|Also known as||RPi, Raspi|
|Operating system||Linux (incl Raspberry Pi OS)|
Windows 10 ARM64
Windows 10 IoT Core
and OS-less Embedded RTL's[clarification needed].
|System on a chip|
|Storage||MicroSDHC slot, USB Mass Storage device for booting|
|Power||5 V; 3 A (for full power delivery to USB devices)|
Raspberry Pi (//) is a series of small single-board computers (SBCs) developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation in association with Broadcom. The Raspberry Pi project originally leaned towards the promotion of teaching basic computer science in schools and in developing countries. The original model became more popular than anticipated, selling outside its target market for uses such as robotics. It is widely used in many areas, such as for weather monitoring, because of its low cost, modularity, and open design. It is typically used by computer and electronic hobbyists, due to its adoption of the HDMI and USB standards.
After the release of the second board type, the Raspberry Pi Foundation set up a new entity, named Raspberry Pi Trading, and installed Eben Upton as CEO, with the responsibility of developing technology. The Foundation was rededicated as an educational charity for promoting the teaching of basic computer science in schools and developing countries. Most Pis are made in a Sony factory in Pencoed, Wales, while others are made in China and Japan.
There are three series of Raspberry Pi, and several generations of each have been released. Raspberry Pi SBCs feature a Broadcom system on a chip (SoC) with an integrated ARM-compatible central processing unit (CPU) and on-chip graphics processing unit (GPU), while Raspberry Pi Pico has a RP2040 system on chip with an integrated ARM-compatible central processing unit (CPU).
|Raspberry Pi||B||BCM2835||256 MB||Standard[a]||Yes||No||26-pin||February 2012||Yes|
|512 MB||October 2012|
|Raspberry Pi 2||B||BCM2836/7||1 GB||Standard[a]||Yes||No||2015|
|Raspberry Pi Zero||Zero||BCM2835||512 MB||Ultra-Compact[c]||No||No|
|2 W||BCM2710A1, custom Raspberry Pi system-in-package RP3A0||2021|
|Raspberry Pi 3||B||BCM2837A0/B0||1 GB||Standard[a]||Yes||Yes||2016|
|A+||BCM2837B0||512 MB||Compact[b]||No||Yes (dual band)||2018|
|B+||1 GB||Standard[a]||Yes (Gigabit Ethernet)[d]||2018|
|Raspberry Pi 4||B||BCM2711||1 GB||Standard[a]||Yes (Gigabit Ethernet)||Yes (dual band)||2019||March 2020 to October 2021|
|Raspberry Pi Pico||N/A||RP2040||264 KB||Pico (21 mm × 51 mm)||No||No||40-pin||2021|
|W||Yes (2.4GHz band)||2022|
As of 4 May 2021, the Foundation is committed to manufacture most Pi models until at least January 2026. Even the 1 GB Pi4B can still be specially-ordered.
The Raspberry Pi hardware has evolved through several versions that feature variations in the type of the central processing unit, amount of memory capacity, networking support, and peripheral-device support.
This block diagram describes models B, B+, A and A+. The Pi Zero models are similar, but lack the Ethernet and USB hub components. The Ethernet adapter is internally connected to an additional USB port. In Model A, A+, and the Pi Zero, the USB port is connected directly to the system on a chip (SoC). On the Pi 1 Model B+ and later models the USB/Ethernet chip contains a five-port USB hub, of which four ports are available, while the Pi 1 Model B only provides two. On the Pi Zero, the USB port is also connected directly to the SoC, but it uses a micro USB (OTG) port. Unlike all other Pi models, the 40 pin GPIO connector is omitted on the Pi Zero, with solderable through-holes only in the pin locations. The Pi Zero WH remedies this.
Processor speed ranges from 700 MHz to 1.4 GHz for the Pi 3 Model B+ or 1.5 GHz for the Pi 4; on-board memory ranges from 256 MB to 8 GB random-access memory (RAM), with only the Raspberry Pi 4 having more than 1 GB. Secure Digital (SD) cards in MicroSDHC form factor (SDHC on early models) are used to store the operating system and program memory, however some models also come with onboard eMMC storage and the Raspberry Pi 4 can also make use of USB-attached SSD storage for its operating system. The boards have one to five USB ports. For video output, HDMI and composite video are supported, with a standard 3.5 mm tip-ring-sleeve jack for audio output. Lower-level output is provided by a number of GPIO pins, which support common protocols like I²C. The B-models have an 8P8C Ethernet port and the Pi 3, Pi 4 and Pi Zero W have on-board Wi-Fi 802.11n and Bluetooth.
The Broadcom BCM2835 SoC used in the first generation Raspberry Pi includes a 700 MHz 32-bit ARM1176JZF-S processor, VideoCore IV graphics processing unit (GPU), and RAM. It has a level 1 (L1) cache of 16 KB and a level 2 (L2) cache of 128 KB. The level 2 cache is used primarily by the GPU. The SoC is stacked underneath the RAM chip, so only its edge is visible. The ARM1176JZ(F)-S is the same CPU used in the original iPhone, although at a higher clock rate, and mated with a much faster GPU.
The earlier V1.1 model of the Raspberry Pi 2 used a Broadcom BCM2836 SoC with a 900 MHz 32-bit, quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 processor, with 256 KB shared L2 cache. The Raspberry Pi 2 V1.2 was upgraded to a Broadcom BCM2837 SoC with a 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 processor, the same one which is used on the Raspberry Pi 3, but underclocked (by default) to the same 900 MHz CPU clock speed as the V1.1. The BCM2836 SoC is no longer in production as of late 2016.
The Raspberry Pi 3 Model B uses a Broadcom BCM2837 SoC with a 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 processor, with 512 KB shared L2 cache. The Model A+ and B+ are 1.4 GHz
The Raspberry Pi 4 uses a Broadcom BCM2711 SoC with a 1.5 GHz (later models: 1.8 GHz) 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A72 processor, with 1 MB shared L2 cache. Unlike previous models, which all used a custom interrupt controller poorly suited for virtualisation, the interrupt controller on this SoC is compatible with the ARM Generic Interrupt Controller (GIC) architecture 2.0, providing hardware support for interrupt distribution when using ARM virtualisation capabilities.
The Raspberry Pi Zero and Zero W use the same Broadcom BCM2835 SoC as the first generation Raspberry Pi, although now running at 1 GHz CPU clock speed.
The Raspberry Pi Zero W 2 uses the RP3A0-AU CPU, a 1 GHz 64 bit ARM Cortex A53, on 512MB of SDRAM. Documentation states this "system-on-package" is a Broadcom BCM2710A1 package, using a BCM2837 Broadcom chip as core, which is an ARM v8 quad-core. The RPi3 also uses the BCM2837, but at 1.2 GHz, since the Pi Zero W 2 clock is 1 GHz.
The Raspberry Pi Pico uses the RP2040 running at 133 MHz.
While operating at 700 MHz by default, the first generation Raspberry Pi provided a real-world performance roughly equivalent to 0.041 GFLOPS. On the CPU level the performance is similar to a 300 MHz Pentium II of 1997–99. The GPU provides 1 Gpixel/s or 1.5 Gtexel/s of graphics processing or 24 GFLOPS of general purpose computing performance. The graphical capabilities of the Raspberry Pi are roughly equivalent to the performance of the Xbox of 2001.
Raspberry Pi 2 V1.1 included a quad-core Cortex-A7 CPU running at 900 MHz and 1 GB RAM. It was described as 4–6 times more powerful than its predecessor. The GPU was identical to the original. In parallelised benchmarks, the Raspberry Pi 2 V1.1 could be up to 14 times faster than a Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+.
The Raspberry Pi 3, with a quad-core Cortex-A53 processor, is described as having ten times the performance of a Raspberry Pi 1. Benchmarks showed the Raspberry Pi 3 to be approximately 80% faster than the Raspberry Pi 2 in parallelised tasks.
The Raspberry Pi 4, with a quad-core Cortex-A72 processor, is described as having three times the performance of a Raspberry Pi 3.
Most Raspberry Pi systems-on-chip could be overclocked to 800 MHz, and some to 1000 MHz. There are reports the Raspberry Pi 2 can be similarly overclocked, in extreme cases, even to 1500 MHz (discarding all safety features and over-voltage limitations). In Raspberry Pi OS the overclocking options on boot can be made by a software command running "sudo raspi-config" without voiding the warranty. In those cases the Pi automatically shuts the overclocking down if the chip temperature reaches 85 °C (185 °F), but it is possible to override automatic over-voltage and overclocking settings (voiding the warranty); an appropriately sized heat sink is needed to protect the chip from serious overheating.
Newer versions of the firmware contain the option to choose between five overclock ("turbo") presets that, when used, attempt to maximise the performance of the SoC without impairing the lifetime of the board. This is done by monitoring the core temperature of the chip and the CPU load, and dynamically adjusting clock speeds and the core voltage. When the demand is low on the CPU or it is running too hot, the performance is throttled, but if the CPU has much to do and the chip's temperature is acceptable, performance is temporarily increased with clock speeds of up to 1 GHz, depending on the board version and on which of the turbo settings is used.
The overclocking modes are:
In the highest (turbo) mode the SDRAM clock speed was originally 500 MHz, but this was later changed to 600 MHz because of occasional SD card corruption. Simultaneously, in high mode the core clock speed was lowered from 450 to 250 MHz, and in medium mode from 333 to 250 MHz.
The CPU of the first and second generation Raspberry Pi board did not require cooling with a heat sink or fan, even when overclocked, but the Raspberry Pi 3 may generate more heat when overclocked.
The early designs of the Raspberry Pi Model A and B boards included only 256 MB of random access memory (RAM). Of this, the early beta Model B boards allocated 128 MB to the GPU by default, leaving only 128 MB for the CPU. On the early 256 MB releases of models A and B, three different splits were possible. The default split was 192 MB for the CPU, which should be sufficient for standalone 1080p video decoding, or for simple 3D processing. 224 MB was for Linux processing only, with only a 1080p framebuffer, and was likely to fail for any video or 3D. 128 MB was for heavy 3D processing, possibly also with video decoding. In comparison, the Nokia 701 uses 128 MB for the Broadcom VideoCore IV.
The later Model B with 512 MB RAM, was released on 15 October 2012 and was initially released with new standard memory split files (arm256_start.elf, arm384_start.elf, arm496_start.elf) with 256 MB, 384 MB, and 496 MB CPU RAM, and with 256 MB, 128 MB, and 16 MB video RAM, respectively. But about one week later, the foundation released a new version of start.elf that could read a new entry in config.txt (gpu_mem=xx) and could dynamically assign an amount of RAM (from 16 to 256 MB in 8 MB steps) to the GPU, obsoleting the older method of splitting memory, and a single start.elf worked the same for 256 MB and 512 MB Raspberry Pis.
The Raspberry Pi 2 has 1 GB of RAM.
The Raspberry Pi 3 has 1 GB of RAM in the B and B+ models, and 512 MB of RAM in the A+ model. The Raspberry Pi Zero and Zero W have 512 MB of RAM.
The Raspberry Pi 4 is available with 2, 4 or 8 GB of RAM. A 1 GB model was originally available at launch in June 2019 but was discontinued in March 2020, and the 8 GB model was introduced in May 2020.
The Model A, A+ and Pi Zero have no Ethernet circuitry and are commonly connected to a network using an external user-supplied USB Ethernet or Wi-Fi adapter. On the Model B and B+ the Ethernet port is provided by a built-in USB Ethernet adapter using the SMSC LAN9514 chip. The Raspberry Pi 3 and Pi Zero W (wireless) are equipped with 2.4 GHz WiFi 802.11n (150 Mbit/s) and Bluetooth 4.1 (24 Mbit/s) based on the Broadcom BCM43438 FullMAC chip with no official support for monitor mode (though it was implemented through unofficial firmware patching) and the Pi 3 also has a 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet port. The Raspberry Pi 3B+ features dual-band IEEE 802.11b/g/n/ac WiFi, Bluetooth 4.2, and Gigabit Ethernet (limited to approximately 300 Mbit/s by the USB 2.0 bus between it and the SoC). The Raspberry Pi 4 has full gigabit Ethernet (throughput is not limited as it is not funnelled via the USB chip.)
The RPi Zero, RPi1A, RPi3A+ and RPi4 can be used as a USB device or "USB gadget", plugged into another computer via a USB port on another machine. It can be configured in multiple ways, such as functioning as a serial or Ethernet device. Although originally requiring software patches, this was added into the mainline Raspbian distribution in May 2016.
Raspberry Pi models with a newer chipset can boot from USB mass storage, such as from a flash drive. Booting from USB mass storage is not available in the original Raspberry Pi models, the Raspberry Pi Zero, the Raspberry Pi Pico, the Raspberry Pi 2 A models, and the Raspberry Pi 2 B models with versions lower than 1.2.
Although often pre-configured to operate as a headless computer, the Raspberry Pi may also optionally be operated with any generic USB computer keyboard and mouse. It may also be used with USB storage, USB to MIDI converters, and virtually any other device/component with USB capabilities, depending on the installed device drivers in the underlying operating system (many of which are included by default).
Other peripherals can be attached through the various pins and connectors on the surface of the Raspberry Pi.
The video controller can generate standard modern TV resolutions, such as HD and Full HD, and higher or lower monitor resolutions as well as older NTSC or PAL standard CRT TV resolutions. As shipped (i.e., without custom overclocking) it can support the following resolutions: 640×350 EGA; 640×480 VGA; 800×600 SVGA; 1024×768 XGA; 1280×720 720p HDTV; 1280×768 WXGA variant; 1280×800 WXGA variant; 1280×1024 SXGA; 1366×768 WXGA variant; 1400×1050 SXGA+; 1600×1200 UXGA; 1680×1050 WXGA+; 1920×1080 1080p HDTV; 1920×1200 WUXGA.
Higher resolutions, up to 2048×1152, may work or even 3840×2160 at 15 Hz (too low a frame rate for convincing video). Allowing the highest resolutions does not imply that the GPU can decode video formats at these resolutions; in fact, the Raspberry Pis are known to not work reliably for H.265 (at those high resolutions), commonly used for very high resolutions (however, most common formats up to Full HD do work).
Although the Raspberry Pi 3 does not have H.265 decoding hardware, the CPU is more powerful than its predecessors, potentially fast enough to allow the decoding of H.265-encoded videos in software. The GPU in the Raspberry Pi 3 runs at higher clock frequencies of 300 MHz or 400 MHz, compared to previous versions which ran at 250 MHz.
The Raspberry Pis can also generate 576i and 480i composite video signals, as used on old-style (CRT) TV screens and less-expensive monitors through standard connectors – either RCA or 3.5 mm phono connector depending on model. The television signal standards supported are PAL-B/G/H/I/D, PAL-M, PAL-N, NTSC and NTSC-J.
When booting, the time defaults to being set over the network using the Network Time Protocol (NTP). The source of time information can be another computer on the local network that does have a real-time clock, or to a NTP server on the internet. If no network connection is available, the time may be set manually or configured to assume that no time passed during the shutdown. In the latter case, the time is monotonic (files saved later in time always have later timestamps) but may be considerably earlier than the actual time. For systems that require a built-in real-time clock, a number of small, low-cost add-on boards with real-time clocks are available.
The RP2040 microcontroller has a built-in real-time clock but this can not be set automatically without some form of user entry or network facility being added.
Raspberry Pi 1 Models A+ and B+, Pi 2 Model B, Pi 3 Models A+, B and B+, Pi 4, and Pi Zero, Zero W, Zero WH and Zero W 2 have the same 40-pin pinout called J8 header. Raspberry Pi 1 Models A and B have only the first 26 pins. The J8 header is commonly referred to as GPIO connector as a whole even though only a subset of the pins are GPIO pins. In the Pi Zero and Zero W, the 40 GPIO pins are unpopulated, having the through-holes exposed for soldering instead. The Zero WH (Wireless + Header) has the header pins preinstalled.
|GPIO#||2nd func.||Pin#||Pin#||2nd func.||GPIO#|
|+3.3 V||1||2||+5 V|
|2||SDA1 (I2C)||3||4||+5 V|
|11||SCLK (SPI)||23||24||CE0_N (SPI)||8|
|(Pi 1 Models A and B stop here)|
|0||ID_SD (I2C)||27||28||ID_SC (I2C)||1|
Model B rev. 2 also has a pad (called P5 on the board and P6 on the schematics) of 8 pins offering access to an additional 4 GPIO connections. These GPIO pins were freed when the four board version identification links present in revision 1.0 were removed.
|GPIO#||2nd func.||Pin#||Pin#||2nd func.||GPIO#|
|+5 V||1||2||+3.3 V|
Models A and B provide GPIO access to the ACT status LED using GPIO 16. Models A+ and B+ provide GPIO access to the ACT status LED using GPIO 47, and the power status LED using GPIO 35.
|Version||Pico||Model A (no Ethernet)||Model B (with Ethernet)||Compute Module[a]||Zero||Keyboard|
|Raspberry Pi Pico||Raspberry Pi Pico W||RPi 1 Model A||RPi 1 Model A+||RPi 3 Model A+||RPi 1 Model B||RPi 1 Model B+||RPi 2 Model B||RPi 2 Model B v1.2||RPi 3 Model B||RPi 3 Model B+||RPi 4 Model B||Compute Module 1||Compute Module 3||Compute Module 3 Lite||Compute Module 3+||Compute Module 3+ Lite||Compute Module 4||Compute Module 4 Lite||RPi Zero PCB v1.2||RPi Zero PCB v1.3||RPi Zero W||RPi Zero 2 W||RPi 400|
|Release date||Jan 2021||Jun 2022||Feb 2013
||Nov 2018||Apr–June 2012||July 2014
||14 Mar 2018
||24 June 2019
28 May 2020 (8GB)
||Oct 2020||Nov 2015
||May 2016||28 Feb 2017||28 Oct 2021
||2 Nov 2020|
|Target price (USD)||$4||$6||$25||$20||$25||$35||$25||$35||$35/55/75
||$30 (in batches of 100)||$30||$25||$30/35/40||$25||$30-$90 (in $5 increments)||$25-$75 (in $5 increments)||$5||$10||$15||$70|
|Instruction set||Armv6-M||ARMv6Z (32-bit)||ARMv8-A (64/32-bit)||ARMv6Z (32-bit)||ARMv7-A (32-bit)||ARMv8-A (64/32-bit)||ARMv6Z (32-bit)||ARMv8-A (64/32-bit)||ARMv6Z (32-bit)||ARMv8-A (64/32-bit)||ARMv8-A (64/32-bit)|
|SoC||Raspberry Pi RP2040||Broadcom BCM2835||Broadcom BCM2837B0
||Broadcom BCM2835||Broadcom BCM2836||Broadcom BCM2837||Broadcom BCM2837B0
||Broadcom BCM2835||Broadcom BCM2837||Broadcom BCM2837B0||Broadcom BCM2711||Broadcom BCM2835||Broadcom BCM2710A1||Broadcom BCM2711C0|
|FPU||None||VFPv2; NEON not supported||VFPv4 + NEON||VFPv2; NEON not supported||VFPv4 + NEON||VFPv2; NEON not supported||VFPv4 + NEON||VFPv2; NEON not supported||VFPv4 + NEON||VFPv4 + NEON|
|CPU||Dual-core Arm Cortex-M0+||1× ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz||4× Cortex-A53 1.4 GHz||1× ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz||4× Cortex-A7 900 MHz||4× Cortex-A53 900 MHz||4× Cortex-A53 1.2 GHz||4× Cortex-A53 1.4 GHz||4× Cortex-A72 1.5 GHz or 1.8 GHz||1× ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz||4× Cortex-A53 1.2 GHz||4× Cortex-A72 1.5 GHz||1× ARM1176JZF-S 1 GHz||4× Cortex-A53 1 GHz||4× Cortex-A72 1.8 GHz|
|GPU||None||Broadcom VideoCore IV @ 250 MHz[b]||Broadcom VideoCore IV @ 400 MHz (Core) / 300 MHz (V3D)||Broadcom VideoCore VI @ 500 MHz||Broadcom VideoCore IV @ 250 MHz[b]||Broadcom VideoCore VI @ 500 MHz||Broadcom VideoCore IV @ 400 MHz (Core) / 300 MHz (V3D)||Broadcom VideoCore VI @ 500 MHz|
|Memory (SDRAM)||264 KB||256 MB[c]||256 or 512 MB[c]
Changed to 512 MB on 10 August 2016
|512 MB[c]||256 or 512 MB[c]
Changed to 512 MB on 15 October 2012
|512 MB[c]||1 GB[c]||1, 2, 4 or 8 GB[c]||512 MB[c]||1 GB[c]||1, 2, 4 or 8 GB[c]||512 MB[c]||4 GB|
|USB 2.0 ports||None||1[d]||1[e]||2[f]||4[g]||2||1[d][a]||1[d][a]||1[e][a]||1||1 Micro-USB[d]||1|
|USB 3.0 ports||0||2||0||2|
|USB OTG ports||0||1 (Power USB-C)
|PCIe interface||0||PCIe Gen 2 x1||0||0|
|Video input||15-pin MIPI camera interface (CSI) connector, used with the Raspberry Pi camera or Raspberry Pi NoIR camera||2× MIPI camera interface (CSI)[a]||2-lane MIPI CSI camera interface, 4-lane MIPI CSI camera interface||None||MIPI camera interface (CSI)||None|
|HDMI||1× HDMI (rev 1.3)||2× HDMI (rev 2.0) via Micro-HDMI||1× HDMI[a]||2x HDMI||1× Mini-HDMI||2× HDMI (rev 2.0) via Micro-HDMI|
|Composite video||via RCA jack||via 3.5 mm CTIA style TRRS jack||via RCA jack||via 3.5 mm CTIA style TRRS jack||Yes[a]||?||via marked points on PCB for optional header pins||?|
|MIPI display interface (DSI)[h]||Yes||Yes[a]||Yes||No||?|
|Audio inputs||As of revision 2 boards via I²S||?|
|Audio outputs||Analog via 3.5 mm phone jack; digital via HDMI and, as of revision 2 boards, I²S||Analog, HDMI, I²S[a]||Mini-HDMI, stereo audio through PWM on GPIO||Micro-HDMI|
|On-board storage||2MB Flash memory||SD, MMC, SDIO card slot (3.3 V with card power only)||MicroSDHC slot||SD, MMC, SDIO card slot||MicroSDHC slot||MicroSDHC slot, USB Boot Mode||4 GB eMMC flash memory chip||MicroSDHC slot||8/16/32 GB eMMC flash memory chip||MicroSDHC slot||8/16/32 GB eMMC flash memory chip||MicroSDHC slot||MicroSDHC slot||MicroSDHC slot|
|Ethernet (8P8C)||None||None||None||10/100 Mbit/s
USB adapter on the USB hub
|10/100 Mbit/s||10/100/1000 Mbit/s (real max speed 300 Mbit/s)||10/100/1000 Mbit/s||None||10/100/1000 Mbit/s||None||None||10/100/1000 Mbit/s|
|WiFi IEEE 802.11 wireless||None||b/g/n single band 2.4 Ghz||b/g/n/ac dual band 2.4/5 GHz||None||b/g/n single band 2.4 GHz||b/g/n/ac dual band 2.4/5 GHz||b/g/n/ac dual band 2.4/5 GHz (optional)||b/g/n single band 2.4 GHz||b/g/n/ac dual band 2.4/5 GHz|
|Bluetooth||None||5.2 BLE||4.2 BLE||4.1 BLE||4.2 LS BLE||5.0||5.0, BLE (optional)||4.1 BLE||4.2 BLE||5.0|
|Low-level peripherals||UART||8× GPIO plus the following, which can also be used as GPIO: UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects, I²S audio +3.3 V, +5 V, ground||17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus||8× GPIO plus the following, which can also be used as GPIO: UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects, I²S audio +3.3 V, +5 V, ground.||17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus||17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, HAT, and an additional 4× UART, 4× SPI, and 4× I2C connectors.
||46× GPIO, some of which can be used for specific functions including I²C, SPI, UART, PCM, PWM[a]||28 × GPIO supporting either 1.8v or 3.3v signalling and peripheral options||17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus||?|
|Power ratings||?||?||300 mA (1.5 W)||200 mA (1 W)||?||700 mA (3.5 W)||200 mA (1 W) average when idle, 350 mA (1.75 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard and mouse connected)
||220 mA (1.1 W) average when idle, 820 mA (4.1 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard and mouse connected)
||300 mA (1.5 W) average when idle, 1.34 A (6.7 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard, mouse and WiFi connected)
||459 mA (2.295 W) average when idle, 1.13 A (5.661 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard, mouse and WiFi connected)
||600 mA (3 W) average when idle, 1.25 A (6.25 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard, mouse and Ethernet connected),
||200 mA (1 W)||700 mA (3.5 W)||?||?||?||100 mA (0.5 W) average when idle, 350 mA (1.75 W) maximum under stress (monitor, keyboard and mouse connected)
|Power source||MicroUSB or GPIO Header 1.8 V to 5 V||5 V via MicroUSB or GPIO header||5 V via MicroUSB, GPIO header, or PoE (with the PoE HAT)||5 V via USB-C, GPIO header, or PoE (with the PoE HAT)||2.5 - 5 V, 3.3 V, 2.5 - 3.3 V, and 1.8 V[a]||5 V||5 V via MicroUSB or GPIO header||?|
|Size||51 x 21mm||85.6 mm × 56.5 mm
(3.37 in × 2.22 in)[i]
|65 mm × 56.5 mm × 10 mm
(2.56 in × 2.22 in × 0.39 in)[j]
|65 mm × 56.5 mm
(2.56 in × 2.22 in)
|85.60 mm × 56.5 mm
(3.370 in × 2.224 in)[i]
|85.60 mm × 56.5 mm × 17 mm
(3.370 in × 2.224 in × 0.669 in)
|67.6 mm × 30 mm
(2.66 in × 1.18 in)
|67.6 mm × 31 mm
(2.66 in × 1.22 in)
|55 mm × 40 mm||65 mm × 30 mm × 5 mm
(2.56 in × 1.18 in × 0.20 in)
|286 mm × 113 mm × 23 mm|
|Console||?||?||Adding a USB network interface via tethering or a serial cable with optional GPIO power connector||?||?||?|
|Generation||?||?||1||1+||3+||1||1+||2||2 ver 1.2||3||3+||4||1||3||3 Lite||3+||3+ Lite||4||4 Lite||PCB ver 1.2||PCB ver 1.3||W (wireless)||2 W (wireless)||4|
|?||—||in production until at least January 2026||in production until at least January 2026||—||in production until at least January 2026||N/A, or see PCB ver 1.2||in production until at least January 2026||in production until at least January 2026
||in production until at least January 2026||in production until at least January 2026||in production until at least January 2026||in production until at least January 2026||in production until at least January 2026||in production until at least January 2026||in production until at least January 2028||N/A, or see PCB ver 1.3||in production until at least January 2026
||in production until at least January 2026||in production until at least January 2028||in production until at least January 2026||?|
|Type||Pico||Model A (no Ethernet)||Model B (with Ethernet)||Compute Module[a]||Zero||Keyboard|
|RPi 1 Model B||1B||(256 MB)||2012||BCM2835||0.7 GHz||1/1||0.213||0.25||HDMI1.3
|2 × USB2.0||0.1||Micro-USB||$35|
|RPi 1 Model B||1B||(512 MB)||1/1||0.213||0.5|
|RPi 1 Model B+||1B+||2014||1/1||0.213||4 × USB2.0||$25|
|RPi 2 Model B||2B||2015||BCM2836||0.9 GHz||4/4||1.47||1||HDMI1.3||$35|
|RPi 2 Model B v1.2||2B||v1.2||2016||BCM2837||✔||4.43|
|RPi 3 Model B||3B||1.2 GHz||✔||3.62||USB
(through OTP bit setting)
(2.4 GHz only)
|RPi 3 Model B+||3B+||2018||BCM2837B0||1.4 GHz||✔||5.3||USB
|4.2 LS BLE|
|RPi 4 Model B||4B||(1 GB)||2019||BCM2711||1.5 GHz/1.8 GHz||✔||9.92||2 × Micro-HDMI2.0||✔||2 × USB2.0
2 × USB3.0
|RPi 4 Model B||4B||(2 GB)||✔||2||✔||$35|
|RPi 4 Model B||4B||(4 GB)||✔||13.5||4||✔||$55|
|RPi 4 Model B||4B||(8 GB)||2020||✔||8||✔||$75|
The Raspberry Pi Foundation provides Raspberry Pi OS (formerly called Raspbian), a Debian-based Linux distribution for download, as well as third-party Ubuntu, Windows 10 IoT Core, RISC OS, LibreELEC (specialised media centre distribution) and specialised distributions for the Kodi media centre and classroom management. It promotes Python and Scratch as the main programming languages, with support for many other languages. The default firmware is closed source, while unofficial open source is available. Many other operating systems can also run on the Raspberry Pi. The formally verified microkernel seL4 is also supported. There are several ways of installing multiple operating systems on one SD card.
See also: VideoCore § Linux support
Raspberry Pi can use a VideoCore IV GPU via a binary blob, which is loaded into the GPU at boot time from the SD-card, and additional software, that initially was closed source. This part of the driver code was later released. However, much of the actual driver work is done using the closed source GPU code. Application software makes calls to closed source run-time libraries (OpenMax, OpenGL ES or OpenVG), which in turn call an open source driver inside the Linux kernel, which then calls the closed source VideoCore IV GPU driver code. The API of the kernel driver is specific for these closed libraries. Video applications use OpenMAX, 3D applications use OpenGL ES and 2D applications use OpenVG, which both in turn use EGL. OpenMAX and EGL use the open source kernel driver in turn.
The Raspberry Pi Foundation first announced it was working on a Vulkan driver in February 2020. A working Vulkan driver running Quake 3 at 100 frames per second on a 3B+ was revealed by a graphics engineer who had been working on it as a hobby project on 20 June. On 24 November 2020 Raspberry Pi Foundation announced that their driver for the Raspberry Pi 4 is Vulkan 1.0 conformant. Raspberry Pi Trading announced further driver conformance for Vulkan 1.1 and 1.2 on 26 October 2021 and 1 August 2022.
The official firmware is a freely redistributable binary blob, that is proprietary software. A minimal proof-of-concept open source firmware is also available, mainly aimed at initialising and starting the ARM cores as well as performing minimal startup that is required on the ARM side. It is also capable of booting a very minimal Linux kernel, with patches to remove the dependency on the mailbox interface being responsive. It is known to work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3, as well as some variants of Raspberry Pi Zero.
In February 2015, a switched-mode power supply chip, designated U16, of the Raspberry Pi 2 Model B version 1.1 (the initially released version) was found to be vulnerable to flashes of light, particularly the light from xenon camera flashes and green and red laser pointers. The U16 chip has WL-CSP packaging, which exposes the bare silicon die. The Raspberry Pi Foundation blog recommended covering U16 with opaque material (such as Sugru or Blu-Tak) or putting the Raspberry Pi 2 in a case. This issue was not discovered before the release of the Raspberry Pi 2 because it is not standard or common practice to test susceptibility to optical interference, while commercial electronic devices are routinely subjected to tests of susceptibility to radio interference.
Technology writer Glyn Moody described the project in May 2011 as a "potential BBC Micro 2.0", not by replacing PC compatible machines but by supplementing them. In March 2012 Stephen Pritchard echoed the BBC Micro successor sentiment in ITPRO. Alex Hope, co-author of the Next Gen report, is hopeful that the computer will engage children with the excitement of programming. Co-author Ian Livingstone suggested that the BBC could be involved in building support for the device, possibly branding it as the BBC Nano. The Centre for Computing History strongly supports the Raspberry Pi project, feeling that it could "usher in a new era". Before release, the board was showcased by ARM's CEO Warren East at an event in Cambridge outlining Google's ideas to improve UK science and technology education.
Harry Fairhead, however, suggests that more emphasis should be put on improving the educational software available on existing hardware, using tools such as Google App Inventor to return programming to schools, rather than adding new hardware choices. Simon Rockman, writing in a ZDNet blog, was of the opinion that teens will have "better things to do", despite what happened in the 1980s.
In October 2012, the Raspberry Pi won T3's Innovation of the Year award, and futurist Mark Pesce cited a (borrowed) Raspberry Pi as the inspiration for his ambient device project MooresCloud. In October 2012, the British Computer Society reacted to the announcement of enhanced specifications by stating, "it's definitely something we'll want to sink our teeth into."
In June 2017, Raspberry Pi won the Royal Academy of Engineering MacRobert Award. The citation for the award to the Raspberry Pi said it was "for its inexpensive credit card-sized microcomputers, which are redefining how people engage with computing, inspiring students to learn coding and computer science and providing innovative control solutions for industry."
Clusters of hundreds of Raspberry Pis have been used for testing programs destined for supercomputers.
The Raspberry Pi community was described by Jamie Ayre of FOSS software company AdaCore as one of the most exciting parts of the project. Community blogger Russell Davis said that the community strength allows the Foundation to concentrate on documentation and teaching. The community developed a fanzine around the platform called The MagPi which in 2015, was handed over to the Raspberry Pi Foundation by its volunteers to be continued in-house. A series of community Raspberry Jam events have been held across the UK and around the world.
As of January 2012[update], enquiries about the board in the United Kingdom have been received from schools in both the state and private sectors, with around five times as much interest from the latter. It is hoped that businesses will sponsor purchases for less advantaged schools. The CEO of Premier Farnell said that the government of a country in the Middle East has expressed interest in providing a board to every schoolgirl, to enhance her employment prospects.
In 2014, the Raspberry Pi Foundation hired a number of its community members including ex-teachers and software developers to launch a set of free learning resources for its website. The Foundation also started a teacher training course called Picademy with the aim of helping teachers prepare for teaching the new computing curriculum using the Raspberry Pi in the classroom.
In 2018, NASA launched the JPL Open Source Rover Project, which is a scaled down version of Curiosity rover and uses a Raspberry Pi as the control module, to encourage students and hobbyists to get involved in mechanical, software, electronics, and robotics engineering.
There are a number of developers and applications that are using the Raspberry Pi for home automation. These programmers are making an effort to modify the Raspberry Pi into a cost-affordable solution in energy monitoring and power consumption. Because of the relatively low cost of the Raspberry Pi, this has become a popular and economical alternative to the more expensive commercial solutions.
In June 2014, Polish industrial automation manufacturer TECHBASE released ModBerry, an industrial computer based on the Raspberry Pi Compute Module. The device has a number of interfaces, most notably RS-485/232 serial ports, digital and analogue inputs/outputs, CAN and economical 1-Wire buses, all of which are widely used in the automation industry. The design allows the use of the Compute Module in harsh industrial environments, leading to the conclusion that the Raspberry Pi is no longer limited to home and science projects, but can be widely used as an Industrial IoT solution and achieve goals of Industry 4.0.
In March 2018, SUSE announced commercial support for SUSE Linux Enterprise on the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B to support a number of undisclosed customers implementing industrial monitoring with the Raspberry Pi.
In January 2021, TECHBASE announced a Raspberry Pi Compute Module 4 cluster for AI accelerator, routing and file server use. The device contains one or more standard Raspberry Pi Compute Module 4s in an industrial DIN rail housing, with some versions containing one or more Coral Edge tensor processing units.
The Organelle is a portable synthesizer, a sampler, a sequencer, and an effects processor designed and assembled by Critter & Guitari. It incorporates a Raspberry Pi computer module running Linux.
OTTO is a digital camera created by Next Thing Co. It incorporates a Raspberry Pi Compute Module. It was successfully crowd-funded in a May 2014 Kickstarter campaign.
Slice is a digital media player which also uses a Compute Module as its heart. It was crowd-funded in an August 2014 Kickstarter campaign. The software running on Slice is based on Kodi.
Numerous commercial thin client computer terminals use the Raspberry Pi.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, demand increased primarily due to the increase in remote work, but also because of the use of many Raspberry Pi Zeros in ventilators for COVID-19 patients in countries such as Colombia, which were used to combat strain on the healthcare system. In March 2020, Raspberry Pi sales reached 640,000 units, the second largest month of sales in the company's history.
A project was launched in December 2014 at an event held by the UK Space Agency. The Astro Pi was an augmented Raspberry Pi that included a sensor hat with a visible light or infrared camera. The Astro Pi competition, called Principia, was officially opened in January and was opened to all primary and secondary school aged children who were residents of the United Kingdom. During his mission, British ESA astronaut Tim Peake deployed the computers on board the International Space Station. He loaded the winning code while in orbit, collected the data generated and then sent this to Earth where it was distributed to the winning teams. Covered themes during the competition included spacecraft sensors, satellite imaging, space measurements, data fusion and space radiation.
The organisations involved in the Astro Pi competition include the UK Space Agency, UKspace, Raspberry Pi, ESERO-UK and ESA.
In 2017, the European Space Agency ran another competition open to all students in the European Union called Proxima. The winning programs were run on the ISS by Thomas Pesquet, a French astronaut. In December 2021, the Dragon 2 spacecraft launched by NASA had a pair of Astro pi in it.
The computer is inspired by Acorn's BBC Micro of 1981. The Model A, Model B and Model B+ names are references to the original models of the British educational BBC Micro computer, developed by Acorn Computers.
According to Upton, the name "Raspberry Pi" was chosen with "Raspberry" as an ode to a tradition of naming early computer companies after fruit, and "Pi" as a reference to the Python programming language.
In 2006, early concepts of the Raspberry Pi were based on the Atmel ATmega644 microcontroller. Its schematics and PCB layout are publicly available. Foundation trustee Eben Upton assembled a group of teachers, academics and computer enthusiasts to devise a computer to inspire children.
The first ARM prototype version of the computer was mounted in a package the same size as a USB memory stick. It had a USB port on one end and an HDMI port on the other.
The Foundation's goal was to offer two versions, priced at US$25 and $35. They started accepting orders for the higher priced Model B on 29 February 2012, the lower cost Model A on 4 February 2013. and the even lower cost (US$20) A+ on 10 November 2014. On 26 November 2015, the cheapest Raspberry Pi yet, the Raspberry Pi Zero, was launched at US$5 or £4.
According to the Raspberry Pi Foundation, more than 5 million Raspberry Pis were sold by February 2015, making it the best-selling British computer. By November 2016 they had sold 11 million units, and 12.5 million by March 2017, making it the third best-selling "general purpose computer". In July 2017, sales reached nearly 15 million, climbing to 19 million in March 2018. By December 2019, a total of 30 million devices had been sold.[non-primary source needed]
In 2021 and continuing through 2022, there are significant availability issues and Raspberry Pi products are difficult to obtain. The company explained its approach to the shortages in 2021  and April 2022, explaining that it was prioritising business and industrial customers; however major distributors are showing lead times in excess of 12 months on all products.
The situation is sufficiently long term that at least one automated stock checker is online.
we've beaten our wildest dreams by three orders of magnitude
you’ll still need an AC adapter that delivers 5 volts and at least 3 amps of power so, unless you already have one, your best bet might be to buy the official Raspberry Pi 4 power supply, which comes with a built-in cable and goes for $8 to $10.
Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W uses the same Broadcom BCM2710A1 SoC die as the launch version of Raspberry Pi 3
we say farewell to the 1GB model
we are reintroducing the 1GB variant at the $35 price point
2048 × 1152 monitor is the highest resolution the Pi's GPU can handle [presumably with non-low frame-rate ..] The monitors screen info confirms the GPU is outputting 2048×1152
I have managed to get 3840 x 2160 (4k x 2k) at 15Hz on a Seiki E50UY04 working
The Model B
Just because young teens led the way in computing in the 1980s doesn't mean it should, will or can happen again. Those outside the tech age bubble have better things to do.
The Foundation trustees tried very hard to get an agreement to use the BBC Micro name, right up to May 2011. /../ Eben touched on the subject a bit during his speech at the Beeb@30 celebration at the beginning of the month
both visible-light and infrared cameras based on the Sony IMX219 8-megapixel sensor, at the same low price of $25. They're available today from our partners RS Components and element14
On 25 November, it was confirmed that total sales of the Raspberry Pi have now topped 11 million.
Great call with @EbenUpton today. Congrats on 40 Million #RaspberryPi sold!
While, in total, the Pi Foundation also said it’s shipping over 42 million (Pi-powered) PCs to more than 100 countries.
With 43 million computers sold worldwide and 95% of its products exported outside the UK, the globe has grown fond of pocket-sized computers.
Upton tells us that approximately 46 million units have been manufactured to date.