Astra Linux
Astra Linux Operating System
OS familyLinux (Unix-like)
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen-source
Marketing targetRussian military
Available inRussian, English
Update methodAPT
Package managerdpkg
Platformsx86-64, ARM, S390, Elbrus 2000
Kernel typeMonolithic
user interface
fly, twm

Astra Linux is a Russian Linux-based computer operating system (OS) developed to meet the needs of the Russian army, other armed forces and intelligence agencies.[1] It provides data protection up to the level of "top secret" in Russian classified information grade by featuring mandatory access control. It has been officially certified by Russian Defense Ministry, Federal Service for Technical and Export Control[2] and Federal Security Service.[3]


The creator of the OS is the Scientific/Manufacturing Enterprise Rusbitech which is applying solutions according to Russian Government decree №2299-р of 17/10/2010 that orders federal authorities and budget institutions to implement Free Software use.[4]

The OS releases are named after Hero Cities in Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). There is one release for general purpose code named Oryol aimed at "achieving small and mid-business goals".[5] Other releases are marked "special purpose" – the Smolensk for x86-64 PCs, Tula for networking hardware, Novorossiysk for ARM mobile devices and Murmansk for IBM System Z mainframe computers.

Rusbitech also manufactures a "soft/hardware trusted boot control module" MAKSIM-M1 ("М643М1") with PCI bus. It prevents unauthorized access and offers some other raised digital security features. The module, besides Astra Linux, also supports OSes with Linux kernel 2.6.x up to 5.x.x, as well as several Microsoft Windows OSes.[6]

It is declared the Astra Linux licenses correspond with Russian and international laws and "don't contradict with the spirit and demands of GPL license".[7] The system uses .deb packages.[8]

Astra Linux Special Edition is being used in the Russian National Center for Defence Control
Astra Linux Special Edition is being used in the Russian National Center for Defence Control

Astra Linux is a recognized Debian derivative.[9] Rusbitech has partnership relations with The Linux Foundation[10] and The Document Foundation.[11]


The Special Edition version (paid) is used in many Russian state-related organizations. Particularly, it is used in the Russian National Center for Defence Control.[12]

There are talks to deploy mass use of Astra Linux in many state institutions of the Republic of Crimea – legitimate use of other popular OSes is questionable because of international sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis.[13]

Also there are plans on cooperation of Rusbitech and Huawei.[14][15]

In January 2018, it was announced that Astra Linux was going to be deployed to all Russian Army computers, and Microsoft Windows will be dropped.[16]

In February 2018, Rusbitech announced it has ported Astra Linux to Russian-made Elbrus microprocessors.[17]

In February 2019, Astra Linux was announced to be implemented at Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in China.[18]

Since 2019 "super-protected" tablet computers branded MIG are available with Astra Linux,[19] smartphones are expected.[20]

In 2019 Gazprom national gas/oil holding announced Astra Linux implementation, in 2020 nuclear corporation Rosatom,[21] in early 2021 Russian Railways was reported to do so.[22]

In 2020, Astra Linux sold more than a million copies in licenses and generated 2 billion rubles in sales.[23]

In 2021, several Russian nuclear power plants and subsidiaries of Rosatom are planned to switch to Astra Linux, with a total of 15000 users.[24]

Version history

Versions of Astra Linux Special Edition (Smolensk)
Version Release date Linux kernel
1.2 28 October 2011 2.6.34
1.3 26 April 2013 3.2.0[25]
1.4[26] 19 December 2014 3.16.0
1.5[27] 8 April 2016 4.2.0
1.6 12 October 2018 4.15.0
1.7 22 October 2021 5.4
Versions of Astra Linux Common Edition (Oryol)
Version Release date Linux kernel
1.5 ending of 2009 2.6.31
1.6 23 November 2010 N/A
1.7[28] 3 February 2012 2.6.34
1.9 12 February 2013 3.2.0
1.10[29] 14 November 2014 3.16.0
1.11[30] 17 March 2016 4.2.0
2.12 21 August 2018 4.15
2.12.29 14 May 2020 4.15.3-2
2.12.40 29 December 2020 5.4
2.12.43 8 September 2021 5.10


  1. ^ Звезда по имени Linux: почему "военные" ОС прочнее (in Russian)
  2. ^ (in Russian)
  3. ^ (in Russian) Archived 2018-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ (in Russian)
  5. ^ (in Russian) Archived 2014-07-15 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Derivatives/Census/AstraLinux - Debian Wiki".
  10. ^ (in Russian)
  11. ^ "The Document Foundation welcomes RusBITech in the project Advisory Board". 6 October 2015.
  12. ^ (in Russian)
  13. ^ (in Russian) n:ru:Власти Крыма планируют переход на Linux из-за санкцийRussian Wikinews, 22.07.2015
  14. ^ "Huawei, RusBITex to design information protection systems".
  15. ^ (in Russian)
  16. ^ "Russian military moves closer to replacing Windows with Astra Linux". ZDNet.
  17. ^ (in Russian) Archived 2018-02-27 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ (in Russian)
  19. ^ (in Russian)
  20. ^ (in Russian)
  21. ^ (in Russian)
  22. ^ (in Russian)
  23. ^ "The Russian distribution of Astra Linux has passed the milestone of 1 million licenses". Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  24. ^ (in Russian)
  25. ^ Основные компоненты Archived 2015-01-27 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  26. ^ Операционная система "Astra Linux Special Edition" релиз "Смоленск" (версия 1.4) (in Russian)
  27. ^ Завершен инспекционный контроль версии 1.5 релиза "Смоленск" операционной системы специального назначения "Astra Linux Special Edition" Archived 2016-05-08 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  28. ^ Вышла версия 1.7 релиза Astra Linux Common Edition (Orel) Archived 2018-04-19 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  29. ^ Вышла новая версия "Astra Linux Common Edition" 1.10 - релиз "Орёл" Archived 2015-08-11 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  30. ^ "Вышла фиксированная версия 1.11 релиза "Орёл"". Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2018.