following year to the Edinburgh Philosophical Society. With the help of University of Edinburgh professors like Joseph Black, William Cullen and John Walker, this society transformed itself into the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783, and in 1788 it issued the first volume of its new journal Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.[5]

Towards the end of the century, the younger members such as James Hall embraced Lavoisier's new nomenclature[clarification needed] and the members split over the practical and theoretical objectives of the society. This resulted in the founding of the Wernerian Society (1808–58), a parallel organisation that focused more upon natural history and scientific research that could be used to improve Scotland's weak agricultural and industrial base. Under the leadership of Prof. Robert Jameson, the Wernerians first founded Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society (1808–21) and then the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal (1822, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal from late 1826), thereby diverting the output of the Royal Society's Transactions. Thus, for the first four decades of the 19th century, the RSE's members published articles in two different journals. By the 1850s, the society once again unified its membership under one journal.

During the 19th century, the society contained many scientists whose ideas laid the foundation of the modern sciences. From the 20th century onward, the society functioned not only as a focal point for Scotland's eminent scientists but also for the arts and humanities. It still exists today and continues to promote original research in Scotland.

In February 2014, Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell was announced as the society's first female president, taking up her position in October.[6]

The Young Academy of Scotland

The Young Academy of Scotland was founded by the RSE in 2011. It aims to bring together young professionals (aged mid-20s to 40s) from the widest range of disciplines and regions in Scotland to provide ideas and direction for challenges facing Scotland. The members are roughly equal numbers of women and men, serve for five years and are selected from applicants every two years. In 2021 there were 134 members.[7]


The Royal Society building, at the junction of George Street and Hanover Street in the New Town, Edinburgh

The Royal Society has been housed in a succession of locations:[8]

Awards and medals


Main pages: Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and Category:Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh

Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh is an award in its own right[9] that entitles fellows to use of the initialism or post-nominal letters FRSE in official titles.

Royal Medals

The Royal Medals are awarded annually, preferably to people with a Scottish connection, who have achieved distinction and international repute in either life sciences, physical and engineering sciences, arts, humanities and social sciences or business and commerce. The Medals were instituted in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II, whose permission was required to make a presentation.[10]

Past winners include:[11]

Lord Kelvin Medal

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The Lord Kelvin Medal is the Senior Prize for physical, engineering, and informatics sciences. It is awarded annually to a person who has achieved distinction nationally and internationally, and who has contributed to wider society by the accessible dissemination of research and scholarship. Winners receive a silver medal and are required to deliver a public lecture in Scotland. The award is named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), who was a famous mathematical physicist and engineer, and professor of natural philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Senior Prize-winners are required to have a Scottish connection but can be based anywhere in the world.

Keith Medal

Main article: Keith Medal

The Keith Medal was historically awarded every four years for a scientific paper published in the society's scientific journals, preference being given to a paper containing a discovery. It was awarded alternately for papers on mathematics and those on earth and environmental sciences. The medal was founded in 1827 as a result of a bequest by Alexander Keith of Dunnottar, the first treasurer of the Society.[17]

Lady Margaret Moir Medal (formerly the Makdougall Brisbane Prize)

Further information: List of Makdougall Brisbane Prize winners

The Lady Margaret Moir Medal recognises exceptional achievements in physical, engineering and informatic sciences (including mathematics) by an early career researcher. Awardees are required to have a Scottish connection but can be based anywhere in the world. The prize was founded in 1855 by Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, the long-serving fourth president of the Society.[18] The medal was renamed in 2022 to reflect Margaret Moir's contribution to science in Scotland.[19]

Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize

Main article: Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize

The Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize Lectureship is a quadrennial award to recognise original work done by scientists resident in or connected with Scotland. The award was founded in 1887 by Robert Halliday Gunning, a Scottish surgeon, entrepreneur and philanthropist who spent much of his life in Brazil.

Bruce-Preller Lectures

Main article: Charles Preller § Bruce-Preller Lectures

This biennial lecture given at the Society was begun in 1931 at the bequest of Charles Preller and named after himself and his late wife, Rachel Steuart Bruce. It is usually (but not invariably) given by a Fellow either of the Royal Society of Edinburgh or the Royal Society of London.


Presidents of the Royal Society of Edinburgh have included:

  1. Henry Scott (1783–1812)
  2. James Hall (1812–1820)
  3. Walter Scott (1820–1832)
  4. Thomas Makdougall Brisbane (1832–1860)
  5. George Campbell (1860–1864)
  6. David Brewster (1864–1868)
  7. Robert Christison (1869–1873)
  8. William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) (1873–1878)
  9. Philip Kelland (1878–1879)
  10. James Moncreiff (1879–1884)
  11. Thomas Stevenson (1884–1885)
  12. William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) (1886–1890)
  13. Douglas Maclagan (1890–1895)
  14. Lord Kelvin (1895–1907)
  15. William Turner (1908–1913)
  16. James Geikie (1913–1915)
  17. John Horne (1915–1919)
  18. Frederick Orpen Bower (1919–1924)
  19. Alfred Ewing (1924–1929)
  20. Edward Sharpey Schafer (1929–1934)
  21. D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1934–1939)
  22. Edmund Whittaker (1939–1944)
  23. William Wright Smith (1944–1949)
  24. James Kendall (1949–1954)
  25. James Ritchie (1954–1958)
  26. J. Norman Davidson (1958–1959)
  27. Edmund Hirst (1959–1964)
  28. J. Norman Davidson (1964–1967)
  29. Norman Feather (1967–1970)
  30. Maurice Yonge (1970–1973)
  31. John Cameron (1973–1976)
  32. Robert Allan Smith (1976–1979)
  33. Kenneth Blaxter (1979–1982)
  34. John Atwell (1982–1985)
  35. Alwyn Williams (1985–1988)
  36. Charles Kemball (1988–1991)
  37. Alastair Currie (1991–1993)
  38. Thomas L. Johnston (1993–1996)
  39. Malcolm Jeeves (1996–1999)
  40. William Stewart (1999–2002)
  41. Stewart Sutherland (2002–2005)
  42. Michael Atiyah (2005–2008)
  43. David Wilson (2008–2011)
  44. John Peebles Arbuthnott (2011–October 2014)
  45. Jocelyn Bell Burnell (October 2014–April 2018)[20]
  46. Anne Glover (April 2018–March 2021)[21][22][23]
  47. John Ball (October 2021–present) [24]

See also


  1. ^ "Fellows". 21 June 2016.
  2. ^ List of RSE material held at the National Library of Scotland
  3. ^ Notes on the Royal Society of Edinburgh from the Scholarly Societies project, University of Waterloo Library (includes information on the journals of the society)
  4. ^ "The Royal Society of Edinburgh". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews. Archived from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
  5. ^ "Learned Journals". The Royal Society of Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 23 October 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  6. ^ Marshall, Chris (5 February 2014). "First female chief for Royal Society of Edinburgh". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  7. ^ "Welcome to the Young Academy of Scotland". RSE Young Academy of Scotland. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  8. ^ Waterston, Charles D (1996). "The Home of the Royal Society of Edinburgh" (PDF). Extracted from the Year Book, R.S.E., 1996. Edinburgh: The Royal Society of Edinburgh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  9. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. (2016). "Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. Archived from the original on 7 December 2022.
  10. ^ "Royal Medals". Royal Society of Scotland. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  11. ^ "RSE Royal Medal". Royal Society of Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 10 February 2023.
  12. ^ "'A brilliant lady in every sense of the word' tributes paid to cancer professor". Glasgow Live. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  13. ^ "Academic excellence recognised as RSE announces Royal Medals and Prizes" (PDF). RSE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  14. ^ "New RSE Royal Medal lists and Prize Winners Announced" (PDF). RSE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  15. ^ "Royal Medals 2012" (PDF). RSE. July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  16. ^ "HRH The Duke of Edinburgh to present RSE Royal Medals to Baroness Helena Kennedy and Professor Desmond Smith" (PDF). RSE. 4 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  17. ^ "Keith Medal". Royal Society of Scotland. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  18. ^ "Makdougall Brisbane Prize". Royal Society of Scotland. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  19. ^ "RSE Lady Margaret Moir Medal". Royal Society of Edinburgh. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  20. ^ "RSE Elects Professor Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell to be its Next President". Royal Society of Edinburgh. 5 February 2014. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021.
  21. ^ "Professor Dame Anne Glover elected new President of Royal Society of Edinburgh". The University of Aberdeen. 31 August 2017.
  22. ^ "Professor Dame Anne Glover is Elected as the New RSE President". RSE. 31 August 2017. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021.
  23. ^ Watson, Jeremy (19 February 2021). "Royal Society of Edinburgh president dethroned after fellows' revolt". The Times. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  24. ^ "Professor Sir John Ball elected new President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh". Royal Society of Edinburgh. 2 November 2021.

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