Original author(s)MySQL AB
Developer(s)Oracle Corporation
Initial release23 May 1995; 29 years ago (1995-05-23)
Stable release
9.0.0[1] Edit this on Wikidata / 1 July 2024; 18 days ago (1 July 2024)
Written inC, C++[2]
Operating systemLinux, Solaris, macOS, Windows, FreeBSD[3]
Available inEnglish
LicenseGPLv2 or proprietary[4]
Websitewww.mysql.com Edit this on Wikidata

MySQL (/ˌmˌɛsˌkjuːˈɛl/)[5] is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).[5][6] Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter My,[7] and "SQL", the acronym for Structured Query Language. A relational database organizes data into one or more data tables in which data may be related to each other; these relations help structure the data. SQL is a language that programmers use to create, modify and extract data from the relational database, as well as control user access to the database. In addition to relational databases and SQL, an RDBMS like MySQL works with an operating system to implement a relational database in a computer's storage system, manages users, allows for network access and facilitates testing database integrity and creation of backups.

MySQL is free and open-source software under the terms of the GNU General Public License, and is also available under a variety of proprietary licenses. MySQL was owned and sponsored by the Swedish company MySQL AB, which was bought by Sun Microsystems (now Oracle Corporation).[8] In 2010, when Oracle acquired Sun, Widenius forked the open-source MySQL project to create MariaDB.[9]

MySQL has stand-alone clients that allow users to interact directly with a MySQL database using SQL, but more often, MySQL is used with other programs to implement applications that need relational database capability. MySQL is a component of the LAMP web application software stack (and others), which is an acronym for Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python. MySQL is used by many database-driven web applications, including Drupal, Joomla, phpBB, and WordPress.[10] MySQL is also used by many popular websites, including Facebook,[11][12] Flickr,[13] MediaWiki,[14] Twitter,[15] and YouTube.[16]



MySQL is written in C and C++. Its SQL parser is written in yacc, but it uses a home-brewed lexical analyzer.[17] MySQL works on many system platforms, including AIX, BSDi, FreeBSD, HP-UX, ArcaOS, eComStation, IBM i, IRIX, Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows, NetBSD, Novell NetWare, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris, OS/2 Warp, QNX, Oracle Solaris, Symbian, SunOS, SCO OpenServer, SCO UnixWare, Sanos and Tru64. A port of MySQL to OpenVMS also exists.[18]

The MySQL server software itself and the client libraries use dual-licensing distribution. They are offered under GPL version 2, or a proprietary license.[19]

Support can be obtained from the official manual.[20] Free support additionally is available in different IRC channels and forums. Oracle offers paid support via its MySQL Enterprise products. They differ in the scope of services and in price. Additionally, a number of third party organisations exist to provide support and services.

MySQL has received positive reviews, and reviewers noticed it "performs extremely well in the average case" and that the "developer interfaces are there, and the documentation (not to mention feedback in the real world via Web sites and the like) is very, very good".[21] It has also been tested to be a "fast, stable and true multi-user, multi-threaded SQL database server".[22]


David Axmark (left) and Michael "Monty" Widenius, founders of MySQL AB, in 2003

MySQL was created by a Swedish company, MySQL AB, founded by Swedes David Axmark, Allan Larsson and Finnish Michael "Monty" Widenius. Original development of MySQL by Widenius and Axmark began in 1994.[23] The first version of MySQL appeared on 23 May 1995. It was initially created for personal usage from mSQL based on the low-level language ISAM, which the creators considered too slow and inflexible. They created a new SQL interface, while keeping the same API as mSQL. By keeping the API consistent with the mSQL system, many developers were able to use MySQL instead of the (proprietarily licensed) mSQL antecedent.[24]



Additional milestones in MySQL development included:

Geir Høydalsvik, current Senior Software Development Director for MySQL at Oracle in 2018

Release history

Release General availability Latest minor version Latest release End of support[46][47]
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.1 LTS 14 November 2008; 15 years ago (2008-11-14)[48] 5.1.73[49] 2013-12-03 Dec 2013
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.5 LTS 3 December 2010; 13 years ago (2010-12-03)[50] 5.5.62[51] 2018-10-22 Dec 2018
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.6 LTS 5 February 2013; 11 years ago (2013-02-05)[52] 5.6.51[53] 2021-01-20 Feb 2021
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.7 LTS 21 October 2015; 8 years ago (2015-10-21) [54] 5.7.44[55] 2023-10-25 Oct 2023
Older version, yet still maintained: 8.0 LTS 19 April 2018; 6 years ago (2018-04-19) [56] 8.0.38[57] 2024-07-01 Apr 2026
Old version, no longer maintained: 8.1 IR 18 July 2023; 12 months ago (2023-07-18)[58] 8.1.26[59] 2023-07-18 Oct 2023
Old version, no longer maintained: 8.2 IR 25 October 2023; 8 months ago (2023-10-25)[60] 8.2.0[61] 2023-10-25 Jan 2024
Old version, no longer maintained: 8.3 IR 16 January 2024; 6 months ago (2024-01-16)[62] 8.3.0[63] 2024-01-16 Apr 2024
Current stable version: 8.4 LTS 30 April 2024; 2 months ago (2024-04-30) [64] 8.4.1[65] 2024-07-01 Apr 2032
Latest preview version of a future release: 9.0 IR 1 July 2024; 18 days ago (2024-07-01) [66] 9.0.0[67] 2024-07-01 Oct 2024
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release
LTS = Long-Term Support, IR = Innovation Release

Work on version 6 stopped after the Sun Microsystems acquisition. The MySQL Cluster product uses version 7. The decision was made to jump to version 8 as the next major version number.[68]


On 15 June 2001, NuSphere sued MySQL AB, TcX DataKonsult AB and its original authors Michael ("Monty") Widenius and David Axmark in U.S. District Court in Boston for "breach of contract, tortious interference with third party contracts and relationships and unfair competition".[69][70]

In 2002, MySQL AB sued Progress NuSphere for copyright and trademark infringement in United States district court. NuSphere had allegedly violated MySQL AB's copyright by linking MySQL's GPL'ed code with NuSphere Gemini table without being in compliance with the license.[71] After a preliminary hearing before Judge Patti Saris on 27 February 2002, the parties entered settlement talks and eventually settled.[72] After the hearing, FSF commented that "Judge Saris made clear that she sees the GNU GPL to be an enforceable and binding license."[73]

In October 2005, Oracle Corporation acquired Innobase OY, the Finnish company that developed the third-party InnoDB storage engine that allows MySQL to provide such functionality as transactions and foreign keys. After the acquisition, an Oracle press release mentioned that the contracts that make the company's software available to MySQL AB would be due for renewal (and presumably renegotiation) some time in 2006.[74] During the MySQL Users Conference in April 2006, MySQL AB issued a press release that confirmed that MySQL AB and Innobase OY agreed to a "multi-year" extension of their licensing agreement.[75]

In February 2006, Oracle Corporation acquired Sleepycat Software,[76] makers of the Berkeley DB, a database engine providing the basis for another MySQL storage engine. This had little effect, as Berkeley DB was not widely used, and was dropped (due to lack of use) in MySQL 5.1.12, a pre-GA release of MySQL 5.1 released in October 2006.[77]

In January 2008, Sun Microsystems bought MySQL AB for $1 billion.[78]

In April 2009, Oracle Corporation entered into an agreement to purchase Sun Microsystems,[79] then owners of MySQL copyright and trademark. Sun's board of directors unanimously approved the deal. It was also approved by Sun's shareholders, and by the U.S. government on 20 August 2009.[80] On 14 December 2009, Oracle pledged to continue to enhance MySQL[81] as it had done for the previous four years.

A movement against Oracle's acquisition of MySQL AB, to "Save MySQL"[82] from Oracle was started by one of the MySQL AB founders, Monty Widenius. The petition of 50,000+ developers and users called upon the European Commission to block approval of the acquisition. At the same time, some Free Software opinion leaders (including Pamela Jones of Groklaw, Jan Wildeboer and Carlo Piana, who also acted as co-counsel in the merger regulation procedure) advocated for the unconditional approval of the merger.[83][84][85] As part of the negotiations with the European Commission, Oracle committed that MySQL server will continue until at least 2015 to use the dual-licensing strategy long used by MySQL AB, with proprietary and GPL versions available. The antitrust of the EU had been "pressuring it to divest MySQL as a condition for approval of the merger". But the US Department of Justice, at the request of Oracle, pressured the EU to approve the merger unconditionally.[86] The European Commission eventually unconditionally approved Oracle's acquisition of MySQL AB on 21 January 2010.[87]

In January 2010, before Oracle's acquisition of MySQL AB, Monty Widenius started a GPL-only fork, MariaDB. MariaDB is based on the same code base as MySQL server 5.5 and aims to maintain compatibility with Oracle-provided versions.[88]



MySQL is offered under two different editions: the open source MySQL Community Server[89] and the proprietary Enterprise Server.[90] MySQL Enterprise Server is differentiated by a series of proprietary extensions which install as server plugins, but otherwise shares the version numbering system and is built from the same code base.

Major features as available in MySQL 5.6:

The developers release minor updates of the MySQL Server approximately every two months. The sources can be obtained from MySQL's website or from MySQL's GitHub repository, both under the GPL license.



When using some storage engines other than the default of InnoDB, MySQL does not comply with the full SQL standard for some of the implemented functionality, including foreign key references.[102] Check constraints are parsed but ignored by all storage engines before MySQL version 8.0.15.[103][104]

Up until MySQL 5.7, triggers are limited to one per action / timing, meaning that at most one trigger can be defined to be executed after an INSERT operation, and one before INSERT on the same table.[105] No triggers can be defined on views.[105]

Before MySQL 8.0.28, inbuilt functions like UNIX_TIMESTAMP() would return 0 after 03:14:07 UTC on 19 January 2038.[106] In 2017, an attempt to solve the problem was submitted, but was not used for the final solution that was shipped in 2022.[107][108][109]



MySQL can be built and installed manually from source code, but it is more commonly installed from a binary package unless special customizations are required. On most Linux distributions, the package management system can download and install MySQL with minimal effort, though further configuration is often required to adjust security and optimization settings.

LAMP software bundle, displayed here together with Squid.

Though MySQL began as a low-end alternative to more powerful proprietary databases, it has gradually evolved to support higher-scale needs as well. It is still most commonly used in small to medium scale single-server deployments, either as a component in a LAMP-based web application or as a standalone database server. Much of MySQL's appeal originates in its relative simplicity and ease of use, which is enabled by an ecosystem of open source tools such as phpMyAdmin. In the medium range, MySQL can be scaled by deploying it on more powerful hardware, such as a multi-processor server with gigabytes of memory.

There are, however, limits to how far performance can scale on a single server ('scaling up'), so on larger scales, multi-server MySQL ('scaling out') deployments are required to provide improved performance and reliability. A typical high-end configuration can include a powerful master database which handles data write operations and is replicated to multiple slaves that handle all read operations.[110] The master server continually pushes binlog events to connected slaves so in the event of failure a slave can be promoted to become the new master, minimizing downtime. Further improvements in performance can be achieved by caching the results from database queries in memory using memcached, or breaking down a database into smaller chunks called shards which can be spread across a number of distributed server clusters.[111]

High availability software


Oracle MySQL offers a high availability solution with a mix of tools including the MySQL router and the MySQL shell. They are based on Group Replication, open source tools.[112]

MariaDB offers a similar offer in terms of products.[113]

Cloud deployment


MySQL can also be run on cloud computing platforms such as Microsoft Azure, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.[114] Some common deployment models for MySQL on the cloud are:

Virtual machine image
In this implementation, cloud users can upload a machine image of their own with MySQL installed, or use a ready-made machine image with an optimized installation of MySQL on it, such as the one provided by Amazon EC2.[115]
MySQL as a service
Some cloud platforms offer MySQL "as a service". In this configuration, application owners do not have to install and maintain the MySQL database on their own. Instead, the database service provider takes responsibility for installing and maintaining the database, and application owners pay according to their usage.[116] Notable cloud-based MySQL services are the Amazon Relational Database Service; Oracle MySQL HeatWave Database Service,[117] Azure Database for MySQL,[118] Rackspace; HP Converged Cloud; Heroku and Jelastic. In this model the database service provider takes responsibility for maintaining the host and database.

User interfaces


Graphical user interfaces


A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices or programs through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

Third-party proprietary and free graphical administration applications (or "front ends") are available that integrate with MySQL and enable users to work with database structure and data visually.

MySQL Workbench running on macOS

MySQL Workbench


MySQL Workbench is the integrated environment for MySQL. It was developed by MySQL AB, and enables users to graphically administer MySQL databases and visually design database structures.

MySQL Workbench is available in three editions, the regular free and open source Community Edition which may be downloaded from the MySQL website, and the proprietary Standard Edition which extends and improves the feature set of the Community Edition, and the MySQL Cluster CGE.[119][120]

Other GUI tools


Command-line interfaces


A command-line interface is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user issues commands to the program by typing in successive lines of text (command lines). MySQL ships with many command line tools, from which the main interface is the mysql client.[121][122]

MySQL Utilities is a set of utilities designed to perform common maintenance and administrative tasks. Originally included as part of the MySQL Workbench, the utilities are a stand-alone download available from Oracle.

Percona Toolkit is a cross-platform toolkit for MySQL, developed in Perl.[123] Percona Toolkit can be used to prove replication is working correctly, fix corrupted data, automate repetitive tasks, and speed up servers. Percona Toolkit is included with several Linux distributions such as CentOS and Debian, and packages are available for Fedora and Ubuntu as well. Percona Toolkit was originally developed as Maatkit, but as of late 2011, Maatkit is no longer developed.

MySQL shell is a tool for interactive use and administration of the MySQL database. It supports JavaScript, Python or SQL modes and it can be used for administration and access purposes.[124]

Application programming interfaces


Many programming languages with language-specific APIs include libraries for accessing MySQL databases. These include MySQL Connector/Net for .NET/CLI Languages,[125] and the JDBC driver for Java.[126]

In addition, an ODBC interface called MySQL Connector/ODBC allows additional programming languages that support the ODBC interface to communicate with a MySQL database, such as ASP or ColdFusion. The HTSQL – URL-based query method also ships with a MySQL adapter, allowing direct interaction between a MySQL database and any web client via structured URLs. Other drivers exists for languages like Python[127] or Node.js.[128]

Project forks


A variety of MySQL forks exist, including the following.


MariaDB is a community-developed fork of the MySQL relational database management system intended to remain free under the GNU GPL. The fork has been led by the original developers of MySQL, who forked it due to concerns over its acquisition by Oracle.[34]
Percona Server for MySQL
Percona Server for MySQL, forked by Percona, aims to retain close compatibility to the official MySQL releases.[129] Also included in Percona Server for MySQL is XtraDB, Percona's fork of the InnoDB Storage Engine.[130]


Drizzle was a free software/open source relational database management system (DBMS) that was forked from the now-defunct 6.0 development branch of the MySQL DBMS.[131] Like MySQL, Drizzle had a client/server architecture and uses SQL as its primary command language. Drizzle was distributed under version 2 and 3 of the GNU General Public License (GPL) with portions, including the protocol drivers and replication messaging under the BSD license.
WebScaleSQL was a software branch of MySQL 5.6, and was announced on 27 March 2014 by Facebook, Google, LinkedIn and Twitter as a joint effort to provide a centralized development structure for extending MySQL with new features specific to its large-scale deployments, such as building large replicated databases running on server farms. Thus, WebScaleSQL opened a path toward deduplicating the efforts each company had been putting into maintaining its own branch of MySQL, and toward bringing together more developers. By combining the efforts of these companies and incorporating various changes and new features into MySQL, WebScaleSQL aimed at supporting the deployment of MySQL in large-scale environments.[132][133] The project's source code is licensed under version 2 of the GNU General Public License, and is hosted on GitHub.[134][135]
The OurDelta distribution, created by the Australian company Open Query (later acquired by Catalyst IT Australia), had two versions: 5.0, which was based on MySQL, and 5.1, which was based on MariaDB. It included patches developed by Open Query and by other notable members of the MySQL community including Jeremy Cole and Google. Once the patches were incorporated into the MariaDB mainline, OurDelta's objectives were achieved and OurDelta passed on its build and packaging toolchain to Monty Program (now MariaDB Plc).[136]

See also



  1. ^ a b Prior to MySQL 5.5.3, UTF-8 and UCS-2 encoded strings are limited to the BMP; MySQL 5.5.3 and later use utf8mb4 for full Unicode support.
  2. ^ Initially, it was a MyISAM-only feature; supported by InnoDB since the release of MySQL 5.6.
  3. ^ In MySQL 5.0, storage engines must be compiled in; since MySQL 5.1, storage engines can be dynamically loaded at run time.


  1. ^ "Changes in MySQL 9.0.0 (2024-07-01, Innovation Release)". 1 July 2024. Retrieved 1 July 2024.
  2. ^ "MySQL: Project Summary". Ohloh. Black Duck Software. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  3. ^ "Supported Platforms: MySQL Database". Oracle. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  4. ^ "Downloads". MySQL. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  5. ^ a b "What is MySQL?". MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual. Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 3 April 2020. The official way to pronounce "MySQL" is "My Ess Que Ell" (not "my sequel"), but we do not mind if you pronounce it as "my sequel" or in some other localized way.
  6. ^ "DB-Engines Ranking of Relational DBMS". DB-Engines. solidIT consulting & software development GmbH. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  7. ^ "History of MySQL". MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual. Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 3 April 2020. MySQL is named after co-founder Monty Widenius's daughter, My.
  8. ^ "Sun Microsystems Announces Completion of MySQL Acquisition; Paves Way for Secure, Open Source Platform to Power the Network Economy" (Press release). Sun Microsystems. 26 February 2008. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  9. ^ Pearce, Rohan (28 March 2013). "Dead database walking: MySQL's creator on why the future belongs to MariaDB". Computerworld. Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020. The day the Sun purchase was announced, Widenius responded [...] — he forked MySQL, launching MariaDB [...]
  10. ^ Jackson, Joab (8 March 2010). "WordPress Guns for Web Content Management Duties". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2023. WordPress, created in 2003, uses a variety of open-source programs and open standards, such as PHP, MySQL, JavaScript, HTML and CSS.
  11. ^ Sobel, Jason (21 December 2007). "Keeping Up". The Facebook Blog. Facebook. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2009. [...] Facebook's data is stored in MySQL database servers [...]
  12. ^ Matsunobu, Yoshinori (31 August 2016). "MyRocks: A space- and write-optimized MySQL database". Facebook Engineering. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020. At Facebook we use MySQL to manage many petabytes of data, along with the InnoDB storage engine [...]
  13. ^ Elliott-McCrea, Kellan (8 February 2010). "Using, Abusing and Scaling MySQL at Flickr". code.flickr.com. Retrieved 3 April 2020. [...] at Flickr, MySQL is our hammer, and we use it for nearly everything. It's our federated data store, our key-value store, and our document store.
  14. ^ "Manual:MySQL". www.mediawiki.org. MediaWiki, The Free Wiki Engine. Retrieved 3 April 2020. The MySQL and MariaDB database engines are the most commonly-used database backends for MediaWiki.
  15. ^ Hashemi, Mazdak (19 January 2017). "The Infrastructure Behind Twitter: Scale". blog.twitter.com. Retrieved 3 April 2020. SQL: This includes MySQL, PostgreSQL and Vertica. MySQL/PosgreSQL are used where we need strong consistency [...]
  16. ^ Mehta, Chintan; K Bhavsar, Ankit; Oza, Hetal; Shah, Subhash (15 February 2018). MySQL 8 Administrator's Guide: Effective Guide to Administering High-performance MySQL 8 Solutions. Packt Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 9781788393843.
  17. ^ "MySQL Internals Manual". dev.mysql.com. 4 March 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
  18. ^ "MySQL for OpenVMS". vmsmysql.org. 30 March 2011. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  19. ^ "Commercial License for OEMs, ISVs and VARs". www.mysql.com. July 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2020. Oracle provides its MySQL database server [...] under a dual license model [...] Oracle makes its MySQL database server [...] available under the GPLv2 [...]
  20. ^ "MySQL Support Manual, MySQL Developers". Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  21. ^ "Review of MySQL Server 5.0". Techworld.com. November 2005. Archived from the original on 21 May 2012.
  22. ^ "MySQL Database Server (Metapackage Depending On The Latest Version)". community.linuxmint.com.
  23. ^ "Five Questions With Michael Widenius – Founder And Original Developer of MySQL". opensourcereleasefeed.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2009. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  24. ^ Pachev, Sasha. "MySQL History and Architecture". www.oreilly.com. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  25. ^ "MySQL 3.23 Declared Stable". Archived from the original on 15 August 2001.
  26. ^ "Capttofu: FederatedX Pluggable Storage Engine Released!". Capttofu.livejournal.com. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2009.
  27. ^ "MySQL Federated Tables: The Missing Manual". O'Reilly Media. 8 October 2006. Archived from the original on 13 August 2006. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  28. ^ Arrington, Michael (16 January 2008). "Sun Picks Up MySQL For $1 Billion; Open Source Is A Legitimate Business Model". www.techcrunch.com. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  29. ^ "Archives – Oops, we did it again (MySQL 5.1 released as GA with crashing bugs)". Planet MySQL. 29 November 2008. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  30. ^ Zaitsev, Peter (10 April 2008). "TPC-H Run on MySQL 5.1 and 6.0". MySQL Performance Blog. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
  31. ^ "Oracle Completes Acquisition of Sun" (Press release). Oracle. 27 January 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  32. ^ "Overview and Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  33. ^ Krill, Paul (27 January 2010). "Oracle's ambitious plans for integrating Sun's technology". InfoWorld. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  34. ^ a b Pearce, Rohan (28 March 2013). "Dead database walking: MySQL's creator on why the future belongs to MariaDB". Computerworld. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  35. ^ "InnoDB I/O Subsystem Changes". dev.mysql.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  36. ^ "Scalability Improvements". dev.mysql.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  37. ^ "MySQL Lists: packagers: MySQL 6.0.11 Alpha has been released!". Lists.mysql.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  38. ^ "Oracle Announces General Availability of MySQL 5.6". Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  39. ^ "What's New in MySQL 5.6". MySQL Developer Zone. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  40. ^ "Oracle Announces General Availability of MySQL 5.7". Oracle. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  41. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 5.7 Release Notes :: Changes in MySQL 5.7.8 (2015-08-03, Release Candidate)". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  42. ^ Bray, T. (2014). Bray, T (ed.). "MySQL :: MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual :: 11.6 The JSON Data Type". dev.mysql.com. doi:10.17487/RFC7159. RFC 7159. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  43. ^ Frank, Mike. "Announcing General Availability of MySQL 8.0". blogs.oracle.com. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  44. ^ "8.0.0-dmr (Milestone Release)". Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  45. ^ Gelbmann, Matthias (3 January 2020). "MySQL is the DBMS of the Year 2019". db-engines.com. DB-Engines. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  46. ^ "Oracle Lifetime Support Policy" (PDF). Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  47. ^ "Introducing MySQL Innovation and Long-Term Support (LTS) versions". Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  48. ^ "A.1 MySQL 5.1 FAQ: General". docs.oracle.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2023. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  49. ^ "2 Changes in MySQL 5.1.73 (2013-12-03)". docs.oracle.com. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  50. ^ "MySQL: MySQL 5.5 Release Notes". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  51. ^ "2 Changes in MySQL 5.5.62 (2018-10-22, General availability)". docs.oracle.com. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  52. ^ "MySQL: MySQL 5.6 Release Notes". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  53. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 5.6 Release Notes :: Changes in MySQL 5.6.51 (2021-01-20, General Availability)". dev.mysql.com. Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  54. ^ "MySQL: MySQL 5.7 Release Notes". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  55. ^ "Changes in MySQL 5.7.44 (2023-10-25, General Availability)". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  56. ^ Hoydalsvik, Geir (19 April 2018). "What's New in MySQL 8.0? (Generally Available)". Archived from the original on 26 August 2021. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  57. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 8.0 Release Notes :: Changes in MySQL 8.0.38 (2024-07-01, General Availability)". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 17 July 2024.
  58. ^ "What Is New in MySQL 8.1". 18 July 2023. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  59. ^ "Changes in MySQL 8.1.0 (2023-07-18, Innovation Release)". 18 July 2023. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  60. ^ "What Is New in MySQL 8.2". 25 October 2023. Retrieved 26 October 2023.
  61. ^ "Changes in MySQL 8.2.0 (2023-08-25, Innovation Release)". 25 October 2023. Retrieved 26 October 2023.
  62. ^ "What Is New in MySQL 8.3". 16 January 2024. Retrieved 16 January 2024.
  63. ^ "Changes in MySQL 8.3.0 (2024-01-16, Innovation Release)". 16 January 2024. Retrieved 16 January 2024.
  64. ^ Hoydalsvik, Geir (30 April 2024). "What Is New in MySQL 8.4 since MySQL 8.0(Generally Available)". Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  65. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 8.4 Release Notes :: Changes in MySQL 8.4.1 (2024-07-01, General Availability)". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 17 July 2024.
  66. ^ "What Is New in MySQL 9.0". 1 June 2024. Retrieved 1 June 2024.
  67. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 9.0 Release Notes :: Changes in MySQL 9.0.0 (2024-07-01, General Availability)". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 1 July 2024.
  68. ^ "MySQL 8 is coming". opensource.com. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  69. ^ Basil, Tom (4 September 2001). "Eyewitness account: "Monty Widenius, International Fugitive"". MySQL Life (Mailing list). Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  70. ^ "FAQ on MySQL vs. NuSphere Dispute". MySQL AB. 13 July 2001. Archived from the original on 17 July 2001. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  71. ^ "Affidavit of Eben Moglen on Progress Software vs. MySQL AB Preliminary Injunction Hearing". Archived from the original on 7 February 2005.
  72. ^ Progress Software Corporation v. MySQL AB, 195 F. Supp. 2d 328 (D. Mass. 2002).
  73. ^ "Judge Saris defers GNU GPL Questions for Trial in MySQL vs. Progress Software" (Press release). Free Software Foundation. 1 March 2002. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  74. ^ "Oracle Announces the Acquisition of Open Source Software Company, Innobase" (Press release). Oracle. 7 October 2005. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  75. ^ "MySQL to Promote New Open Source DB Engines from its Partners and Dev Community" (Press release). MySQL AB. 26 April 2006. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  76. ^ Babcock, Charles (14 February 2006). "Oracle Buys Sleepycat, Is JBoss Next?". InformationWeek. CPM Media. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  77. ^ "Changes in MySQL 5.1.12". MySQL 5.1 Reference Manual. MySQL AB. 24 October 2006. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  78. ^ "Sun Microsystems Announces Agreement to Acquire MySQL, Developer of the World's Most Popular Open Source Database" (Press release). Sun Microsystems. 16 January 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  79. ^ "Oracle to Buy Sun" (Press release). Sun Microsystems. 20 April 2009. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  80. ^ Thomasch, Paul; Finkle, Jim (20 August 2009). "Oracle wins U.S. approval to buy Sun Microsystems". Reuters. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  81. ^ Whitney, Lance (14 December 2009). "Oracle pledges to play well with MySQL". CNET. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  82. ^ Michael, Widenius (12 December 2009). "Help saving MySQL". Monty Says. Google. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  83. ^ "The Software Freedom Law Center Submits an Opinion on the Oracle/Sun Merger to the EC". www.softwarefreedom.org. Software Freedom Law Center. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  84. ^ Lai, Eric (28 October 2009). "Many open-sourcers back an Oracle takeover of MySQL". www.infoworld.com. InfoWorld. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  85. ^ Wildeboer, Jan (5 January 2010). "Why I will not sign the MySQL petition". jan.wildeboer.net. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  86. ^ Kanaracus, Chris (30 August 2011). "Wikileaks Cable Offers New Insights into Oracle-Sun Deal". PC World. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  87. ^ "Mergers: Commission clears Oracle's proposed acquisition of Sun Microsystems" (Press release). European Union. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  88. ^ "MariaDB versus MySQL - Compatibility". MariaDB KnowledgeBase. Retrieved 3 April 2020. MariaDB versions function as a "drop-in replacement" for the equivalent MySQL version, with some limitations.
  89. ^ "MySQL Community Edition". www.mysql.com. Retrieved 3 April 2020. MySQL Community Edition is the freely downloadable version [...]. It is available under the GPL license [...]
  90. ^ "Which Should I Use: MySQL Enterprise or MySQL Community Server?". MySQL AB. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009.
  91. ^ Guy Harrison; Steven Feuerstein (2008). MySQL Stored Procedure Programming. O'Reilly Media. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-596-10089-6.
  92. ^ "Monitoring RDS MySQL performance metrics". Datadog. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  93. ^ "MySQL :: InnoDB 1.1 for MySQL 5.5 User's Guide :: C InnoDB Glossary :: ACID". Archived from the original on 25 December 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
  94. ^ "Replication". MySQL. Archived from the original on 6 May 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  95. ^ "MariaDB Replication". MariaDB KnowledgeBase. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  96. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual :: 16.1.4 MySQL Multi-Source Replication". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  97. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual :: 16.3.9 Semisynchronous Replication". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  98. ^ "Semisynchronous Replication". MariaDB KnowledgeBase. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  99. ^ "MySQL Cluster Replication: Multi-Master and Circular Replication". MySQL.
  100. ^ "MySQL University: MySQL Galera Multi-Master Replication". Oracle Corporation. 9 February 2010. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  101. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual :: 18 Group Replication". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  102. ^ " FOREIGN KEY Constraints". MySQL. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  103. ^ "Bug #3464 Constraints: support CHECK". MySQL. 14 April 2004. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  104. ^ "MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual: CREATE TABLE Syntax". MySQL Reference Manual. Oracle. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  105. ^ a b "CREATE TRIGGER Syntax". MySQL. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  106. ^ "MySQL Bugs: #12654: 64-bit unix timestamp is not supported in MySQL functions". MySQL. 18 August 2005. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  107. ^ "Allow dates beyond 2038 by dveeden · Pull Request #130 · mysql/mysql-server". GitHub, Inc. 22 March 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  108. ^ "MySQL Bugs: #12654: 64-bit unix timestamp is not supported in MySQL functions". bugs.mysql.com. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  109. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL 8.0 Release Notes :: Changes in MySQL 8.0.28 (2022-01-18, General Availability)". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  110. ^ "The future of replication in MySQL". Facebook. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  111. ^ "Database Sharding". Code Futures. Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  112. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL Enterprise High Availability". www.mysql.com. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  113. ^ "High Availability & Performance Tuning". MariaDB KnowledgeBase. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  114. ^ "Oracle Cloud Infrastructure". Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  115. ^ "Running MySQL on Amazon EC2 with EBS (Elastic Block Store)". Amazon Web Services. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  116. ^ Finley, Klint. "7 Cloud-Based Database Services". ReadWriteWeb. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
  117. ^ "Oracle MySQL HeatWave Database Service".
  118. ^ "Azure Database for MySQL - Managed MySQL Database | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com.
  119. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL Products".
  120. ^ "MySQL :: MySQL Community Edition".
  121. ^ "mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool, MySQL Reference Manual". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  122. ^ "mysqladmin – the MySQL command-line tool, MySQL Reference Manual". Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  123. ^ "Percona Toolkit". Percona. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  124. ^ "MySQL :: Download MySQL Shell". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  125. ^ "MySQL Connector/NET Developer Guide". mysql.com. 9 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  126. ^ "MySQL Connector/J Developer Guide". mysql.com. 18 September 2020. Archived from the original on 18 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  127. ^ "MySQL :: Download Connector/Python". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  128. ^ "MySQL :: Download Connector/Node.js". dev.mysql.com. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  129. ^ "How is it related to other MySQL forks?". Frequently Asked Questions. Percona. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  130. ^ "Percona challenges Oracle with alternate MySQL release". PC World. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  131. ^ Clark, Jack (17 March 2011). "MySQL fork Drizzle gets general release". ZDNet. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  132. ^ Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (28 March 2013). "WebScaleSQL: MySQL for Facebook-sized databases". ZDNet. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  133. ^ Klint Finley (27 March 2013). "Google and Facebook Team Up to Modernize Old-School Databases". Wired. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  134. ^ Jack Clark (27 March 2013). "Forkin' 'L! Facebook, Google and friends create WebScaleSQL from MySQL 5.6". The Register. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  135. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". webscalesql.org. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  136. ^ "OurDelta". openquery.com.au. 22 August 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2021.

Media related to MySQL at Wikimedia Commons