|Indian pariah dog|
|Common nicknames||South Asian pariah dog|
|Dog (domestic dog)|
The Indian pariah dog, also known as the Indian native dog or INDog, Nadan  South Asian pye dog and Desi Kutta, is a landrace of dog native to the Indian subcontinent. They have erect ears, a wedge-shaped head, and a curved tail. It is easily trainable and often used as a guard dog and police dog. This dog is an example of an ancient group of dog known as pye-dogs. There is archaeological evidence that the dog was present in Indian villages as early as 4,500 years ago.
Though most street dogs in the Indian subcontinent are in fact Indian pye-dogs, the names for this breed are often erroneously used to refer to all urban South Asian stray dogs despite the fact that some free-ranging dogs in the Indian subcontinent do not match the "pariah type" and may not be pure indigenous dogs but mixed breeds, especially around locations where European colonists historically settled in India, due to admixtures with European dog breeds.
It is a medium-sized dog of square to slightly rectangular build and short coat. The dog has a double coat, a coarse upper coat, and a soft undercoat. The most commonly observed colours are browns, ranging from dark to reddish-brown, with or without white markings. Solid blacks are rare, but some dogs are pied. Shaded coats, brindles, solid white and dalmatian-type spotting are never seen in pure populations. These may be a sign of mixing with modern breeds, as they are only seen in dogs in cities and other sites where non-native dogs have been introduced.
The head is medium-sized and wedge-shaped. The muzzle is pointed and is of equal or slightly greater length than the head. The neck is noble and the forequarters are erect. Hindquarters are minimally angled. The trot is short. The eyes are almond-shaped and dark brown in colour. The ears are held erect and are pointed at the tips, with a broad base, set low on the head, and the tail is curled and held high when excited.
The namesake of this breed was given during the British Raj in India after the Pariah tribe of the Madras Presidency. From the Anglo-Indian word pye or paë and Hindi pāhī meaning 'outsider', the Indian pariah dog is sometimes referred to as the pye-dog (also spelt pie or pi) and the Indian native dog. It is popularly known as Desi Kutta or Desi Dog (which derives from the Hindi-Urdu word desi, meaning native), as well as the Indi-dog or In-dog (in various spellings). It was referred to in the works of Rudyard Kipling as the "yellow pariah dog".
The pariah dog of India is an ancient autochthonous landrace that is found all over India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and even beyond South Asia.[better source needed][page needed] A pariah-like dog skull was discovered in the ancient Indian site of Mohenjo-daro and prehistoric rock art depicting a dog of similar type has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters.[better source needed] It was featured on National Geographic Channel's film, Search for the First Dog along with the other ancient types such as the Canaan Dog of Israel and the Australian dingo.
The Indian pye-dog was introduced to the Andaman Islands with the establishment of a penal colony there, dogs having been previously unknown to the native Andamanese.
Despite the Indian pariah dog being highly intelligent and easily trainable, the breed was intentionally downplayed during the British Raj by merchants who wished to sell their foreign breeds within the country. Their popularity in the West in recent years, however, has resulted in hundreds of dogs being exported out of the Indian subcontinent.
In 2015, a breed standard was published in the Indian Kennel Gazette, the publication of Kennel Club of India, and the dog has been recognized by the Primitive and Aboriginal Dog Society (PADS), a worldwide grouping of enthusiasts based in the US.
Some in the society view these dogs as a risk citing their increasing population in India in recent years. They consider these dogs as menace and nuisance owing to constant barking and biting people. Nevertheless, most of these attacks are caused due to human provocation like hitting them with sticks or throwing stones at them. The numbers of dog bites and deaths due to dog attacks are increasing every year. Since these dogs are largely not vaccinated, they frequently carry rabies.
Indian Pariah dogs make for loving family pets and are great with kids and adults. They are high on energy and complement kids with an active lifestyle. Indian pariah dogs are one of the oldest dog breeds in existence today. Archaeological findings indicate that this dog was in existence some 4500 years ago. Excavations in the Mohenjo-Daro site found in the Sindh region of Pakistan (Indus Valley civilisation) revealed an Indian Pariah dog skull dating to 2500 BCE. Also, there are various cave paintings across the Indian subcontinent that hints at pariah dogs to be one of the oldest dog breeds in the world.
Pariah dogs are very alert and social. They are used as guard dogs and police dogs, being very territorial and defensive. They need good socializing as pups and do well with families and children if provided with such socialization. They are highly intelligent and easily trainable; to this end, veterinarian Premlata Choudhary stated that "desi dogs are much more intelligent and hardy than most pedigreed dogs that people spend so much money on."
Being a naturally evolved breed, they have very few health concerns and thrive with minimal maintenance in suitable climates. The skin needs very little grooming and the dogs themselves are relatively clean. They have little body odour. Genetic health ailments like hip dysplasia are extremely rare, since there is no inbreeding and the dominant genes that aid their survival are naturally selected over time. Most of their deaths occur due to accidents on the roads and railway tracks, starvation, drinking polluted water, tumors in the body, snakebites, or harm from humans.
Indian Pariah dog also known as the Pye Dog is a perfect pet. There is always some confusion when it comes to this specific dog breed. Most of us assume every street dog to be Pariah. But not all of them belong to this breed. Many strays are mixed breeds, often referred to as mongrels, and cannot be considered pure Pariah dogs.
They are commonly seen in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. They adjust well in tropical climates as there is a mix of both winters and summers. But, even extreme weather conditions do not affect them in any way. This breed of dog sheds little fur. As they have short coat, the need for regular brushing and combing is less. They don't even need regular bath as they do not have an unpleasant body odour. ... They are very devoted to their family/owners. In rural areas, these dogs are seen guarding farm animals. ... These dogs are free from all genetic health problems as they are a natural breed.
A pariah is a desi dog, while a stray is an ownerless dog and a mongrel is a mixed breed. In India, most strays are pariah dogs or mongrels.
Desi is a Hindi/Urdu term for South Asian native