Chinese expedition to Tibet (1910)
Result Qing victory
 Qing dynasty Tibet
Thirty-nine Hor tribes [zh]
Kingdom of Powo
Commanders and leaders
Qing dynasty Zhao Erfeng
Qing dynasty Zhong Ying [zh]
13th Dalai Lama
Kelsang Gyaltsen
Tsarong Dazang Dramdul

The 1910 Chinese expedition to Tibet or the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1910[1] was a military campaign of the Qing dynasty to establish direct rule in Tibet in early 1910. The expedition occupied Lhasa on February 12 and officially deposed the 13th Dalai Lama on the 25th.[2][page needed]

Qing rule of Tibet was established in the early 18th century after the 1720 Chinese expedition to Tibet.

After the British expedition to Tibet in 1904 and the Sino-British treaty in 1906, the Qing dynasty sent the 1910 expedition to Tibet for establishing direct rule and occupied Lhasa.[3] As Professor Dawa Norbu stated, the British expedition and Treaty of Lhasa led to the Qing government to ensure that they held firm control over Tibet. Afterwards, the Dalai Lama then fled to India.[4]

After the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution and the Xinhai Lhasa turmoil in 1911–1912, the Qing dynasty collapsed and was succeeded by the Republic of China. The 13th Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa and proclaimed an independent Tibet. All remaining Qing forces were expelled from Tibet.

See also


  1. ^ Sky Train: Tibetan Women on the Edge of History, by Canyon Sam, p258
  2. ^ Melvyn C. Goldstein (1989). A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State.
  3. ^ Rai, C (2022). Darjeeling: The Unhealed Wound. Blue Rose Publishers. p. 55.
  4. ^ Norbu, Dawa (2011), Tibet: The Road Ahead, Ebury Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4464-5968-3