|OS family||Linux (Unix-like)|
|Source model||Open source|
|Initial release||November 6, 2003|
|Latest release||36 / May 10, 2022|
|Marketing target||Desktop computers, servers, supercomputers|
|Package manager||RPM (DNF), Flatpak, OSTree|
|Kernel type||Linux kernel|
|GNOME Shell, Bash|
|License||GPL and various free software licenses, plus proprietary firmware files|
Fedora Linux is a Linux distribution developed by the Fedora Project which is sponsored primarily by Red Hat (an IBM subsidiary) with additional support and sponsors from other companies and organizations. Fedora contains software distributed under various free and open-source licenses and aims to be on the leading edge of open-source technologies. Fedora is the upstream source for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Since the release of Fedora 30, five different editions are currently available: Workstation, focused on the personal computer, Server for servers, CoreOS, focused on cloud computing, Silverblue, focused on an immutable desktop specialized to container-based workflows and IoT, focused on IoT devices.
A new version of Fedora Linux is released every six months.
As of February 2016[update], Fedora Linux has an estimated 1.2 million users, including Linus Torvalds (as of May 2020[update]), creator of the Linux kernel.
Fedora has a reputation for focusing on innovation, integrating new technologies early on and working closely with upstream Linux communities. Making changes upstream instead of specifically for Fedora Linux ensures that the changes are available to all Linux distributions.
Fedora Linux has a relatively short life cycle: each version is usually supported for at least 13 months, where version X is supported only until 1 month after version X+2 is released and with approximately 6 months between most versions. Fedora users can upgrade from version to version without reinstalling.
The default desktop environment in Fedora Linux is GNOME and the default user interface is the GNOME Shell. Other desktop environments, including KDE Plasma, Xfce, LXQt, LXDE, MATE, Cinnamon, and i3 are available and can be installed.
A live media drive can be created using Fedora Media Writer or the dd command. It allows users to try Fedora Linux without making changes to the hard disk.
Most Fedora Linux editions use the RPM package management system, using DNF as a tool to manage the RPM packages. DNF uses libsolv, an external dependency resolver. Flatpak is also included by default, and support for Snap packages can be added. Fedora Linux uses Delta RPM when updating installed packages to provide delta updates. A Delta RPM contains the difference between an old and new version of a package. This means that only the changes between the installed package and the new one are downloaded, reducing network traffic and bandwidth consumption.
The Fedora CoreOS and Silverblue editions use rpm-ostree, a hybrid transactional image/package system to manage the host. Traditional DNF (or other systems) should be used in containers.
Fedora Linux uses Security-Enhanced Linux by default, which implements a variety of security policies, including mandatory access controls, which Fedora adopted early on. Fedora provides a hardening wrapper, and does hardening for all of its packages by using compiler features such as position-independent executable (PIE).
Fedora Linux comes preinstalled with a wide range of software such as LibreOffice and Firefox. Additional software is available from the software repositories and can be installed using the DNF package manager or GNOME Software.
Additionally, extra repositories can be added to the system, so that software not available in Fedora Linux can be installed easily. Software that is not available via official Fedora repositories, either because it doesn't meet Fedora's definition of free software or because its distribution may violate US law, can be installed using third-party repositories. Popular third-party repositories include RPM Fusion free and non-free repositories. Fedora also provides users with an easy-to-use build system for creating their own repositories called Copr.
Since the release of Fedora 25, the operating system defaults to the Wayland display server protocol, which replaced the X Window System.
Main article: Anaconda (installer)
Fedora Linux uses Anaconda as the system installer.
Beginning with Fedora version 30, it is available in five editions, three editions are primary and two editions are secondary as of version 35.
It targets users who want a reliable, user-friendly, and powerful operating system for their laptop or desktop computer. It comes with GNOME by default but other desktops can be installed or can be directly installed as Spins.
Its target usage is for servers. It includes the latest data center technologies. This edition doesn't come with a desktop environment, but one can be installed. From Fedora 28, Server Edition will deliver Fedora Modularity, adding support for alternative update streams for popular software such as Node.js and Go.
Images of Fedora Linux tailored to running on Internet of Things devices. It supports x86_64, aarch64 and armhfp processors.
The successor of Fedora Atomic Host (Project Atomic) and Container Linux after Fedora 29, it provides a minimal image of Fedora Linux which includes just the bare essentials. This is not to be confused with Fedora Core. It is meant for deployment in cloud computing. It provides Fedora CoreOS images which are optimized minimal images for deploying containers. CoreOS replaced the established Container Linux when it was merged with Project Atomic after its acquisition by Red Hat in January 2018.
An immutable desktop operating system. Every Silverblue installation is identical to every other installation of the same version, and it never changes as it is used. The immutable design is intended to make the operating system more stable, less prone to bugs, and easier to test and develop, and an excellent platform for containerized applications as well as container-based software development. Applications and containers are kept separate from the host system. OS updates are fast and there is no installation stage. With Silverblue, it is also possible to roll back to the previous version of the operating system, if something goes wrong.
Fedora Silverblue was previously known as Fedora Atomic Workstation. The descriptive name for this product is image-mode container-based Fedora Workstation based on rpm-ostree, which is clear but unsuitable for branding. The team preferred the project name Silverleaf, but could not secure that name for various reasons.[clarification needed] Therefore, it was named Silverblue, though the logo is still retains the impression of a leaf.
The long-term goal for this effort is to transform Fedora Workstation into an image-based system where applications are separate from the OS, and updates are atomic. Red Hat engineers have built most of the pieces for this new desktop over the last few years: OSTree, flatpak, flathub, rpm-ostree, and gnome-software.
The ultimate goal of this effort always was to create an image-based variant of the Workstation that is at feature-parity and better suited for certain use cases than the traditional variant. Until the end of 2017, the Silverblue team slowly completed necessary pieces for the vision of an immutable image-based OS with independent applications: Wayland, flatpak, and rpm-ostree support in GNOME Software, etc. During the same time, Project Atomic has added new features like package layering to rpm-ostree and added rpm-ostree support to anaconda.
Similar to Debian blends, the Fedora Project also distributes custom variations of Fedora Linux called Fedora Labs. These are built with specific sets of software packages, targeting specific interests such as gaming, security, design, robotics, and scientific computing (that includes SciPy, Octave, Kile, Xfig and Inkscape).
The Fedora AOS (Appliance Operating System) was a specialized spin of Fedora Linux with reduced memory footprint for use in software appliances. Appliances are pre-installed, pre-configured, system images. This spin was intended to make it easier for anyone (developers, independent software vendors (ISV), original equipment manufacturers (OEM), etc.) to create and deploy virtual appliances.
The Fedora project officially distributes different variations called "Fedora Spins" which are Fedora Linux with different desktop environments (GNOME is the default desktop environment). The current official spins, as of Fedora 34, are KDE, Xfce, LXQt, MATE, Cinnamon, LXDE, SOAS, and i3.
In addition to Spins, which are official variants of the Fedora system, the project allows unofficial variants to use the term "Fedora Remix" without asking for further permission, although a different logo (provided) is required.
x86-64, ARM AArch64 and ARM-hfp are the primary architectures supported by Fedora. As of release 35, Fedora also supports IBM Power64le, IBM Z ("s390x"), MIPS-64el, MIPS-el and RISC-V as secondary architectures.
Fedora 28 was the last release that supported ppc64 and users are advised to move to the little endian ppc64le variant. Fedora 36 will be the last release with support for ARM-hfp.
The Fedora Project also distributes several other versions with less use cases than mentioned above, like network installers and minimal installation images. They are intended for special cases or expert users that want to have custom installations or configuring Fedora from scratch.
In addition, all acceptable licenses for Fedora Linux (including copyright, trademark, and patent licenses) must be applicable not only to Red Hat or Fedora, but also to all recipients downstream. This means that any "Fedora-only" licenses, or licenses with specific terms that Red Hat or Fedora meets but that other recipients would not are not acceptable (and almost certainly non-free, as a result).
The name of Fedora derives from the original "Fedora Linux", a volunteer project that provided extra software for the Red Hat Linux distribution, and from the characteristic fedora hat used in Red Hat's "Shadowman" logo. Warren Togami began Fedora Linux in 2002 as an undergraduate project at the University of Hawaii, intended to provide a single repository for well-tested third-party software packages so that non-Red Hat software would be easier to find, develop, and use. The key difference between Fedora Linux and Red Hat Linux was that Fedora's repository development would be collaborative with the global volunteer community. The original Fedora Linux was eventually absorbed into the Fedora Project, carrying with it this collaborative approach.
Fedora Linux, then known as "Fedora Core" was a fork of Red Hat Linux launched in 2003, when Red Hat Linux was discontinued so the team can focus on their paid version for servers Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Red Hat Enterprise Linux was to be Red Hat's only officially supported Linux distribution, while Fedora was to be a community distribution. Red Hat Enterprise Linux branches its releases from versions of Fedora.
Before Fedora 7, Fedora was called Fedora Core after the name of one of the two main software repositories - Core and Extras. Fedora Core contained all the base packages that were required by the operating system, as well as other packages that were distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs, and was maintained only by Red Hat developers. Fedora Extras, the secondary repository that had been included since Fedora Core 3, was community-maintained and not distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs. Upon the release of Fedora 7, the distinction between Fedora Core and Fedora Extras was eliminated.
Since the release of Fedora 21, as an effort to modularize the Fedora distribution and make development more agile, three different versions are available: Workstation, focused on the personal computer, Server and Atomic for servers, Atomic being the version meant for cloud computing.
Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat, Inc. Red Hat's application for trademark status for the name "Fedora" was disputed by Cornell University and the University of Virginia Library, creators of the unrelated Fedora Commons digital repository management software. The issue was resolved and the parties settled on a co-existence agreement that stated that the Cornell-UVA project could use the name when clearly associated with open source software for digital object repository systems and that Red Hat could use the name when it was clearly associated with open source computer operating systems.
In April 2020, project leader Matthew Miller announced that Fedora Workstation would be shipping on select new ThinkPad laptops, thanks to a new partnership with Lenovo.
See also: Fedora Project
Development of the operating system and supporting programs is headed by the Fedora Project, which is composed of a community of developers and volunteers, and also Red Hat employees. The Council is the top-level community leadership and governance body. Other bodies include the Fedora Engineering Steering Committee, responsible for the technical decisions behind the development of Fedora, and Fedora Mindshare Committee which coordinates outreach and non-technical activities, including representation of Fedora Worldwide e.g.: Ambassadors Program, CommOps team and Marketing, Design and Websites Team.
Main article: Fedora Linux release history
Fedora has a relatively short life cycle: version X is supported only until 1 month after version X+2 is released and with approximately 6 months between most versions, meaning a version of Fedora is usually supported for at least 13 months, possibly longer. Fedora users can upgrade from version to version without reinstalling.
The current release is Fedora 36, which was released on 10 May 2022.
|Old version, no longer maintained: 1 (Yarrow)||2003-11-06||2004-09-20||2.4.22||2.4|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 2 (Tettnang)||2004-05-18||2005-04-11||2.6.5||2.6|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3 (Heidelberg)||2004-11-08||2006-01-16||2.6.9||2.8|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4 (Stentz)||2005-06-13||2006-08-07||2.6.11||2.10|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 5 (Bordeaux)||2006-03-20||2007-07-02||2.6.15||2.14|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 6 (Zod)||2006-10-24||2007-12-07||2.6.18||2.16|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 7 (Moonshine)||2007-05-31||2008-06-13||2.6.21||2.18|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 8 (Werewolf)||2007-11-08||2009-01-07||2.6.23||2.20|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 9 (Sulphur)||2008-05-13||2009-07-10||2.6.25||2.22|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 10 (Cambridge)||2008-11-25||2009-12-18||2.6.27||2.24|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 11 (Leonidas)||2009-06-09||2010-06-25||2.6.29||2.26|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 12 (Constantine)||2009-11-17||2010-12-02||2.6.31||2.28|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 13 (Goddard)||2010-05-25||2011-06-24||2.6.33||2.30|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 14 (Laughlin)||2010-11-02||2011-12-08||2.6.35||2.32|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 15 (Lovelock)||2011-05-24||2012-06-26||2.6.38||3.0|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 16 (Verne)||2011-11-08||2013-02-12||3.1||3.2|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 17 (Beefy Miracle)||2012-05-29||2013-07-30||3.3||3.4|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 18 (Spherical Cow)||2013-01-15||2014-01-14||3.6||3.6|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 19 (Schrödinger's Cat)||2013-07-02||2015-01-06||3.9||3.8|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 20 (Heisenbug)||2013-12-17||2015-06-23||3.11||3.10|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 21||2014-12-09||2015-12-01||3.17||3.14|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 22||2015-05-26||2016-07-19||4.0||3.16|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 23||2015-11-03||2016-12-20||4.2||3.18|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 24||2016-06-21||2017-08-08||4.5||3.20|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 25||2016-11-22||2017-12-12||4.8||3.22|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 26||2017-07-11||2018-05-29||4.11||3.24|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 27||2017-11-14||2018-11-30||4.13||3.26|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 28||2018-05-01||2019-05-28||4.16||3.28|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 29||2018-10-30||2019-11-26||4.18||3.30|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 30||2019-05-07||2020-05-26||5.0||3.32|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 31||2019-10-29||2020-11-24||5.3||3.34|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 32||2020-04-28||2021-05-25||5.6||3.36|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 33||2020-10-27||2021-12-01||5.8||3.38|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 34||2021-04-27||2022-06-01||5.11||40|
|Older version, yet still maintained: 35||2021-11-02||2022-12-07||5.15||41|
|Current stable version: 36||2022-05-10||2023-05-16||5.17||42|
|Future release: 37||2022-10-18||2023-11-22||N/A||N/A|
Rawhide is the development tree for Fedora. This is a copy of a complete Fedora distribution where new software is added and tested, before inclusion in a later stable release. As such, Rawhide is often more feature rich than the current stable release. In many cases, the software is made of CVS, Subversion or Git source code snapshots which are often actively developed by programmers. Although Rawhide is targeted at advanced users, testers, and package maintainers, it is capable of being a primary operating system. Users interested in the Rawhide branch often update on a daily basis and help troubleshoot problems. Rawhide users do not have to upgrade between different versions as it follows a rolling release update model.
When used by itself, the term "Fedora" refers to the Fedora Project. When referring to our work, please use either a specific name like Fedora Workstation, Fedora CoreOS, or Fedora KDE Plasma Desktop; or use Fedora Linux to refer to the OS distribution as a whole.
((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
Fedora provides three primary Editions tailored for some specific use cases.