|Literal meaning||Qing dynasty official hat|
|English language name|
|English language||Official hats of the Qing dynasty / Qing official headwear / Mandarin hat|
Qingdai guanmao (Chinese: 清代官帽; pinyin: qīngdài guānmào; lit. 'Qing dynasty official hat'), also referred as the Official hats of the Qing dynasty, Qing official headwear, and Mandarin hat in English, is a generic term which refers to the types of guanmao (Chinese: 官帽; pinyin: guānmào; lit. 'official hat'), a headgear, worn by the officials of the Qing dynasty in China. The Qingdai guanmao typically forms of part of the qizhuang system as opposed to the hanfu system and were completely different from the types of guanmao used in the previous dynasties. There were various form of Qingdai guanmao, and some were designed to be worn based on the winter or summer seasons; while others used varieties of decorations and adornment, such as the use of peacock feathers which could vary between one and three peacock eyes; these peacock feathers were bestowed by the Emperor to his officials who had accomplished meritorious services and the greatest number of peacock eyes represents the highest honour bestowed.
Xiaomao (Chinese: 小帽; lit. 'little hat') was a type of daily hat worn by the officials of the Qing dynasty; however, it actually dated from the late Ming dynasty and was popular from the late Ming to the end of the Republic of China period.: 13 The xiaomao was mostly black in colour and was made of 6 separate pieces and was therefore also called the "six-in-one hat"; it was made out of gauze in summer and autumn while damask was used in spring and winter seasons.: 13 The inside of the hat however was red in colour; there was a knot on the top of the hat which was typically made of red threads.: 13 When worn by common people, the knot is however black in colour and when there are funerals, the knot is white in colour.: 13
Nuanmao (Chinese: 暖帽; lit. 'warm hat') was the official hat worn by civil officials in the Qing dynasty during the winter seasons.
Liangmao (Chinese: 涼帽; lit. 'cool hat') was the official hat worn by the officials in the Qing dynasty during the summer seasons; it was a typical form of Manchu headwear items in qizhuang.
It consisted of a black velvet cap in winter, or a hat woven in rattan or similar materials in summer, both with a button on the top. The button or knob would become a finial during formal court ceremonies held by the Emperor.
Officials would have to change their tops on the hat, for non-formal ceremonies or daily businesses. Red silk tassels extended down from the finial to cover the hat, and a large peacock feather (with one to three "eyes") could be attached to the back of the hat, should the merit of wearing it have been granted by the emperor.
The colour and shape of the finial depended on the wearer's grade: