elementary OS
Elementary OS logo.svg
Elementary OS "Odin".png
elementary OS "Jólnir"
Developerelementary, Inc(Owner: Danielle Foré, Previously: Cassidy James Blaede)
OS familyLinux (Unix-like)
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen source
Initial release31 March 2011; 11 years ago (2011-03-31)
Latest release6.1[1] Edit this on Wikidata / 20 December 2021; 7 months ago (20 December 2021)
Repository
Update methodLong-term support
Package managerAPT (command-line frontend)
dpkg (backend)
Flatpak
PlatformsAMD64
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux kernel)
Default
user interface
Pantheon[2]
LicenseGPLv3
Official websiteelementary.io

elementary OS is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu LTS. It promotes itself as a "thoughtful, capable, and ethical" replacement to macOS and Windows and has a pay-what-you-want model.[3][4] The operating system, the desktop environment (called Pantheon[5]), and accompanying applications are developed and maintained by Elementary, Inc.[6][7]

Design philosophy

The human interface guidelines of the elementary OS project focus on immediate usability with a gentle learning curve, rather than full-fledged customization.[8] The three core rules the developers set for themselves were "concision", "accessible configuration" and "minimal documentation".[8]

Since its inception, elementary OS has received praise and criticism for its design. Wired claimed that it closely resembled macOS, visually and in user experience.[9] The elementary developers maintain that any similarities are unintentional.[10]

Pantheon's main shell is deeply integrated with other elementary OS applications, like Plank (a dock), Web (the default web browser based on Epiphany)[11] and Code (a simple text editor).[12][13] This distribution uses Gala as its window manager,[14] which is based on Mutter.[14]

Pantheon desktop environment

The Pantheon desktop environment is built on top of the GNOME software base, i.e. GTK, GDK, Cairo, GLib, (including GObject and GIO), GVfs and Tracker. The desktop allows for multiple workspaces to organize the user's workflow.[15]

Pantheon applications that are designed and developed by elementary include:

Bryan Lunduke of Network World wrote that the Pantheon desktop environment, elementary OS's centerpiece, was among the best of 2016.[20] Pantheon is also being released as an optional work-in-progress desktop environment in GeckoLinux. In addition to its x86 installer, Elementary offers various experimental builds that run on ARM devices such as the PineBook Pro and Raspberry Pi 4.[21]

Development

This section is missing information about recent releases. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (February 2022)

The elementary OS distribution started as a set of themes and applications designed for Ubuntu which later became its own Linux distribution.[22] Being Ubuntu-based, it is compatible with its repositories and packages, and prior to version 0.4 "Loki", it used the Ubuntu software center to handle software installation and uninstallation. However, after the release of Loki, Elementary bundled their own app store, AppCenter,[20] whose user interface is designed to be intuitive for new users without consuming excessive resources.[23]

elementary OS is based on Ubuntu's Long Term Support releases, which Ubuntu's developers actively maintain for bugs and security for years even as development continues on the next release.[24][25]

elementary OS founder Danielle Foré has said that the project is not designed to compete with existing open source projects, but to expand their reach. It also seeks to create open source jobs through developer "bounties" on specific tasks. As of the 2016 Loki release, US$17,500 in bounties had been raised.[26]

0.1 Jupiter

The first stable version of elementary OS was Jupiter,[22] published on 31 March 2011[27] and based on Ubuntu 10.10.[28][29]

0.2 Luna

elementary OS 0.2 "Luna"
elementary OS 0.2 "Luna"

In November 2012, the first beta version of elementary OS code-named Luna was released, which uses Ubuntu 12.04 LTS as a base.[30] The second beta version of Luna was released on 6 May 2013, carrying more than 300 bug fixes and several changes, such as improved support for multiple localizations, multiple display support and updated applications.[30][31] On 7 August 2013, a countdown clock appeared on the official website with a countdown to 10 August 2013.[32] The second stable version of elementary OS, Luna, was released that same day, along with a complete overhaul and redesign of the elementary OS website.[33]

0.3 Freya

elementary OS 0.3 "Freya"
elementary OS 0.3 "Freya"

The name of the third stable version of elementary OS, Isis, was proposed in August 2013 by Danielle Foré, the project leader.[34] It was later changed to Freya to avoid association with the terrorist group ISIS.[35] It is based on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, which was released in April 2014.[34] The first beta of Freya was released on 11 August 2014.[36] The second beta of Freya was released on 8 February 2015.[37] The final version was released on 11 April 2015, after a countdown clock appeared on the website eight days earlier.[38][39]

Freya was downloaded 1.2 million times. In line with Elementary's intent to expand the reach of open source software, 73 percent of Freya downloads were from closed source operating systems.[26]

In 2015, the elementary OS developers changed the download page to default to a monetary amount before providing a direct HTTP download for the current stable release. Despite the fact that the user could specify any amount, or no amount at all, it sparked controversy about how such practices are typically not perceived as being in alignment with FOSS distribution philosophies.[40][41][42] The elementary OS team has defended the action stating that "Around 99.875% of those users download without paying", and that it is needed to ensure the continued development of the distribution.[42]

In a review of all Linux distributions, Linux.com gave elementary OS their "best-looking distro" superlative in early 2016. The reviewer noted its developers' design background, their influence from Mac OS X, and their philosophy of prioritizing strict design rules and applications that follow these rules.[43]

0.4 Loki

elementary OS 0.4 "Loki"
elementary OS 0.4 "Loki"

elementary OS 0.4, known by its codename "Loki", was released on 9 September 2016.[25] Loki was built atop the Ubuntu "long-term support" version released earlier in the year[a][25] and its updated kernel (4.4). Loki revamped the operating system's notifications and added multiple new pieces of standard software. It let users set notification display preferences. Updated notification menu bar indicators began to display information from the notification—such as the title of an email—rather than a general alert. The operating system also added a system-wide integration for online accounts for Last.fm and FastMail, with other services in development.[26]

Loki replaced Freya's Midori web browser with Epiphany, a WebKit2-based browser with better performance. After the Yorba Foundation which developed the Geary email client was dissolved, elementary OS forked Geary as "Mail" and added new visual and integration features. In a new calendar feature, users could describe events in natural language, which the calendar program interprets and places into the proper time and description fields when creating events.[26]

elementary OS also created its own app store that simplifies the process of installing and updating applications.[26] Project founder Danielle Foré called the AppCenter the biggest feature in the Loki release, and noted its speed improvement over other installation methods and internal development benefits for departing from Ubuntu's upgrade tools.[20] Loki developers received $9,000 in bounties during its development—nearly half of the project's total bounty fundraising.[26]

Jack Wallen of Linux.com praised Loki as being among the most elegant and best-designed Linux desktops. He found the web browser and app store changes to be significant improvements, and the email client revamp "a much-needed breath of fresh air" in a stagnating field. Overall, Wallen surmised that existing users would appreciate Loki's polish and new users would find it to be a perfect introduction to the operating system.[26] Bryan Lunduke of Network World lauded Loki's performance, usability, polish, and easy installation, but considered it a better fit for new Linux users than for those already established.[20]

The elementary OS team received a large donation from an anonymous donor in early August 2018. The donation has allowed the development team to hire an additional full-time employee and expand long-term viability for the project.[44]

5.0 Juno

elementary OS 5.0 "Juno"
elementary OS 5.0 "Juno"

elementary OS 5.0, known by its codename "Juno", was released on 16 October 2018. The update brings changes to the AppCenter pay-what-you-want system, as well a Night Light feature for changing the screen color at night, and adjustable window tiling as well as several other new features for the Pantheon desktop and elementary OS applications.[13] The update also contained a new Housekeeping feature in settings, which removes trashed, as well as temporary, files after a given time interval.[45]

Jack Wallen, writing for TechRepublic, praised the update for bringing subtle changes and improving upon Loki.[46] Jason Evangelho, writing for Forbes, called the update elegant, stating that "elementary OS 5.0 Juno, thus far, does just work. And looks absolutely beautiful doing it."[47] In a review from LinuxInsider, the reviewer called the operating system a "very solid Linux distro" despite criticizing it for lacking power-user features.[48]

As of November 2018, Juno has been downloaded over 160,000 times, with 1% of people choosing to pay (with $10 being the most common amount, followed closely by $1)[49]

As part of an October 2019 update, elementary OS started supporting Flatpak out of the box,[50] thereby making it easier to install any of the wide array of Flatpak apps that are available.

5.1 Hera

elementary OS 5.1 "Hera"
elementary OS 5.1 "Hera"

6.0 Odin

elementary OS 6.0,[51] released on the 10 August 2021 under the codename "Odin",[52] builds upon 5.1 Hera by including new features like a dark style and the ability to change the accent color, Improved notification handling and a new Notification Center, Online accounts for things like IMAP and CalDAV for email and calendar respectively, Multi-touch Gestures for app switching and multiple desktops, an all new installer, a firmware updates app and more.[53]

elementary OS 6.0 "Odin"
elementary OS 6.0 "Odin"

6.1 Jólnir

This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (August 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Elementary 6.1, code name Jólnir released on 20th Dec 2021, is the latest version. The successor to elementary 6.0(code name Odin) comes with new and improved features. Their custom desktop environment, the Pantheon gives it that neat & simple look. With Multi Task viewing, users can switch between work spaces seamlessly just with alt+tab combination.The Multi Task viewing enables a user to greatly concentrate on one task by switching to a new work space hence keeping other tasks out of sight.The Housekeeping feature will get rid off old temporary and trashed files automatically, increasing available space.The web app for web browsing has Duckduck GO as its default search engine, for those who value privacy and less tracking. [1] However, the new version comes with limited number of preinstalled apps including absence of LibreOffice.

It's a little difficult to install on a VM (Oracle virtualbox i.e.) as the installation Window is not resized properly making it difficult to proceed with installation. The solution is to select the Try Demo option, then press the tab key 5 times and then press enter to take you to its live installation mode, where you can now change the display configurations and restart your installation with a properly resized installation window. But you can also try enabling EFI option in your System settings. More information on recommended system requirements & installation System requirements

For a detailed review of its features Click here

Change of ownership

When 6.0 and 6.1 was released the pay model didn't bring in enough revenue. After legal challenges between the two cofounder, Cassidy James Blaede decided to sell 100% of the share to Danielle Foré.[54][55] The CFO Liz Kecso also left the company while these issues were happening.

7.0 Horus

elementary OS 6.1 "Jólnir"
elementary OS 6.1 "Jólnir"

Summary table

Version Codename Release date Base
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.1[56][57][58] Jupiter 31 March 2011 Ubuntu 10.10
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.2[59][60] Luna 10 August 2013 Ubuntu 12.04 LTS
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.3[61][62] Freya 11 April 2015 Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (trusty)
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.3.1 3 September 2015
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.3.2 9 December 2015
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.4[63][64][65] Loki 9 September 2016 Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (xenial)[25]
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.4.1[66] 17 May 2017 Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS (xenial)[67]
Older version, yet still maintained: 5.0[68][69][70] Juno 16 October 2018[71] Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (bionic)[72]
Older version, yet still maintained: 5.1 Hera 3 December 2019[73] Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (bionic)
Older version, yet still maintained: 6.0 Odin[74][75] 10 August 2021 Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (focal)[76]
Current stable version: 6.1 Jólnir[77] 20 December 2021 Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (focal)[78]
Future release: 7.0 Horus TBD Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (jammy)
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Notes

  1. ^ Ubuntu 16.04 LTS, Xenial Xerus, was supported until 2021.[25]

References

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Apps

  1. ^ "Pantheon Login Screen". GitHub.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
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  7. ^ "Switchboard". GitHub.com. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  8. ^ "Mail". GitHub.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  9. ^ "Calendar". GitHub.com. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  10. ^ "Music". GitHub.com. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
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