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Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux
Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux

Linux (/ˈlnʊks/ (listen) LEE-nuuks or /ˈlɪnʊks/ LIN-uuks) is a family of open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution.

Popular Linux distributions include Debian, Fedora Linux, and Ubuntu, which in itself has many different distributions and modifications, Including Lubuntu and Xubuntu. Commercial distributions include Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, and a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, or include a solution stack such as LAMP. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose.

Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system. Because of the dominance of the Linux-based Android on smartphones, Linux also has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Although Linux is used by only around 2.3 percent of desktop computers, the Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux is the leading operating system on servers (over 96.4% of the top 1 million web servers' operating systems are Linux), leads other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and is the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually eliminated all competitors).

Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source software collaboration. The source code may be used, modified and distributed commercially or non-commercially by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.

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KDE Plasma desktop environment.

KDE Plasma desktop environment from the KDE community.

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The following are images from various Linux-related articles on Wikipedia.
  • Image 1Debian 6 (Squeeze), 2011 (from Debian)
    Debian 6 (Squeeze), 2011 (from Debian)
  • Image 2Debian 4 (Etch), 2007 (from Debian)
    Debian 4 (Etch), 2007 (from Debian)
  • Image 3Cloud Ubuntu Orange Box
    Cloud Ubuntu Orange Box
  • Image 4At XDC2014, Alex Deucher from AMD announced the unified kernel-mode driver. The proprietary Linux graphic driver, .mw-parser-output .monospaced{font-family:monospace,monospace}libGL-fglrx-glx, will share the same DRM infrastructure with Mesa 3D. As there is no stable in-kernel ABI, AMD had to constantly adapt the former binary blob used by Catalyst. (from Linux kernel)
    At XDC2014, Alex Deucher from AMD announced the unified kernel-mode driver. The proprietary Linux graphic driver, libGL-fglrx-glx, will share the same DRM infrastructure with Mesa 3D. As there is no stable in-kernel ABI, AMD had to constantly adapt the former binary blob used by Catalyst. (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 5An example of Linux kernel panic (from Linux kernel)
    An example of Linux kernel panic (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 6Ubuntu 22.04 LTS "Jammy Jellyfish" (from Ubuntu)
    Ubuntu 22.04 LTS "Jammy Jellyfish" (from Ubuntu)
  • Image 7Graphical version of the Debian Installer (from Debian)
    Graphical version of the Debian Installer (from Debian)
  • Image 8Logo of Debian GNU/kFreeBSD (from Debian)
    Logo of Debian GNU/kFreeBSD (from Debian)
  • Image 9Cinnamon-logo (from Ubuntu)
    Cinnamon-logo (from Ubuntu)
  • Image 10Iceweasel running on Debian 7 (Wheezy) (from Debian)
    Iceweasel running on Debian 7 (Wheezy) (from Debian)
  • Image 11Fedora 21, a version that brought experimental Wayland and HiDPI support (2014-12). (from Fedora Linux)
    Fedora 21, a version that brought experimental Wayland and HiDPI support (2014-12). (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 12Redevelopment costs of Linux kernel (from Linux kernel)
    Redevelopment costs of Linux kernel (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 13Fedora Workstation 35 installation summary (from Fedora Linux)
    Fedora Workstation 35 installation summary (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 14Using Aptitude to view Debian package details (from Debian)
    Using Aptitude to view Debian package details (from Debian)
  • Image 15Boot messages of a Linux kernel 2.6.25.17 (from Linux kernel)
    Boot messages of a Linux kernel 2.6.25.17 (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 16The Linux kernel supports various hardware architectures, providing a common platform for software, including proprietary software. (from Linux kernel)
    The Linux kernel supports various hardware architectures, providing a common platform for software, including proprietary software. (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 17Debian 10 installation menu (BIOS Mode) (from Debian)
    Debian 10 installation menu (BIOS Mode) (from Debian)
  • Image 18The core values of the Fedora community (from Fedora Linux)
    The core values of the Fedora community (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 19Iceweasel logo (from Debian)
    Iceweasel logo (from Debian)
  • Image 20Screenshot of GDebi Package installer (from Debian)
    Screenshot of GDebi Package installer (from Debian)
  • Image 21HP 9000 C110 PA-RISC workstation booting Debian Lenny (from Debian)
    HP 9000 C110 PA-RISC workstation booting Debian Lenny (from Debian)
  • Image 22The Linux Storage Stack Diagram (from Linux kernel)
    The Linux Storage Stack Diagram (from Linux kernel)
  • none (from Ubuntu)
    none (from Ubuntu)
  • Image 24Fedora Workstation 36 showing its desktop environment, GNOME 42. (from Fedora Linux)
    Fedora Workstation 36 showing its desktop environment, GNOME 42. (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 25A Debian 10.0 Buster box cover (from Debian)
    A Debian 10.0 Buster box cover (from Debian)
  • Image 26Four interfaces are distinguished: two internal to the kernel, and two between the kernel and userspace. (from Linux kernel)
    Four interfaces are distinguished: two internal to the kernel, and two between the kernel and userspace. (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 27Ubuntu Unity Logo (from Ubuntu)
    Ubuntu Unity Logo (from Ubuntu)
  • Image 28Fedora Core 1, a Fork of RedHat Linux version 9.0 with GNOME version 2.4 (2003-11) (from Fedora Linux)
    Fedora Core 1, a Fork of RedHat Linux version 9.0 with GNOME version 2.4 (2003-11) (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 29Linux kernel 3.0.0 booting (from Linux kernel)
    Linux kernel 3.0.0 booting (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 30Fedora 15 (Lovelock), the first release with GNOME 3 and GNOME Shell. (2011-05) (from Fedora Linux)
    Fedora 15 (Lovelock), the first release with GNOME 3 and GNOME Shell. (2011-05) (from Fedora Linux)
  • Image 31Debian GNU/Hurd running on Xfce (from Debian)
    Debian GNU/Hurd running on Xfce (from Debian)
  • Image 32Text version of the Debian Installer  (from Debian)
    Text version of the Debian Installer (from Debian)
  • Image 33Package installed with Aptitude (from Debian)
    Package installed with Aptitude (from Debian)
  • Image 34Debian 11 (Bullseye) running its default desktop environment, GNOME version 3.38 (from Debian)
    Debian 11 (Bullseye) running its default desktop environment, GNOME version 3.38 (from Debian)
  • Image 35Logo of GNU Hurd (from Debian)
    Logo of GNU Hurd (from Debian)
  • Image 36Map of the Linux kernel (from Linux kernel)
    Map of the Linux kernel (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 37Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux (from Linux kernel)
    Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 38Debian 10 console login and welcome message (from Debian)
    Debian 10 console login and welcome message (from Debian)
  • Image 39An iPod booting iPodLinux  (from Linux kernel)
    An iPod booting iPodLinux (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 40Linus Torvalds at the LinuxCon Europe 2014 in Düsseldorf (from Linux kernel)
    Linus Torvalds at the LinuxCon Europe 2014 in Düsseldorf (from Linux kernel)
  • Image 41XFCE is default on CD images and non-Linux ports (from Debian)
    XFCE is default on CD images and non-Linux ports (from Debian)
  • Image 42Ubuntu family tree[dubious  – discuss] (from Ubuntu)
    Ubuntu family tree[dubious ] (from Ubuntu)
  • Image 43The "swirl" logo is said to represent magic smoke. (from Debian)
    The "swirl" logo is said to represent magic smoke. (from Debian)

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