A fedora made by Borsalino, with a pinch-front teardrop-shaped crown
A fedora made by Borsalino with a gutter-dent, side-dented crown, the front of the brim "snapped down" and the back "snapped up"

A fedora (/fəˈdɔːrə/)[1] is a hat with a soft brim and indented crown.[1][2] It is typically creased lengthwise down the crown and "pinched" near the front on both sides.[3] Fedoras can also be creased with teardrop crowns, diamond crowns, center dents, and others, and the positioning of pinches can vary. The typical crown height is 4.5 inches (11 cm). The term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, and eventually it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg.[2]

The fedora hat's brim is usually around 2.5 inches (6.4 cm) wide, but can be wider,[2] can be left raw-edged (left as cut), finished with a sewn overwelt or underwelt, or bound with a trim-ribbon. Stitched edge means that there is one or more rows of stitching radiating inward toward the crown. The Cavanagh edge is a welted edge with invisible stitching to hold it in place and is a very expensive treatment that can no longer be performed by modern hat factories.[4] Fedora hats are not to be confused with small brimmed hats called trilbies.[2][5]

Fedoras can be made of wool, cashmere, rabbit or beaver felt. These felts can also be blended to each other with mink or chinchilla[4][6] and rarely with vicuña, guanaco, cervelt,[7] or mohair. They can also be made of straw, cotton, waxed or oiled cotton, hemp, linen or leather.

A special variation is the rollable, foldaway or crushable fedora (rollable and crushable are not the same) with a certain or open crown (open-crown fedoras can be bashed and shaped in many variations). Special fedoras have a ventilated crown with grommets, mesh inlets or penetrations for a better air circulation. Fedoras can be lined or unlined and have a leather[8] or cloth[9] or ribbon sweatband. Small feathers are sometimes added as decoration. Fedoras can be equipped with a chinstrap, but this is uncommon.


The term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, and eventually it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg.[2] The word fedora comes from the title of an 1882 play by dramatist Victorien Sardou, Fédora, which was written for Sarah Bernhardt.[10] The play was first performed in the United States in 1889. Bernhardt played Princess Fédora Romazoff, the heroine of the play. During the play, Bernhardt – a noted cross-dresser – wore a center-creased, soft brimmed hat. The hat was fashionable for women, and the women's rights movement adopted it as a symbol.[11][12] After Edward, Prince of Wales (later the Duke of Windsor) started to wear them in 1924, it became popular among men for its stylishness and its ability to protect the wearer's head from the wind and weather.[11][12] Since the early part of the 20th century, many Haredi and other Orthodox Jews have made black fedoras normal to their daily wear.[13]

Fedoras in early American society

Douglas Fairbanks in 1918 speaking in front of a large crowd of people wearing hat styles ranging from the fedora to the bowler.

During the early twentieth century, a hat was a staple of men's fashion and would be worn in almost all public places. However, as a social custom and common courtesy, men would remove their hats when at home or when engaged in conversation with women.[14] In addition, the ability to own a hat was culturally considered a sign of wealth due to fashion being recognized as a status symbol. Only those with few economic resources would venture out without a hat.[15] The introduction of a new line of felt hats made from nutria, an animal similar to the beaver, helped establish the fedora as a durable product. Prices, in the first decade of the twentieth century, for a nutria fedora ranged from ninety-eight cents to two dollars and twenty-five cents.[15] Starting in the 1920s, fedoras began to rise in popularity after the Prince of Wales adopted the felt hat as his favored headwear. As a result, "the soft felt hat replaced the stiff hat as the best seller in the decade". The fedora soon took its place as a choice hat and joined other popular styles that included the derby and the homburg.[15]

In America during the 1940s, the brims of fedoras started to increase in width, while the British maintained a slightly smaller brim size. The colors of fedoras traditionally included shades of black, brown, and gray. However, this palette would grow at the onset of the second world war to include military themed colors such as khaki, blue, and green. One of the most prominent companies to sell fedoras was the department store Sears, Roebuck and Company. In addition, famous hat manufacturers which still exist today include Bailey, Borsalino, and Stetson.[15]

Women and fedoras

In the 1880s, long before the fedora became popular for men, French stage actress Sarah Bernhardt popularized the fedora for a female wearer. In the play Fédora by the French author Victorien Sardou, Bernhardt played Princess Fédora Romazoff.[16] It soon became a common fashion accessory for many women, particularly among activists campaigning for gender equality during the late nineteenth century.[17] The fedora was eventually adopted as a defining symbol of the women's rights movement.

Fedoras continue to be worn by women, but not quite to the same extent as in the early twentieth century. Women's fedoras vary in form, texture, and color. In addition, these fedoras come in almost every color from basic black to bright red and even in the occasional animal print.[18] Along with men's felt hats, women's fedoras were described as making a comeback in an article about 2007 fashion trends. Baseball caps, which had been the staple of headwear, were experiencing a decline in popularity amidst this "fedora renaissance".[19]

Make and form

A hat-making factory in the 1940s.

Fedoras are usually made by pressing a piece of felt over a mold, and using some kind of heat or sealant to help the felt keep its shape. In the past, molds were created by using a series of wooden blocks to create the shape of the hat, and the felt was pressed on with an iron.[20] The current method is to use metal molds and machinery to create enough pressure to form the shape of the hat.[21] After the general shape of the hat has been achieved, the hat makers attach some sort of decoration, usually a ribbon, between the brim and the crown of the hat. The brim is either left raw, or hemmed.[20] The fedora is considered a soft hat, which means that it is usually constructed from felt, fur, or animal hides.[22] There are variations from hat to hat, but the standard design includes a creased crown, angled brim, a pinch at the top of the hat, and some sort of decoration above the brim of the hat.[23] Men's fedoras especially tend to have stylized brims with edges that are turned down in the front and up in the back. As mentioned earlier, the width of the brim, overall size and color of the hats are subject to change with fashion trends. Women's hats also tend to have more elaborate decorations and slimmer designs.[22]

Because of the soft nature of the hat, many variations are possible with fedoras. One variation of the hat includes the Stetson playboy hat which was common in the 1940s. The Stetson playboy hat involved a marketing success story, with a simple variation on the general form of the fedora becoming a significant trend in America. Al Capone was fond of the playboy style. Many pictures of Capone depict him sporting a Stetson playboy hat.[23]

Contemporary takes on the fedora include asymmetrical brims, bright colors, eccentric patterns, and flashy decorations.[18] Some fedoras are now made from straw, and other unconventional materials. However, despite the increase of artistic hats, the most commonly worn fedoras are still neutral colored, with simple shape and design.[23]

In popular culture

Coach Tom Landry wore the hat while he was the head coach of the Dallas Cowboys. It would later become his trademark image. A cenotaph dedicated to Landry with a depiction of his fedora was placed in the official Texas State Cemetery in Austin at the family's request.[24] In addition the Cowboys wore a patch on their uniforms during the 2000 season depicting Landry's fedora.[25] His panel in the Cowboys “Ring of Honor” features a depiction of a fedora where a uniform number is shown for players.

Two Lupin III characters, Daisuke Jigen and Koichi Zenigata, wear fedoras as their regular wear; Jigen because he's a retired gangster, and Zenigata because his look was inspired by old-time detectives such as Dick Tracy.

Indiana Jones re-popularized the fedora in the Indiana Jones franchise.[26] The backstory of how he obtains the hat is told in the prologue of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, the third film of the series, and the character who gives him the hat is credited as "Fedora".

Tom Baker's Fourth Doctor from Doctor Who wears a fedora almost identical to that of Indiana Jones.

The character Freddy Krueger, from the Nightmare on Elm Street franchise, also wears a brown fedora.[27][28]

The fedora hat of the ninth president of Turkey, Süleyman Demirel, was a famous part of the president's image.[29][30]

Ice hockey coaches often wore one, most notably coaches Punch Imlach, Toe Blake, Billy Reay, and Murray Armstrong.[31][32][33][34]

In the 21st century, the fedora has made a reappearance in the fashion world along with other types of classic hats such as the porkpie and the homburg. In addition, the fedora has appeared in recent portrayals of movies and television shows that are set in the past, such as Mad Men (2007–15), Shutter Island (2010), and Boardwalk Empire (2010–14). Michael Jackson also frequently wore a fedora while performing on stage.[35]

By the early 21st century, the fedora had become a symbol of hipsters.[36] Vice has referred to the early 2000s as a "fedora renaissance", with celebrities like Johnny Depp and Pete Doherty wearing the hat. By 2016, the term "fedora" became derisively associated with neckbeard and incel stereotypes in online culture, with Vice stating "fedoras may be the single most-hated fashion accessory money can buy",[37] despite the fact that the hat in question is nearly always a trilby rather than a fedora. A popular meme featuring actor Jerry Messing tipping a trilby with the dialogue of "M'lady" is often associated with such spoofs of incel culture. A 2016 issue of The Unbeatable Squirrel Girl depicts Marvel Comics villain Mole Man reenacting the "M'lady" meme on the cover.[38]

In film noir

Humphrey Bogart wearing a fedora in the film Casablanca.

The fedora was worn by film actors such as Edward G. Robinson, George Raft and Humphrey Bogart.[39] The fedora was a characteristic of film noir and has been the chosen accessory of movie detectives and criminals alike. It was worn by Bogart as Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon (1941) and Philip Marlowe in The Big Sleep (1946). Peter Eliopoulos wrote in The 1930s: The Reality and the Promise: "The popular Bogart-styled fedora was worn slightly cocked, it was pulled down just above the eye line, so that the wearer peaked beneath the brim and through the cigarette smoke that gathered momentarily before curling itself around the top of the hat."[40]

Billy Wilder wrote and directed the film Fedora (1978), which takes its title from the female lead character played by Marthe Keller. In addition, fedoras are a strong theme throughout the picture. Most of Wilder's film's feature fedoras prominently in promotional materials as well as in the finished films.[41]

Gangsters and jazz

Fedoras were much associated with gangsters during Prohibition era in the United States, a connection coinciding with the height of the hat's popularity between the 1920s and the early 1950s.[11][12] In the second half of the 1950s, the fedora fell out of favor in a shift towards more informal clothing styles.[11][12] In addition, well-known gangsters such as Al Capone, Charles Luciano, and Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel used the fedora to create a "tough guy" image[citation needed].

Fedoras were an important accessory to the zoot suit ensemble which emerged onto the American fashion scene during the 1940s. Zoot suits were mainly associated with Mexican and African Americans and were largely worn in segregated minority communities. As a result, this style soon spread to local jazz musicians who adopted this look and brought it to their audiences.

The association of the fedora with the zoot suit and gangster culture has caused the general public to view it according to this limited connotation.[42]

In Orthodox Judaism

In Orthodox Judaism, fedoras have been an important addition to a man's wardrobe. Lithuanian yeshiva students in the first half of 20th century wore light hats during prayer and sometimes even while studying, as evident in a rare footage of the Ponevezh Yeshiva and a photo of the Lomza Yeshiva, both in Eastern Europe. Both the footage and the photo show students studying in their hats. Hasidic Jews wore black hats, albeit not fedoras, and in the later half of the 20th century, non-Hasidic (Lithuanian style) yeshiva students began to wear black fedoras (or dark blue or gray). Today, many yeshiva students and Orthodox men wear black fedoras for prayer and many even while walking outside. In recent years,[when?] Sephardic Jews have begun to wear black fedoras too.[43]

See also


  1. ^ a b "fedora". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-03-22.
  2. ^ a b c d e Kilgour, Ruth Edwards (1958). A Pageant of Hats Ancient and Modern. R. M. McBride Company.
  3. ^ Cotton, Elizabeth (1999). Hats. Stewart, Tabori & Chang.
  4. ^ a b Hat Glossary Retrieved 03.14.2016.
  5. ^ When a Fedora That Isn't a Fedora Is a Fedora Archived 2017-03-12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 03-09-2017.
  6. ^ Super felt Archived 2016-06-16 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2016-03-16.
  7. ^ Cervelt Retrieved 2016-03-14.
  8. ^ "Observations on Fedora Sweatbands, Size Tags, and Fedora Dating Tips". Publius Forum. 2 January 2011.
  9. ^ Sweatbands Archived 2016-03-14 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2016-03-15.
  10. ^ Encarta Dictionary, Microsoft Encarta Premium Suite 2004.
  11. ^ a b c d "History of Fedora Hats". History of Hats. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  12. ^ a b c d Rath, Robert (March 6, 2014). "The History And Abuse of The Fedora". The Escapist. Archived from the original on May 14, 2017. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  13. ^ Shields, Jody; Dugdale, John (1991). Hats: A Stylish History and Collector's Guide. Clarkson Potter.
  14. ^ Schoeffler, O. E. (1973). Esquire's Encyclopedia of 20th Century Men's Fashions. McGraw-Hill. pp. 323–342.
  15. ^ a b c d Amies, Hardy (2007). ABC of Men's Fashion. V&A Publications. pp. 21, 44, 57–58.
  16. ^ Marciano, John Bemelmans. 2009. Anonyponymous: the forgotten people behind everyday words. New York: Bloomsbury. p. 65. ISBN 9781596916531
  17. ^ "History of Fedora – Who Invented the Fedora Hat?". www.historyofhats.net. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  18. ^ a b Nestoras, Bessie (2013). "Fall for Autumn". Gifts & Decorative Accessories: 120–130. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07. Retrieved 2019-04-06 – via BYU Library.
  19. ^ Briere, Rachel R. (2007). "Crowning Glories: The Fedora is Making a Comeback Against the Baseball Cap". The Sun (Lowell, MA) – via Ebscohost.
  20. ^ a b Updike, Robin (2017). "A Hat for all Seasons Wayne Wichern". Ornament: 48–53.
  21. ^ Cohen, Edie. "Heads Above the Rest". Interior Design: 192–199.
  22. ^ a b Lukszo, Ula (2011). Noir Fashion and Noir as Fashion. Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 54–81.
  23. ^ a b c "Fedora Felt Hat Guide — Gentleman's Gazette". www.gentlemansgazette.com. 18 August 2017. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  24. ^ "Thomas Wade Landry". Texas State Cemetery. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
  25. ^ "ESPN DALLAS Hall of Fame - Tom Landry no longer top of mind". ESPN. January 2, 2010. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
  26. ^ Hellqvist, David (September 4, 2014). "The Hats: Heads Up". Port Magazine. Retrieved October 10, 2013. Harrison Ford sported a Herbert Johnson felt fedora as Indiana Jones in Raiders of the Lost Ark.
  27. ^ Reed Tucker (October 29, 2016). "How a strange man in a fedora inspired Wes Craven's Freddy Krueger". The New York Post. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  28. ^ John Squires (April 24, 2019). "Freddy Krueger Kicks Off Cryptozoic's New "Vinyl Terrorz" Toy Line". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  29. ^ Anadolu Agency. "Turkey's 9th President Suleyman Demirel dies at 91". Getty Images.
  30. ^ "HATS: A POLITICAL SYMBOL OF TURKISH HISTORY". Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  31. ^ "Linesman John D'Amico sits on top of the boards as head coach George..." Getty Images. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  32. ^ "Montreal Canadiens coach Hector Toe Blake on bench with team during..." Getty Images. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  33. ^ "Chicago Blackhawks head coach Billy Reay during game vs Boston..." Getty Images. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  34. ^ "Murray Armstrong Hockey Fund". University of Denver Pioneer Movement. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  35. ^ Millar, Jamie (5 August 2015). "The best fedoras from film and TV history". British GQ. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  36. ^ Rutenberg, Jim (August 5, 2012). "Montauk's Hipster Fatigue". The New York Times. pp. ST1. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
  37. ^ Allegretti, David (November 21, 2016). "I Wore a Fedora for a Week to See if It Would Ruin My Life".>
  38. ^ Ryan North (w), Erica Henderson (a). "The Unbeatable Squirrel Girl" Squirrel Girl Vol.2 10, vol. 2, no. 10 (July 27, 2016). Marvel Comics.
  39. ^ Eliopoulos, Peter (2016). "The Fedora: A Statement of an Era". In Bennington, J. Bret; Da Silva, Zenia Sacks; D'Innocenzo, Michael; Pugliese, Stanislao G. (eds.). The 1930s: The Reality and the Promise. Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 186. ISBN 9781443892780.
  40. ^ Eliopoulos, The 1930s: The Reality and the Promise, p.186
  41. ^ Phillips, Gene D. (2010). Some Like it Wilder. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky.
  42. ^ McClendon, Alphonso D. (2015). A Stylish History of Jazz. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 15–42.
  43. ^ "Sefardim and Hats - Right or wrong?". Theyeshivaworld.com. Yeshiva World News. Retrieved August 19, 2020.