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Jagdschloss captured in 1945 while still under construction
Country of originGermany
TypeEarly warning radar
Frequency129–165 MHz
PRF500 per second
Range80 kilometres (50 mi)
Power30 kW

Jagdschloss, officially the FuG 404, was the designation of a German early warning and battle control radar developed just prior to the start of World War II. Although it was built in limited numbers, Jagdschloss is historically important as the first radar system to feature a plan position indicator display, or "PPI". In Germany this type of display was referred to as "Panorama". It is named for Jagdschloss, a hunting lodge.


The PPI effort started fairly early in the history of radar; Hans Hollmann of Telefunken filed a patent for the multi-phase electrostatic deflection in a cathode-ray tube "along a conical surface of revolution" "such as required in practice for instance for the feeding of certain directional antenna systems, or the like" in 1936.[1] At that time development of GEMA's other radars, notably the Freya, took priority, and work on the system did not start until 1939. By this time, radar development had progressed to the point were a prototype could be constructed by re-using systems from various production radars.

A prototype system was built 35 km west of Berlin, known as the Tremmen Radar Tower. It mounted a large antenna consisting of two rows of four half-wave dipoles aligned horizontally, rotating on a shaft located at the top of the tower. It was found that at least five pulses needed to be returned in order for the target to become visible on the scope, so the rotation rate of the antenna was adjusted to synchronize with the pulse repetition frequency of the radar. The radio equipment was taken from the Wassermann and Freya units, and operated on a basic wavelength of 2.4 m (~125 MHz).

Production units

Although the system demonstrated its utility, further units were not ordered until the fall of 1942, likely due to the increasing tempo of RAF Bomber Command's night offensives at that time. Production Jagdschloss units were larger than the original prototype, with an antenna 24 m (79 ft) wide and 3 m (9.8 ft) tall. New electronics were built for the production units, operating on one of two bands, the A band on 1.2-1.9 m or the B band on 1.9-2.5 m. The first production sets were delivered by Siemens & Halske at the end of 1943, and when production ended in April 1945 a total of 80 units had been delivered.

Jagdschloss units were found to have several "dead spots" due to the antenna being located on an 8-metre-high (26 ft) tower. For instance, an aircraft flying at 6,000 m (20,000 ft) altitude at any range between 60–80 km (37–50 mi; 32–43 nmi) would be invisible because the direct reflection from the aircraft would interfere with the one reflecting off the ground. This problem was initially solved with the addition of a large wire mesh under the tower, known as Reflektor-Netz.

Erstling codegenerator

A more convincing solution to this problem was deployed as Jagdschloss Michael. Michael added a second antenna on the "back" of the original, operating on a 50 cm wavelength system from Telefunken (almost certainly adapted from their Würzburg radar). Range was also increased from the original 150–300 km (93–186 mi; 81–162 nmi), which required an improvement in the angular resolution in order to maintain the ability to resolve aircraft. To achieve this, Michael used a new 50-metre-wide (160 ft) antenna replacing the older 24 m one. The antenna was so large that the mounting had to be re-designed, with the antenna supported by rollers running in a track as opposed to being mounted off a central shaft.

Another cm-wavelength experiment was built at Werneuchen, east of Berlin, known as Jagdschloss Z. This system operated on a 9 cm wavelength, which was very short for the era. The antenna was built up from the center sections of the Würzburg radar's parabolic dish, stacked vertically to form a single 72-wavelength aperture antenna.

Jagdschloss units of all types were optionally fitted with the Erstling IFF system. Like British IFF units, Erstling fed back its own return upon reception of a Jagdschloss signal. The return signal was slightly delayed, appearing as a second "blip" on the radar screen, allowing the operator to visually identify friendly aircraft. Unlike British systems, Erstling apparently sent back a morse code signal in return.

The FuG25a "Erstling" had two encryption keys inside, each of 10 bits. One called "Reichskennung" and the other "Verbandskennung" (squadron key).

A related system, Jagdhütte (German: "hunting cabin"), is also mentioned in reference to Erstling. This was a reduced version of Jagdschloss without radar receiver, operating only with the IFF Signals from Erstling. This was for control of the Luftwaffe's own night fighters only. Due to the different transmit and receiving frequencies, it was resistant against Düppel interference.

Another optional system for use with Jagdschloss was a remote PPI display known as Landbriefträger (German: country mailman). This allowed the display from a Jagdschloss site to be sent via telephone lines to the flak defenses so they could arrange their attacks locally. Signals from the original Tremmen and the later Werneuchen radars were forwarded to the flak tower close by the Berlin Zoo.

Site locations

Station Code Name Nearest Village/Town Country Narrative Latitude/Longitude Ref
AAL Altomünster, Dachau in Bavaria Germany Harreszell / Wagenried [2]
BÄR A Werneuchen, Brandenburg Germany SW near Blumberg [2]
BERGZIEGE Erlenkopf , Wasgau, Rhineland-Palatinate Germany [2]
BOCK Olsker, Bornholm island Denmark [3] [4]
BREME Bremerhaven, Free Hanseatic City of Bremen Germany At Öse [2]
BRUMMBÄR Budkovice near Ivančice Czech Republic alongside route 15253 49.084066, 16.362169 [5] [6]
DACHS-MITTE Gernsheim, Hesse Germany [2]
ENGERLING Přílezy near Útvina Czech Republic 50.086507, 12.945413 [6]
ERPEL Neustadt an der Aisch, Bavaria Germany [2]
FALTER I La Mornandière, Chazelles-sur-Lyon France 45.637348, 4.352014 [7] [8]
FAUN Skovby near Galten Denmark [3] [4]
FERKEL Schlagsdorf / Petersdorf, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Germany [2]
FLAMINGO Fürstenwalde, Brandenburg Germany [2]
GAZELLE Veendam near Groningen Netherlands [9]
HAMSTER Oostkapelle / Domburg, Zeeland Netherlands 51.570269, 3.521230 [9]
HASE Harderwijk, Gelderland Netherlands 52.334495, 5.595638 [9]
HEIDSCHNUCKE Heiligenhaus, North Rhine-Westphalia Germany towards Unterlip [2]
HUMMEL B SÜD Marxen / Ramelsloh
Harburg, Lower Saxony
Germany [2]
KORALLE Krakovany, Piešťany District Slovakia 50.061319, 15.393324 [6]
KRAKE Köthen, Saxony-Anhalt Germany [2]
LIEBENBERG Großdubrau near Krotoszyce Poland [10] [4]
LINDWURM Fraer, Limfjord Denmark [3]
MADE Mendhausen, Thuringia Germany 50.379305, 10.470260 [8]
MÖWE Renningen, Baden-Württemberg Germany [2]
RATTLER Hamm, North Rhine-Westphalia Germany WSW Herringen [2]
RHEINSALM Saerbeck, North Rhine-Westphalia Germany 1km east [2]
ROBBE NORD Skærbæk, Jutland Denmark west at Tvismaerk [3]
SCHAKAL Skagen, Jutland Denmark [3] [4]
SEEHUND Skelby (Seeland Mitte) Denmark [3]
SEESTERN Mrągowo (Sensburg) Poland [10]
SILBERFUCHS Siegen, Westphalian Germany 50.884008, 8.038082 [2]
STAR Ladelund, Schleswig-Holstein Germany [2]
STEINBOCK Wunstorf, Lower Saxony Germany at Winzlar 52.448973, 9.259528 [2]
TAPIR Cerhonice / Radobytce Czech Republic 49.413988, 14.041572 [6] [11]
TRAMPELTIER Tremmen, Brandenburg Germany [2]
WELLENSITTICH Weißenfels, Saxony-Anhalt Germany 4km south [2]
Aken (Elbe), Saxony-Anhalt Germany [2]
Boostedt, Schleswig-Holstein Germany [2]
Kriegsmarine site Łężyce near Gdynia Poland 54.532096, 18.392182 [4] [12]
Langendorf, Saxony-Anhalt Germany alongside A9 motorway 51.158737, 11.990475
Kriegsmarine site Lönsweg near Wilhelmshaven, Lower Saxony Germany [2]
Kriegsmarine site Raehr near Hanstholm Denmark 57.099852, 8.677879 [2] [13]
Sletterhage, Kattegat Denmark [3]
Kriegsmarine site Świnoujście Poland [10] [4]
Vukovar Croatia [14]
Wladimirowka Kaliningrad [15]


Original Service Manual (115 pages)


  1. ^ U.S. patent 2206668A
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Funkmeß(ortungs)stellungen in Deutschland". 3 March 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Funkmeß(ortungs)stellungen in Dänemark". 1 June 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Jagdschloss Splitter Sichrer". Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  5. ^ "HISTORICAL ATTRACTIONS". Retrieved 28 December 2023.
  6. ^ a b c d "Funkmeß(ortungs)stellungen Tschechische und Slowakische Republik". 12 May 2018.
  7. ^ "Quand Chazelles-sur-Lyon servait de base radar aux Allemands". 10 December 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Funkmeß(ortungs)stellungen in Frankreich". 10 March 2021.
  9. ^ a b c "Funkmeß(ortungs)stellungen in den Niederlanden". 12 May 2018.
  10. ^ a b c "Funkmeß(ortungs)stellungen in Polen". 18 February 2021.
  11. ^ "Radary". 22 February 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  12. ^ "Coastal Battery Lezyce". Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  13. ^ "27.16.01 Jagdschloss Radar". Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  14. ^ "Funkmeß(ortungs)stellungen auf dem westlichen Balkan". 1 June 2022.
  15. ^ "Funkmeß(ortungs)stellungen in den baltischen Staaten". 1 June 2022.