Two 4th and 3rd century BC terracotta statues from Athens depicting Ancient Greeks wearing the kausia.

The kausia (Ancient Greek: καυσία[1]) was an ancient Macedonian flat hat.


It was worn during the Hellenistic period but perhaps even before the time of Alexander the Great[2] and was later used as a protection against the sun by the poorer classes in Rome.[3]

Depictions of the kausia can be found on a variety of coins and statues found from the Mediterranean to the Greco-Bactrian kingdom and the Indo-Greeks in northwestern Indus. The Persians referred to both the Macedonians and the rest of the Greeks as "Yauna" (Ionians), but made a distinction between "Yauna by the sea" and those "with hats that look like shields" (yauna takabara), probably referring to the Macedonian kausia hat.[4] According to Bonnie Kingsley the kausia may have came to the Mediterranean as a campaign hat worn by Alexander and veterans of his campaigns in the Indus[5] but according to Ernst Fredricksmeyer the kausia was too established a staple of the Macedonian wardrobe for it to have been imported from Asia to Macedonia.[6]

A modern descendant of the hat may be the Pakol: the familiar and remarkably similar men's hat from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Jammu and Kashmir.[7]


See also


  1. ^ Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "καυσία". A Greek-English Lexicon – via Perseus.
  2. ^ Kingsley, Bonnie M. (1984). "The Kausia Diadematophoros". American Journal of Archaeology. 88 (1): 66–68. doi:10.2307/504602. JSTOR 504602. S2CID 193037990.
  3. ^ Miles gloriosus. Harvard University Press. 1997. ISBN 9780674574373.
  4. ^ Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-4051-7936-2.
  5. ^ Kingsley, Bonnie M. (1981). The Cap That Survived Alexander. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. 85. p. 39.
  6. ^ Fredricksmeyer, Ernst (1986). Alexander the Great and the Macedonian kausia. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. Vol. 116. pp. 215–227.
  7. ^ Worthington, Ian; Geoffrey, Nicholas; Hammond, Lemprière (1994). Ventures into Greek history. Clarendon Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0198149286.