Hanfu also includes accessories, such as footwear. There were many etiquette which rule people's daily lives, and this included the use and etiquette of shoes and socks wearing.


Collectively, shoes are typically called (履) since the Han dynasty.[1] In the Qin dynasty, shoes were referred as ju (屦).[1] The word xie (鞋) eventually replaced the word to become a general name for shoes.[2]

Since the ancient times, Chinese shoes came in various kinds; there were leather shoes (made of tanbark and pelt), cloth shoes (made of silk, hemp, damask, brocade, and crepe), and straw shoes (made of leaves and stems of cattail, corn leaves, and kudzu), ji (屐; wooden clogs).[1] Han Chinese typically wore (regular shoes), xi (shoes with thick soles), and ji (wooden clogs).[3][4] Different shoes were worn based on their appropriateness for specific occasions; shoes also denoted the social ranks of its wearers.[citation needed] Lü (履) were worn for formal occasions whereas ji (屐) was used for informal occasions.[4]

Types of Footwear
Name Definition Description Period Images
Ju (屦) Shoes Some shoes worn in Qin were square-headed; they were generally worn by archers. Qin dynasty
Lü (履) or Xie


Xieqiao (鞋翘)

or Yuntouxie(云头鞋)

Curled up Shoe Some ancient Chinese shoes had curled up-shoes, i.e. shoes with rising toe caps, and could come in different shapes, such as tiger heads and phoenixes.[1] Han – Unknown
Cailu (草履)

or caixie (草鞋)

Straw shoes, or straw sandals.[5] Straw shoes were worn by almost all people in ancient China regardless of social ranks; nomadic tribes were the exception. Different types of leaves and leaves would be woven together to create these types of shoes. Ancient-modern
Lianlü (蓮履) Lotus shoes Lotus shoes were worn by women who had bound feet. Exact date of origin is unknown. Based on folk stories, it may have appeared in the Five dynasties period or in the Sui dynasty. Unknown – Modern
Hutou xie


Tiger-head shoes Also known as "tiger shoes".[6] These shoes were worn by Han Chinese Chinese children to scare off bad spirits.[7][8] They are usually worn along with the tiger head hat.[9][8] They vary in styles depending on regional culture.[6] Unknown – present day Child's shoes, China, Shanghai, Qing dynasty, 1800s AD – Östasiatiska museet, Stockholm – DSC09539
Xiuhua xie


Embroidered shoes Also known as Chinese shoes, Chinese-style embroidered shoes, and Chinese slippers, are a well-known sub-type of traditional Chinese cloth shoes (中国布鞋);There are many shoe styles. The xiuhuaxie are characterized by its use of elaborate and colourful Chinese embroideries to create pattern on the shoes.The traditional handicraft of making xiuhuaxie is fully indigenous to China. Spring and Autumn period – present day
Ji (屐) Wooden Clogs were shoes with two bars running perpendicular under the sole.[1] In Han dynasty, clogs were used on women's wedding day; they were decorated with colourful designs and ribbons.[1]
In the Jin dynasty, a new type of clogs were made. The sole, upper and bars were made with a single, whole piece of wood.[1]
A clog with removable bars, called "Lord Xie Shoe"; it was called after the Southern dynasties period poet Xie Lingyun whose creation of the shoe is attributed to.[1]
Xueji (靴屐) Boot-like clogs The clogs which were worn in Southern China gradually became more boot-like after the Tang dynasty.[3]
Xue (靴) Leather boots Leather boots were introduced by King Wuling of Zhao. They were generally worn by generals and calvarymen in Qin dynasty.[citation needed] The Han Chinese also made women's boots.[3] In the Northerners wore leather boots when horseback riding in the Northern and Southern dynasties.[3] Zhou-Present day


See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Yang, Shaorong (2004). Traditional Chinese clothing : costumes, adornments & culture (1st ed.). San Francisco: Long River Press. p. 53. ISBN 1-59265-019-8. OCLC 52775158.
  2. ^ "History of Traditional Chinese Hanfu Shoes – 2021". www.newhanfu.com. 2020. Retrieved 2021-03-28.
  3. ^ a b c d Hsu, Cho-yun (2012). China: A New Cultural History. Masters of Chinese Studies (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0231528184.
  4. ^ a b Dien, Albert E. (2007). Six dynasties civilization. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-300-07404-8. OCLC 72868060.
  5. ^ Bonds, Alexandra B. (2019). Beijing opera costumes : the visual communication of character and culture. New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-138-06942-8. OCLC 1019842143.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  6. ^ a b Chen, Hui (2017). "Research on Innovation and Application of Styling Elements of Tiger Head Shoes". Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Art Studies: Science, Experience, Education (ICASSEE 2017). Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research. Vol. 171. Atlantis Press. pp. 192–197. doi:10.2991/icassee-17.2018.42. ISBN 978-94-6252-438-5.
  7. ^ Garrett, Valery M. (2007). Chinese dress : from the Qing Dynasty to the Present. Tokyo: Tuttle Pub. ISBN 978-0-8048-3663-0. OCLC 154701513.
  8. ^ a b Jin, Zhilin; 靳之林. (2004). Chinese folk arts. Dehua Wang, Bei Jin, 金蓓. Beijing: China International Press. p. 66. ISBN 7-5085-0611-1. OCLC 61214717.
  9. ^ China National Silk Museum. "中国丝绸博物馆". www.chinasilkmuseum.com. Retrieved 4 February 2021.