The Linux Portal

Tux.svg
Tux the penguin, the mascot of Linux

Linux (/ˈlnʊks/ (listen) LEE-nuuks or /ˈlɪnʊks/ LIN-uuks) is a family of open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged as a Linux distribution, which includes the kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name "GNU/Linux" to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy.

Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system. Because of the dominance of the Linux-based Android on smartphones, Linux, including Android, has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems, . Although Linux is, , used by only around 2.6 percent of desktop computers, the Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based ChromeOS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux is the leading operating system on servers (over 96.4% of the top 1 million web servers' operating systems are Linux), leads other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and is used on all of the world's 500 fastest supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually displaced all competitors).

Linux also runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, smart home devices, video game consoles, televisions (Samsung and LG Smart TVs), automobiles (Tesla, Audi, Mercedes-Benz, Hyundai and Toyota), and spacecraft (Falcon 9 rocket, Dragon crew capsule and the Perseverance rover). (Full article...)

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  • Image 1In a series of legal disputes between SCO Group and Linux vendors and users SCO alleged that its license agreements with IBM meant that source code IBM wrote and donated to be incorporated into Linux was added in violation of SCO's contractual rights. Members of the Linux community disagreed with SCO's claims; IBM, Novell and Red Hat filed claims against SCO.On August 10, 2007, a federal district court judge in SCO v. Novell ruled on summary judgment that Novell, not the SCO Group, was the rightful owner of the copyrights covering the Unix operating system. The court also ruled that "SCO is obligated to recognize Novell's waiver of SCO's claims against IBM and Sequent". After the ruling, Novell announced they had no interest in suing people over Unix and stated "We don't believe there is Unix in Linux". The final district court ruling, on November 20, 2008, affirmed the summary judgment, and added interest payments and a constructive trust. (Full article...)
    In a series of legal disputes between SCO Group and Linux vendors and users SCO alleged that its license agreements with IBM meant that source code IBM wrote and donated to be incorporated into Linux was added in violation of SCO's contractual rights. Members of the Linux community disagreed with SCO's claims; IBM, Novell and Red Hat filed claims against SCO.

    On August 10, 2007, a federal district court judge in SCO v. Novell ruled on summary judgment that Novell, not the SCO Group, was the rightful owner of the copyrights covering the Unix operating system. The court also ruled that "SCO is obligated to recognize Novell's waiver of SCO's claims against IBM and Sequent". After the ruling, Novell announced they had no interest in suing people over Unix and stated "We don't believe there is Unix in Linux". The final district court ruling, on November 20, 2008, affirmed the summary judgment, and added interest payments and a constructive trust. (Full article...)
  • Image 2ext4 (fourth extended filesystem) is a journaling file system for Linux, developed as the successor to ext3.ext4 was initially a series of backward-compatible extensions to ext3, many of them originally developed by Cluster File Systems for the Lustre file system between 2003 and 2006, meant to extend storage limits and add other performance improvements. However, other Linux kernel developers opposed accepting extensions to ext3 for stability reasons, and proposed to fork the source code of ext3, rename it as ext4, and perform all the development there, without affecting existing ext3 users. This proposal was accepted, and on 28 June 2006, Theodore Ts'o, the ext3 maintainer, announced the new plan of development for ext4. (Full article...)
    ext4 (fourth extended filesystem) is a journaling file system for Linux, developed as the successor to ext3.

    ext4 was initially a series of backward-compatible extensions to ext3, many of them originally developed by Cluster File Systems for the Lustre file system between 2003 and 2006, meant to extend storage limits and add other performance improvements. However, other Linux kernel developers opposed accepting extensions to ext3 for stability reasons, and proposed to fork the source code of ext3, rename it as ext4, and perform all the development there, without affecting existing ext3 users. This proposal was accepted, and on 28 June 2006, Theodore Ts'o, the ext3 maintainer, announced the new plan of development for ext4. (Full article...)
  • Image 3 Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open-source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android is developed by a consortium of developers known as the Open Handset Alliance, though its most widely used version is primarily developed by Google. It was unveiled in November 2007, with the first commercial Android device, the HTC Dream, being launched in September 2008. At its core, the operating system is known as Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and is free and open-source software (FOSS) primarily licensed under the Apache License. However most devices run on the proprietary Android version developed by Google, which ship with additional proprietary closed-source software pre-installed, most notably Google Mobile Services (GMS) which includes core apps such as Google Chrome, the digital distribution platform Google Play, and the associated Google Play Services development platform. While AOSP is free, the "Android" name and logo are trademarks of Google, which imposes standards to restrict the use of Android branding by "uncertified" devices outside their ecosystem. (Full article...)
  • A screenshot of Debian 10 (Buster) with the GNOME desktop environment
    A screenshot of Debian 10 (Buster) with the GNOME desktop environment
  • Image 5Tux, mascot of the Linux KernelWithin the free software and the open-source software communities there is controversy over whether to refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel as "GNU/Linux" or "Linux" systems.Proponents of the term Linux argue that it is far more commonly used by the public and media and that it serves as a generic term for systems that combine that kernel with software from multiple other sources, while proponents of the term GNU/Linux note that GNU alone would be just as good a name for GNU variants which combine the GNU operating system software with software from other sources. (Full article...)
    Tux.svg
    Tux, mascot of the Linux Kernel

    Within the free software and the open-source software communities there is controversy over whether to refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel as "GNU/Linux" or "Linux" systems.

    Proponents of the term Linux argue that it is far more commonly used by the public and media and that it serves as a generic term for systems that combine that kernel with software from multiple other sources, while proponents of the term GNU/Linux note that GNU alone would be just as good a name for GNU variants which combine the GNU operating system software with software from other sources. (Full article...)
  • Image 6In software development, Linus's law is the assertion that "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow".The law was formulated by Eric S. Raymond in his essay and book The Cathedral and the Bazaar (1999), and was named in honor of Linus Torvalds. (Full article...)
    In software development, Linus's law is the assertion that "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow".

    The law was formulated by Eric S. Raymond in his essay and book The Cathedral and the Bazaar (1999), and was named in honor of Linus Torvalds. (Full article...)
  • The first-generation Nexus 7 tablet running Android, an operating system using the Linux kernel. While Linux-based operating systems are in common use in tablet computers, they are less frequently adopted as desktop computers.
    The first-generation Nexus 7 tablet running Android, an operating system using the Linux kernel. While Linux-based operating systems are in common use in tablet computers, they are less frequently adopted as desktop computers.
  • Image 8Loki Software, Inc. (Loki Entertainment) was an American video game developer based in Tustin, California, that ported several video games from Microsoft Windows to Linux. It took its name from the Norse deity Loki. Although successful in its goal of bringing games to the Linux platform, the company folded in January 2002 after filing for bankruptcy. (Full article...)
    Loki Software, Inc. (Loki Entertainment) was an American video game developer based in Tustin, California, that ported several video games from Microsoft Windows to Linux. It took its name from the Norse deity Loki. Although successful in its goal of bringing games to the Linux platform, the company folded in January 2002 after filing for bankruptcy. (Full article...)
  • Image 9 Container Linux (formerly CoreOS Linux) is a discontinued open-source lightweight operating system based on the Linux kernel and designed for providing infrastructure to clustered deployments, while focusing on automation, ease of application deployment, security, reliability and scalability. As an operating system, Container Linux provided only the minimal functionality required for deploying applications inside software containers, together with built-in mechanisms for service discovery and configuration sharing. Container Linux shares foundations with Gentoo Linux, ChromeOS, and ChromiumOS through a common software development kit (SDK). Container Linux adds new functionality and customization to this shared foundation to support server hardware and use cases. CoreOS was developed primarily by Alex Polvi, Brandon Philips and Michael Marineau, with its major features available as a stable release. (Full article...)
  • Image 10 KNOPPIX (/ˈknɒpɪks/ KNOP-iks) is an operating system based on Debian designed to be run directly from a CD / DVD (Live CD) or a USB flash drive (Live USB), one of the first live operating system distributions (just after Yggdrasil Linux). Knoppix was developed by, and named after, Linux consultant Klaus Knopper. When starting a program, it is loaded from the removable medium and decompressed into a RAM drive. The decompression is transparent and on-the-fly. Although KNOPPIX is primarily designed to be used as a Live CD, it can also be installed on a hard disk like a typical operating system. Computers that support booting from USB devices can load KNOPPIX from a live USB flash drive or memory card. (Full article...)
  • Image 11Deepin 20.1 desktop, with the Qt-based Deepin Desktop EnvironmentDeepin (stylized as deepin; formerly known as Linux Deepin and Hiweed Linux) is a Linux distribution based on the Debian "stable" branch. It features the Deepin Desktop Environment (DDE), built on Qt and available for a variety of distributions. The userbase is predominantly Chinese, though it is in most prominent Linux distributions' repositories as an alternative desktop environment. The company behind the development, Deepin Technology, a wholly owned subsidiary of UnionTech (统信软件), is based in Wuhan, China. (Full article...)
    VirtualBox Linux Deepin 20.1 LARGE 17 03 2021 11 00 50.png
    Deepin 20.1 desktop, with the Qt-based Deepin Desktop Environment

    Deepin (stylized as deepin; formerly known as Linux Deepin and Hiweed Linux) is a Linux distribution based on the Debian "stable" branch. It features the Deepin Desktop Environment (DDE), built on Qt and available for a variety of distributions. The userbase is predominantly Chinese, though it is in most prominent Linux distributions' repositories as an alternative desktop environment. The company behind the development, Deepin Technology, a wholly owned subsidiary of UnionTech (统信软件), is based in Wuhan, China. (Full article...)
  • Image 12 Rocky Linux is a Linux distribution developed by Rocky Enterprise Software Foundation, which is a privately owned benefit corporation that describes itself as a "self imposed not-for-profit". It is intended to be a downstream, complete binary-compatible release using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) operating system source code. The project
  • Image 13 Arch Linux (/ɑːrtʃ/) is an independently developed, x86-64 general-purpose Linux distribution that strives to provide the latest stable versions of most software by following a rolling-release model. The default installation is a minimal base system, configured by the user to only add what is purposely required. Pacman, a package manager written specifically for Arch Linux, is used to install, remove and update software packages. (Full article...)
  • Image 14Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9.0, showing its desktop environment GNOME 40.Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a commercial open-source Linux distribution developed by Red Hat for the commercial market. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server versions for x86-64, Power ISA, ARM64, and IBM Z and a desktop version for x86-64. Fedora Linux serves as its upstream source. All of Red Hat's official support and training, together with the Red Hat Certification Program, focuses on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux platform.The first version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to bear the name originally came onto the market as "Red Hat Linux Advanced Server". In 2003, Red Hat rebranded Red Hat Linux Advanced Server to "Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS" and added two more variants, Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES and Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS. (Full article...)
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 Workstation showing GNOME Shell 40.png
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9.0, showing its desktop environment GNOME 40.

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a commercial open-source Linux distribution developed by Red Hat for the commercial market. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server versions for x86-64, Power ISA, ARM64, and IBM Z and a desktop version for x86-64. Fedora Linux serves as its upstream source. All of Red Hat's official support and training, together with the Red Hat Certification Program, focuses on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux platform.

    The first version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to bear the name originally came onto the market as "Red Hat Linux Advanced Server". In 2003, Red Hat rebranded Red Hat Linux Advanced Server to "Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS" and added two more variants, Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES and Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS. (Full article...)
  • Image 15SUSE Linux (/ˈsuːsə, ˈsuːzə/ SOO-sə, SOO-zə, German: [ˈzuːzə]) is a computer operating system developed by SUSE. It is built on top of the free and open source Linux kernel and is distributed with system and application software from other open source projects. SUSE Linux is of German origin, its name being an acronym of "Software und System-Entwicklung" (software and systems development), and it was mainly developed in Europe. The first version appeared in early 1994, making SUSE one of the oldest existing commercial distributions. It is known for its YaST configuration tool.Novell bought the SUSE (then "SuSE") brands and trademarks in 2003. Novell, one of the founding members of the Open Invention Network, decided to make the community an important part of their development process by opening widely the distribution development to outside contributors in 2005, creating the openSUSE distribution and the openSUSE Project. Novell employed more than 500 developers working on SUSE in 2004. On 27 April 2011, Novell (and SUSE) were acquired by The Attachmate Group, which made SUSE an independent business unit. Later, in October 2014, the entire Attachmate Group, including SUSE, was acquired by the British firm Micro Focus International. SUSE continues to operate as an independent business unit. On 2 July 2018, it was announced that Micro Focus would sell SUSE to Blitz 18-679 GmbH, a subsidiary of EQT Partners, for $2.535 billion. The acquisition was completed on March 18, 2019. (Full article...)
    SUSE Linux (/ˈssə, ˈszə/ SOO-sə, SOO-zə, German: [ˈzuːzə]) is a computer operating system developed by SUSE. It is built on top of the free and open source Linux kernel and is distributed with system and application software from other open source projects. SUSE Linux is of German origin, its name being an acronym of "Software und System-Entwicklung" (software and systems development), and it was mainly developed in Europe. The first version appeared in early 1994, making SUSE one of the oldest existing commercial distributions. It is known for its YaST configuration tool.

    Novell bought the SUSE (then "SuSE") brands and trademarks in 2003. Novell, one of the founding members of the Open Invention Network, decided to make the community an important part of their development process by opening widely the distribution development to outside contributors in 2005, creating the openSUSE distribution and the openSUSE Project. Novell employed more than 500 developers working on SUSE in 2004. On 27 April 2011, Novell (and SUSE) were acquired by The Attachmate Group, which made SUSE an independent business unit. Later, in October 2014, the entire Attachmate Group, including SUSE, was acquired by the British firm Micro Focus International. SUSE continues to operate as an independent business unit. On 2 July 2018, it was announced that Micro Focus would sell SUSE to Blitz 18-679 GmbH, a subsidiary of EQT Partners, for $2.535 billion. The acquisition was completed on March 18, 2019. (Full article...)

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The Linux kernel drives embedded systems, personal computers and supercomputers.

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The following are images from various Linux-related articles on Wikipedia.
  • Image 1TiVo DVR, a consumer device running Linux (from Linux kernel)
    TiVo DVR, a consumer device running Linux (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 2Redevelopment costs of Linux kernel (from Linux kernel)
    Redevelopment costs of Linux kernel (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 3Fedora 21, a version that brought experimental Wayland and HiDPI support (2014-12). (from Fedora Linux)
    Fedora 21, a version that brought experimental Wayland and HiDPI support (2014-12). (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 4Boot messages of a Linux kernel 2.6.25.17 (from Linux kernel)
    Boot messages of a Linux kernel 2.6.25.17 (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 5Fedora Workstation 35 installation summary (from Fedora Linux)
    Fedora Workstation 35 installation summary (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 6Cloud Ubuntu Orange Box
    Cloud Ubuntu Orange Box
  • Image 7An example of Linux kernel panic (from Linux kernel)
    An example of Linux kernel panic (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 8Four interfaces are distinguished: two internal to the kernel, and two between the kernel and userspace. (from Linux kernel)
    Four interfaces are distinguished: two internal to the kernel, and two between the kernel and userspace. (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 9Logo of Debian GNU/kFreeBSD (from Debian)
    Logo of Debian GNU/kFreeBSD (from Debian)
  • Image 10Logo of GNU Hurd (from Debian)
    Logo of GNU Hurd (from Debian)
  • Image 11An iPod booting iPodLinux  (from Linux kernel)
    An iPod booting iPodLinux (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 12Ubuntu family tree[dubious  – discuss] (from Ubuntu)
    Ubuntu family tree[dubious ] (from Ubuntu)
  • Image 13Cinnamon-logo (from Ubuntu)
    Cinnamon-logo (from Ubuntu)
  • Image 14Screenshot of GDebi Package installer (from Debian)
    Screenshot of GDebi Package installer (from Debian)
  • Image 15Map of the Linux kernel (from Linux kernel)
    Map of the Linux kernel (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 16Fedora 15 (Lovelock), the first release with GNOME 3 and GNOME Shell. (2011-05) (from Fedora Linux)
    Fedora 15 (Lovelock), the first release with GNOME 3 and GNOME Shell. (2011-05) (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 17Graphical version of the Debian Installer (from Debian)
    Graphical version of the Debian Installer (from Debian)
  • Image 18Eucalyptus interface (from Ubuntu)
    Eucalyptus interface (from Ubuntu)
  • Image 19The Linux Storage Stack Diagram (from Linux kernel)
    The Linux Storage Stack Diagram (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 20The Linux kernel supports various hardware architectures, providing a common platform for software, including proprietary software. (from Linux kernel)
    The Linux kernel supports various hardware architectures, providing a common platform for software, including proprietary software. (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 21Debian GNU/Hurd running on Xfce (from Debian)
    Debian GNU/Hurd running on Xfce (from Debian)
  • Image 22Deepin logo (from Ubuntu)
    Deepin logo (from Ubuntu)
  • Image 23XFCE is default on CD images and non-Linux ports (from Debian)
    XFCE is default on CD images and non-Linux ports (from Debian)
  • Image 24Debian 4 (Etch), 2007 (from Debian)
    Debian 4 (Etch), 2007 (from Debian)
  • Image 25Iceweasel running on Debian 7 (Wheezy) (from Debian)
    Iceweasel running on Debian 7 (Wheezy) (from Debian)
  • Image 26Linus Torvalds at the LinuxCon Europe 2014 in Düsseldorf  (from Linux kernel)
    Linus Torvalds at the LinuxCon Europe 2014 in Düsseldorf (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 27Package installed with Aptitude (from Debian)
    Package installed with Aptitude (from Debian)
  • Image 28Debian 6 (Squeeze), 2011 (from Debian)
    Debian 6 (Squeeze), 2011 (from Debian)
  • Image 29Text version of the Debian Installer  (from Debian)
    Text version of the Debian Installer (from Debian)
  • Image 30The "swirl" logo is said to represent magic smoke. (from Debian)
    The "swirl" logo is said to represent magic smoke. (from Debian)
  • Image 31The core values of the Fedora community (from Fedora Linux)
    The core values of the Fedora community (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 32Fedora Core 1, a Fork of Red Hat Linux with GNOME 2.4 (2003-11) (from Fedora Linux)
    Fedora Core 1, a Fork of Red Hat Linux with GNOME 2.4 (2003-11) (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 33A Debian 10.0 Buster box cover (from Debian)
    A Debian 10.0 Buster box cover (from Debian)
  • Image 34At XDC2014, Alex Deucher from AMD announced the unified kernel-mode driver. The proprietary Linux graphic driver, .mw-parser-output .monospaced{font-family:monospace,monospace}libGL-fglrx-glx, will share the same DRM infrastructure with Mesa 3D. As there is no stable in-kernel ABI, AMD had to constantly adapt the former binary blob used by Catalyst. (from Linux kernel)
    At XDC2014, Alex Deucher from AMD announced the unified kernel-mode driver. The proprietary Linux graphic driver, libGL-fglrx-glx, will share the same DRM infrastructure with Mesa 3D. As there is no stable in-kernel ABI, AMD had to constantly adapt the former binary blob used by Catalyst. (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 35HP 9000 C110 PA-RISC workstation booting Debian Lenny (from Debian)
    HP 9000 C110 PA-RISC workstation booting Debian Lenny (from Debian)
  • Image 36Debian 10 console login and welcome message (from Debian)
    Debian 10 console login and welcome message (from Debian)
  • Image 37Using Aptitude to view Debian package details (from Debian)
    Using Aptitude to view Debian package details (from Debian)
  • Image 38Debian 10 installation menu (BIOS Mode) (from Debian)
    Debian 10 installation menu (BIOS Mode) (from Debian)
  • Image 39Iceweasel logo (from Debian)
    Iceweasel logo (from Debian)

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