Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an application programming interface (API) for the Java programming language which defines how a client may access a database. It is a Java-based data access technology used for Java database connectivity. It is part of the Java Standard Edition platform, from Oracle Corporation. It provides methods to query and update data in a database, and is oriented toward relational databases. A JDBC-to-ODBC bridge enables connections to any ODBC-accessible data source in the Java virtual machine (JVM) host environment.

Developer(s)Oracle Corporation
Stable release
JDBC 4.3 / September 21, 2017 (2017-09-21)
Operating systemCross-platform
TypeData access API
WebsiteJDBC API Guide

History and implementation

Sun Microsystems released JDBC as part of Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.1 on February 19, 1997.[1] Since then it has been part of the Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE).

The JDBC classes are contained in the Java package java.sql and javax.sql.

Starting with version 3.1, JDBC has been developed under the Java Community Process. JSR 54 specifies JDBC 3.0 (included in J2SE 1.4), JSR 114 specifies the JDBC Rowset additions, and JSR 221 is the specification of JDBC 4.0 (included in Java SE 6).[2]

JDBC 4.1, is specified by a maintenance release 1 of JSR 221[3] and is included in Java SE 7.[4]

JDBC 4.2, is specified by a maintenance release 2 of JSR 221[5] and is included in Java SE 8.[6]

The latest version, JDBC 4.3, is specified by a maintenance release 3 of JSR 221[7] and is included in Java SE 9.[8]

JDBC versions
JDBC version Java version Release Type Release date
1.1 JDK 1.1 Main 1997-02-19.[1]
3.0 J2SE 1.4 Main 2002-05-09
4.0 Java SE 6 Main 2006-12-11
4.1 Java SE 7 Maintenance 2011-10-13
4.2 Java SE 8 Maintenance 2014-03-04
4.3 Java SE 9 Maintenance 2017-09-21


Host database types which Java can convert to with a function
Oracle Datatype setXXX() Methods
CHAR setString()
VARCHAR2 setString()
NUMBER setBigDecimal()
INTEGER setInt()
FLOAT setDouble()
CLOB setClob()
BLOB setBlob()
RAW setBytes()
LONGRAW setBytes()
DATE setDate()

Since JDBC ('Java Database Connectivity') is mostly a collection of interface definitions and specifications, it allows multiple implementations of these interfaces to exist and be used by the same application at runtime. The API provides a mechanism for dynamically loading the correct Java packages and registering them with the JDBC Driver Manager (DriverManager). DriverManager is used as a Connection factory for creating JDBC connections.

JDBC connections support creating and executing statements. JDBC connections support update statements such as SQL's CREATE, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE, or query statements such as SELECT. Additionally, stored procedures may be invoked through a JDBC connection. JDBC represents statements using one of the following classes:

PreparedStatement allows the dynamic query to vary depending on the query parameter.[11]

Update statements such as INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE return an update count indicating the number of rows affected in the database as an integer.[13] These statements do not return any other information.

Query statements return a JDBC row result set. The row result set is used to walk over the result set. Individual columns in a row are retrieved either by name or by column number. There may be any number of rows in the result set. The row result set has metadata that describes the names of the columns and their types.

There is an extension to the basic JDBC API in the javax.sql.

JDBC connections are often managed via a connection pool rather than obtained directly from the driver.[14]


When a Java application needs a database connection, one of the DriverManager.getConnection() methods is used to create a JDBC Connection. The URL used is dependent upon the particular database and JDBC driver. It will always begin with the "jdbc:" protocol, but the rest is up to the particular vendor.

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(
     "jdbc:somejdbcvendor:other data needed by some jdbc vendor",
try {
     /* you use the connection here */
} finally {
    //It's important to close the connection when you are done with it
    try { 
    } catch (Throwable e) { /* Propagate the original exception
                                instead of this one that you want just logged */ 
        logger.warn("Could not close JDBC Connection", e);

Starting from Java SE 7 you can use Java's try-with-resources statement to simplify the above code:

try (Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(
     "jdbc:somejdbcvendor:other data needed by some jdbc vendor",
     "myPassword")) {
     /* you use the connection here */
}  // the VM will take care of closing the connection

Once a connection is established, a Statement can be created.

try (Statement stmt = conn.createStatement()) {
    stmt.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO MyTable(name) VALUES ('my name')");

Note that Connections, Statements, and ResultSets often tie up operating system resources such as sockets or file descriptors. In the case of Connections to remote database servers, further resources are tied up on the server, e.g. cursors for currently open ResultSets. It is vital to close() any JDBC object as soon as it has played its part; garbage collection should not be relied upon. The above try-with-resources construct is a code pattern that obviates this.

Data is retrieved from the database using a database query mechanism. The example below shows creating a statement and executing a query.

try (Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
    ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT * FROM MyTable")
) {
    while ( {
        int numColumns = rs.getMetaData().getColumnCount();
        for (int i = 1; i <= numColumns; i++) {
           // Column numbers start at 1.
           // Also, there are many methods on the result set to return
           //  the column as a particular type. Refer to the Sun documentation
           //  for the list of valid conversions.
           System.out.println( "COLUMN " + i + " = " + rs.getObject(i));

The following code is an example of a PreparedStatement query which uses conn and class from the first example:

try (PreparedStatement ps =
    conn.prepareStatement("SELECT i.*, j.* FROM Omega i, Zappa j WHERE = ? AND j.num = ?")
) {
    // In the SQL statement being prepared, each question mark is a placeholder
    // that must be replaced with a value you provide through a "set" method invocation.
    // The following two method calls replace the two placeholders; the first is
    // replaced by a string value, and the second by an integer value.
    ps.setString(1, "Poor Yorick");
    ps.setInt(2, 8008);

    // The ResultSet, rs, conveys the result of executing the SQL statement.
    // Each time you call, an internal row pointer, or cursor,
    // is advanced to the next row of the result.  The cursor initially is
    // positioned before the first row.
    try (ResultSet rs = ps.executeQuery()) {
        while ( {
            int numColumns = rs.getMetaData().getColumnCount();
            for (int i = 1; i <= numColumns; i++) {
                // Column numbers start at 1.
                // Also, there are many methods on the result set to return
                // the column as a particular type. Refer to the Sun documentation
                // for the list of valid conversions.
                System.out.println("COLUMN " + i + " = " + rs.getObject(i));
            } // for
        } // while
    } // try
} // try

If a database operation fails, JDBC raises an SQLException. There is typically very little one can do to recover from such an error, apart from logging it with as much detail as possible. It is recommended that the SQLException be translated into an application domain exception (an unchecked one) that eventually results in a transaction rollback and a notification to the user.

The following code is an example of a database transaction:

boolean autoCommitDefault = conn.getAutoCommit();
try {

    /* You execute statements against conn here transactionally */

} catch (Throwable e) {
    try { conn.rollback(); } catch (Throwable e) { logger.warn("Could not rollback transaction", e); }
    throw e;
} finally {
    try { conn.setAutoCommit(autoCommitDefault); } catch (Throwable e) { logger.warn("Could not restore AutoCommit setting",e); }

For an example of a CallableStatement (to call stored procedures in the database), see the JDBC API Guide documentation.

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.Statement;

public class Mydb1 {
   static String URL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost/mydb";

   public static void main(String[] args) {
      try {

        Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(URL, "root", "root");
        Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
        String sql = "INSERT INTO emp1 VALUES ('pctb5361', 'kiril', 'john', 968666668)";
        System.out.println("Inserted records into the table...");
      } catch (Exception e) {

JDBC drivers

Main article: JDBC driver

JDBC drivers are client-side adapters (installed on the client machine, not on the server) that convert requests from Java programs to a protocol that the DBMS can understand.


Commercial and free drivers provide connectivity to most relational-database servers. These drivers fall into one of the following types:

Note also a type called an internal JDBC driver - a driver embedded with JRE in Java-enabled SQL databases. It is used for Java stored procedures. This does not fit into the classification scheme above, although it would likely resemble either a type 2 or type 4 driver (depending on whether the database itself is implemented in Java or not). An example of this is the KPRB (Kernel Program Bundled) driver[16] supplied with Oracle RDBMS. "jdbc:default:connection" offers a relatively standard way of making such a connection (at least the Oracle database and Apache Derby support it). However, in the case of an internal JDBC driver, the JDBC client actually runs as part of the database being accessed, and so can access data directly rather than through network protocols.


See also


  1. ^ a b "Sun Ships JDK 1.1 -- Javabeans Included". Sun Microsystems. 1997-02-19. Archived from the original on 2008-02-10. Retrieved 2010-02-15. February 19, 1997 - The JDK 1.1 [...] is now available [...]. This release of the JDK includes: [...] Robust new features including JDBC for database connectivity
  2. ^ JDBC API Specification Version: 4.0.
  3. ^ "The Java Community Process(SM) Program - communityprocess - mrel". Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  4. ^ "JDBC 4.1". Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  5. ^ "The Java Community Process(SM) Program - communityprocess - mrel". Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  6. ^ "JDBC 4.2". Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  7. ^ "The Java Community Process(SM) Program - communityprocess - mrel". Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  8. ^ "java.sql (Java SE 9 & JDK 9)". Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d Bai 2022, p. 74.
  10. ^ Bai 2022, pp. 122–124, § More About the Execution Methods.
  11. ^ a b c Bai 2022, pp. 72–74, §3.2 JDBC Components and Architecture.
  12. ^ Horstmann 2022, §5.5.3 SQL Escapes.
  13. ^ a b Bai 2022, pp. 122–124, § JDBC Components and Architecture.
  14. ^ Bai 2022, p. 83, §3.5.1 JDBC DataSource.
  15. ^ "Java JDBC API". Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  16. ^ Greenwald, Rick; Stackowiak, Robert; Stern, Jonathan (1999). Oracle Essentials: Oracle Database 10g. Essentials Series (3 ed.). Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly Media, Inc. (published 2004). p. 318. ISBN 9780596005856. Retrieved 2016-11-03. The in-database JDBC driver (JDBC KPRB)[:] Java code uses the JDBC KPRB (Kernel Program Bundled) version to access SQL on the same server.
  17. ^ "JDBC Drivers - CData Software". CData Software. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  18. ^ "JDBC Drivers - CData Software". CData Software. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  19. ^ "New Type 5 JDBC Driver — DataDirect Connect".
  20. ^ "Access External Databases from RPG with JDBCR4 Meat of the Matter". 28 June 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  21. ^ Sualeh Fatehi. "SchemaCrawler". GitHub.