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From top, left to right: Filipinos (Igorot), Kenyans, Ukrainians and Peruvians dressed in traditional garments

A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, traditional clothing, traditional garment or traditional regalia) expresses a national identity through clothing or costume, which is usually associated with a specific region or period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital, or religious status. If the costume is used to represent the culture or identity of a specific ethnic group, it is usually known as ethnic costume (also ethnic dress, ethnic wear, ethnic clothing, traditional ethnic wear or traditional ethnic garment). Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for traditional festivals and formal wear. The word "costume" in this context is sometimes considered pejorative due to the multiple senses of the word, and in such cases "clothing", "garments" or "regalia" can be substituted without offense.[1][2][3][4]

Following the rise of romantic nationalism[5] in parts of Europe, pre-industrial peasantry came to serve as models for all that appeared genuine and desirable. These garments may be made from traditional pre-industrial textiles, in regional styles.

In areas where Western dress codes have become typical, traditional garments are often worn during special events or celebrations, particularly those connected to cultural tradition, heritage, or pride. International events may cater to non-Western attendees with a compound dress code such as "business suit or national dress".

There are also contemporary societies in which traditional garments are required by sumptuary laws. In Bhutan, for example, the driglam namzha mandates what citizens should wear in public spaces.[6] Bhutanese citizens must wear the traditional clothing of the Ngalop people, including a gho and kera for men and a kira and wonju for women,[7] in or near "monastic fortresses (dzong), monasteries (gompa) and temples (lhakhang), and in government buildings, including when on official business, in schools and institutions, and at official occasions and assemblies".[8] Karin Altmann states that the intent behind this law "was to prevent specific features of Bhutanese culture from disappearing," and "to emphasise national identity",[8] but it has contributed to much conflict due to the sheer ethnic and cultural diversity of Bhutan.[9]

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Notes

  1. ^ See wikt:costume#Usage notes[better source needed]
  2. ^ Reese, Debbie (15 May 2007). "The word "costume" and American Indians". American Indians in Children's Literature. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  3. ^ Arce, Isis (4 February 2019). "Native Regalia is NOT a Costume!". Voices of Native Youth. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  4. ^ Higgins, Julissa (7 May 2018). "Opinion: Why It's Time to Stop Using the Word "Garb"". The Fashion Studies Journal. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  5. ^ Martinez, Gimeno; Leerssen, Joep (2022). "Dress, design : Introductory survey essay". Encyclopedia of Romantic Nationalism in Europe. Amsterdam: Study Platform on Interlocking Nationalisms. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  6. ^ Shah, Shalini (October 31, 2016). "Bhutan's Queen Mother Sangay Choden Wangchuck on weaves in everyday life". Vogue India. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  7. ^ Lhamo, Passang (April 2, 2019). "Driglam Namzha: Why The Bhutanese Do What They Do". Daily Bhutan. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  8. ^ a b Altmann, Karin (2016). Fabric of Life - Textile Arts in Bhutan: Culture, Tradition and Transformation. Berlin, München, Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 30–32. doi:10.1515/9783110428612. ISBN 9783110428612.
  9. ^ "Lhotshampas". Minority Rights. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  10. ^ Chatterjee, Saheli. "Anthropology in Fashion: Cultural Clothing in Central Africa". YOAIR Blog. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  11. ^ "Traditional Tuesday: Cameroon edition". Nene Fashion. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  12. ^ Rabimov, Stephan (July 12, 2017). "Gabon's 'Heritage' On Display At The New York Fashion Week: Men's". Forbes. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  13. ^ "Come Discover the Culture of Comoros". Adore Comores. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  14. ^ a b c Chatterjee, Saheli. "Anthropology in Fashion: Cultural Clothing in Eastern Africa". YOAIR Blog. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  15. ^ a b c d Chatterjee, Saheli. "Anthropology in Fashion: Cultural Clothing in Southern Africa". YOAIR Blog. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  16. ^ Kanungo, Pallavi (February 23, 2023). "Ohorokova: The African attire born out of protest". HT School. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  17. ^ a b Chatterjee, Saheli. "Anthropology in Fashion: Cultural Clothing in Western Africa". YOAIR Blog. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  18. ^ a b Chatterjee, Saheli. "Anthropology in Fashion: Cultural Clothing in Central Asia". YOAIR Blog. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  19. ^ "The Clothing of Taiwan's Indigenous People– Men and Women's Clothes". Digital Taiwan - Culture & Nature. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  20. ^ "Dress and Dressing Up". Taiwan Memory Exhibition. National Central Library. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  21. ^ "Bunun". Council of Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  22. ^ Hejzlarová, Tereza (2019). "Traditions and Innovations in the Clothing of Southern Altaians". Annals of the Náprstek Museum. 40 (1): 13–17. doi:10.2478/anpm-2019-0002. S2CID 208534450. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  23. ^ a b c d e Chatterjee, Saheli. "Anthropology in Fashion: Cultural Clothing in South Asia". YOAIR Blog. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  24. ^ Al Mamun, Abdullah (May 28, 2023). "Traditional Dress of Bangladesh That Reflect Our Culture and Heritage". Bangladeshi Heritage. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  25. ^ "What to Wear in Bangladesh". whattowearonvacation. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
  26. ^ a b Chatterjee, Saheli. "Anthropology in Fashion: Cultural Clothing in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan". YOAIR Blog. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  27. ^ Sawe, Benjamin (April 25, 2017). "What Are Examples Of Traditional Indian Clothing?". WorldAtlas. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  28. ^ a b c d e Chatterjee, Saheli. "Anthropology in Fashion: Cultural Clothing in Southeast Asia". YOAIR Blog. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  29. ^ Phelan, Miriam. "Sephardi Dress". Jewish Museum London. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  30. ^ "Traditional Dress". The Museum of Russian Art. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  31. ^ National Center of Folk Culture "Ivan Honchar Museum". "Get the Ukrainian Look: Ukrainian Folk Dress". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  32. ^ Béni, Alexandra (January 18, 2018). "Get to know the invaluable Hungarian folk costumes". Daily News Hungary. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  33. ^ The State Ethnographic Museum in Warsaw. "Regional Types - Traditional Polish Folk Costumes". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  34. ^ "Estonian Folk Costumes". rahvaroivad.ee. NGO Estonian National Costume (MTÜ Rahvarõivas). Retrieved December 23, 2023.
  35. ^ "The National Costume Center of Finland". craftmuseum.fi. Craft Museum of Finland. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  36. ^ "Latvian National Costumes". The National Costume Center SENĀ KLĒTS. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  37. ^ "National Costumes". Lithuanian National Culture Centre. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  38. ^ "Bunad history". bunadogfolkedrakt.no. Norsk institutt for bunad og folkedrakt (Norwegian Institute for Bunad and Folk Costume). Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  39. ^ a b "Swedish Traditional Clothing: The Ultimate Guide". seekscandinavia.com. Seek Scandinavia. May 31, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  40. ^ Welin, Matilda (January 10, 2023). "The Scandinavian Folk Clothing Right for Now". The Collection. BBC. Archived from the original on March 15, 2023. Retrieved February 27, 2024.
  41. ^ "Носиите – Жеравна 2014". Nosia.bg. 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
  42. ^ "Български народни носии – България в стари снимки и пощенски картички". Retrobulgaria.com. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
  43. ^ a b Condra, Jill, ed. (2013). Encyclopedia of National Dress, Vol. I. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 123. ISBN 9780313376375.
  44. ^ "Fijians of Indian Descent – Clothing". Think Pacific. Think Pacific Limited. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  45. ^ "Check out our iconic products: Mother Hubbard dresses". Ardici. Ardici: Artisanat de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  46. ^ McDonald, Hamish (January 18, 2023). "Papua New Guinea's 'bilums' weave together function, fashion". Nikkei Asia. Mount Hagen, Papua New Guinea. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  47. ^ a b "Weaving and clothing". archives.anu.edu.au. Australian National University. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  48. ^ "Tapa: Pacific Style - Solomon Islands tapa". tepapa.govt.nz. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  49. ^ "Traditional Tapa Valued in Tikopia". Solomon Times. Honiara, Solomon Islands. March 5, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  50. ^ Leigh, Carolyn; Perry, Ron. "Solomon Islands jewelry". Art-Pacific.com. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  51. ^ "Breastplate (Tema, Tambe, or Tepatu)". metmuseum.org. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  52. ^ Burt, Ben (March 1990). "Kwara'ae Costume Ornaments". Expedition Magazine. Vol. 32, no. 1. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  53. ^ Cummings, Maggie (2013). "Looking Good: The Cultural Politics of the Island Dress for Young Women in Vanuatu" (PDF). The Contemporary Pacific. 25 (1): 33–65. doi:10.1353/cp.2013.0007. hdl:10125/32890. S2CID 145598013. Retrieved November 7, 2023.