Provincial Assemblies
Traditional Chinese省諮議局
Simplified Chinese省谘议局

The 1909 Chinese provincial elections were held to elect the members of the Provincial Assemblies (Chinese: 省諮議局) of China. The election was held between April and June 1909 in the 22 provinces of China as part of the New Policies as a move toward constitutional monarchy. The Provincial Assemblies were convened on 14 October 1909 and were responsible for electing half of the members of the imperial Advisory Council convened subsequently in 1910. These provincial assemblies survived even after the 1911 Xinhai Revolution that founded the Republic of China and replaced the Qing Empire. They were ordered to dissolve by the President Yuan Shikai.

About 1.7 million men, or 0.42 percent of a population of 410 million, were registered as eligible voters. It was marked as one of the most important episodes of Chinese democracy as "it [was] the first day in Chinese history that people can elect their representative," as promoted by newspaper Shi Pao, although a county council election in Tientsin had been held earlier in 1907.[1] The Constitutionalists gained grounds in the election and became more active in the constitutional movement pushing for the establishment of constitutional monarchy.

Background

Chihli Provincial Assembly, Tientsin
Chihli Provincial Assembly, Tientsin
Kiangsu Provincial Assembly, Nanking
Kiangsu Provincial Assembly, Nanking
Hupeh Provincial Assembly, Wuhan
Hupeh Provincial Assembly, Wuhan
Kwangtung Provincial Assembly, Canton
Kwangtung Provincial Assembly, Canton

The Qing Empire in the early 20th century was undergoing a series of New Policies, including the proposal for a constitutional monarchy. In 1907, the Imperial Government promulgated the Constitutional Preparation Program that aimed to establish a National Assembly and 21 Provincial Assemblies on a provisional basis.[2] In July 1908, the 115-clause "Regulations for Provincial Assembly Elections" was promulgated to lay out the property and education requirements for the candidates.[1]

Electoral system

The minimum age of candidate in the elections were 30 years old and the minimum age of voter was 25. Middle-school education background and property worthy of 5,000 yuan were required for the electorate, while seventh rank for the civil office or fifth rank of military office, shengyuan level of Imperial Civil Examination degree and three year experience in public affairs or school administration were also required for candidate or electorate. Illiterate and women were excluded from standing or voting.[2]

The elections adopted the double voting system which was borrowed from Japan, in which the preliminary voting was to choose the electors who cast the second ballot to elect the fixed number of assembly members.[2]

Voter and membership statistics

No. Province Chinese Pinyin Population Voters % Seats
01 Chihli 直隸省 Zhílì 29,932,000 163,000 0.62 140
02 Fengtien 奉天省 Fèngtiān 12,133,000 53,000 0.43 50
03 Kirin 吉林省 Jílín 5,580,000 15,000 0.27 30
04 Heilungkiang 黑龍江省 Hēilóngjiāng 2,029,000 5,000 0.23 30
05 Shantung 山東省 Shāndōng 30,988,000 119,000 0.38 100
06 Honan 河南省 Hénán 35,900,000 96
07 Shansi 山西省 Shānxī 12,269,000 54,000 0.43 86
08 Kiangsu 江蘇省 Jiāngsū 32,283,000 162,000 0.50 121
09 Anhwei 安徽省 Ānhuī 16,229,000 78,000 0.48 83
10 Kiangsi 江西省 Jiāngxī 23,987,000 93
11 Fukien 福建省 Fújiàn 15,849,000 50,000 0.39 72
12 Chekiang 浙江省 Zhèjiāng 21,440,000 90,070 0.42 114
13 Hupeh 湖北省 Húběi 25,590,000 113,000 0.38 80
14 Hunan 湖南省 Húnán 27,390,000 100,000 0.36 82
15 Shensi 陝西省 Shǎnxī 10,271,096 29,000 0.29 63
16 Kansu 甘肅省 Gānsù 4,990,000 9,000 0.19 43
17 Sinkiang 新疆省 Xīnjiāng N/A N/A N/A N/A
18 Szechwan 四川省 Sìchuān 48,130,000 191,000 0.39 105
19 Kwangtung 廣東省 Guǎngdōng 28,010,000 142,000 0.49 91
20 Kwangsi 廣西省 Guǎngxī 8,747,000 40,000 0.46 57
21 Yunnan 雲南省 Yúnnán 9,467,000 68
22 Kweichow 貴州省 Guìzhōu 9,665,000 42,000 0.42 39
Total 410,879,096 1,700,000 0.42 1,643

Election results

90 percent of the gentry who had a traditional civil examination degree, in which the examination system was abolished in 1905, were elected. The average age of the elected members was 40. The Constitutionalists campaigned for the election and they were divided into different small factions by background and political beliefs. Among those elected who later became famous were Chang Chien in Kiangsu, Tan Yen-kai in Hunan and Tang Hua-lung in Hupeh who were all elected speakers for their respective assemblies and leaders of the constitutional movement.[3] Due to the double round system of voting which led to instances of bribery, corruption incidents were observed.[2]

The elected member of the provincial assemblies elected the 98 members, consisting of half of the seats, in the imperial Advisory Council. As the Constitutionalists gained grounds in the assemblies, the began to form different political groups and further pushed for the implementation of constitutional monarchy.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Chang, David Cheng. "Democracy Is in Its Details: The 1909 Provincial Assembly Elections and the Print Media". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d Chang, P'eng-yuan. "Provincial Assemblies: The Emergence of Political Participation, 1909-1914". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ "昙花一现的"咨议局"". 中国共产党新闻.