John Money
Money in 1996
John William Money

(1921-07-08)8 July 1921
Morrinsville, New Zealand
Died7 July 2006(2006-07-07) (aged 84)
Alma materVictoria University of Wellington
Harvard University
AwardsJames McKeen Cattell Fellow Award (1992)
Scientific career
InstitutionsJohns Hopkins University
InfluencedRichard Green, Kenneth Zucker

John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a New Zealand American psychologist, sexologist and professor at Johns Hopkins University known for his research on human sexual behavior and gender.

Working with endocrinologist Claude Migeon, Money established the Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic, the first clinic in the United States to perform sexual reassignment surgeries.[1] Money advanced the use of more accurate terminology in sex research, coining the terms gender role and sexual orientation.[2][3] Despite widespread popular belief, Money did not coin 'gender identity'.[4] Money pioneered drug treatment for sex offenders in order to extinguish their sex drives.[5] He began testing anti-androgen medications on offenders as early as 1966, which yielded successful results.[6]

Since the 1990s, Money's work and research has been subject to significant academic and public scrutiny.[7] A 1997 academic study criticized Money's work in many respects, particularly in regard to the involuntary sex-reassignment of the child David Reimer, and Money's sexual abuse of Reimer and his twin brother when they were children.[8][9] Some of Money's sessions involved Money forcing the two children to perform sexual activities with each other, which Money then photographed. David Reimer lived a troubled life, eventually committing suicide at 38; his brother died of an overdose at age 36.[10][11]

Money's writing has been translated into many languages and includes around 2,000 articles, books, chapters and reviews. He received around 65 honors, awards and degrees in his lifetime.[2]


Money was born in Morrinsville, New Zealand, to a Protestant[12] family of English and Welsh descent.[13] He attended Hutt Valley High School[14] and initially studied psychology at Victoria University of Wellington,[15] graduating with a double master's degree in psychology and education in 1944.[16][17] He was a junior member of the psychology faculty at the University of Otago in Dunedin.

In 1947, at the age of 26, Money emigrated to the United States to study at the Psychiatric Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. He left Pittsburgh and earned his PhD from Harvard University in 1952.

Money proposed and developed several theories related to the topics of gender identity and gender roles, and coined terms like gender role[18] and lovemap. He popularised the term paraphilia (appearing in the DSM-III, which would later replace perversions) and introduced the term sexual orientation in place of sexual preference, arguing that attraction is not necessarily a matter of free choice.[2][3] Although often misattributed to him, Money did not coin the term 'gender identity'.[4]

Money was a professor of pediatrics and medical psychology at Johns Hopkins University from 1951 until his death. In 1960 and 1961, he co-authored two papers with Richard Green, "Incongruous Gender Role: Nongenital Manifestations in Prepubertal Boys" and "Effeminacy in Prepubertal Boys: Summary of Eleven Cases and Recommendations for Case Management."[19][20]

Money (right) with sexologist Romano Forleo [it] and his wife in Rome, 1996

Money established the Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic in 1965 along with Claude Migeon who was the head of pediatric endocrinology at Johns Hopkins. The hospital began performing sexual reassignment surgery in 1966, and was the first clinic in the United States to do so.[1][21][22] At Johns Hopkins, Money was also involved with the Sexual Behaviors Unit, which ran studies on sex-reassignment surgery.

Money pioneered the use of drug treatment for sex offenders to extinguish their sex drives.[5][23] According to a 1987 paper, he employed the drug Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate) for use on sex offenders at Johns Hopkins beginning in 1966. The practice later spread in the United States and Europe.[6] In 2002 he received the Magnus Hirschfeld Medal from the German Society for Social-Scientific Sexuality Research.

Money held a series of unsuccessful theories relating to Jacob's Syndrome. Jacob's syndrome is a chromosomal condition in which an individual is born with XYY sex chromosomes. Jacob's syndrome is today considered to have the mildest effects among sex-chromosomal based conditions, causing no major developmental differences. It had been incorrectly thought to cause severe developmental problems. John Money unsuccessfully attempted to treat XYY boys and men (ages 15 to 37) with a history of behavioral or educational problems by chemical castration using high-dose Depo-Provera. The study failed: many participants suffered weight gain and some committed suicide, and the case is often cited as a breach of scientific ethics.[24]

Money was also an early supporter of New Zealand's arts, both literary and visual. In 2002, as his Parkinson's disease worsened, Money donated a substantial portion of his art collection to the Eastern Southland Art Gallery in Gore, New Zealand.[25] In 2003, the New Zealand Prime Minister, Helen Clark, opened the John Money wing at the Eastern Southland Gallery.[26]

Money died 7 July 2006, one day before his 85th birthday, in Towson, Maryland,[27] of complications from Parkinson's disease.[28]

Books on sexology

Further information: Sexual identity, Gender identity, and Gender role

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Money co-edited a 1969 book, Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment, which helped bring more acceptance to sexual reassignment surgery and transsexual individuals.

Money introduced numerous definitions related to gender in journal articles in the 1950s, many of them as a result of his studies of intersex morphology. His definition of gender is based on his understanding of sex differences among human beings. According to Money, the fact that one sex produces ova and the other sex produces sperm is the irreducible criterion of sex difference. However, there are other sex-derivative differences that follow in the wake of this primary dichotomy. These differences involve the way urine is expelled from the human body and other questions of sexual dimorphism. According to Money's theory, sex-adjunctive differences are typified by the smaller size of females and their problems in moving around while nursing infants. This then makes it more likely that the males do the roaming and hunting.[citation needed]

Sex-arbitrary differences are those that are purely conventional: for example, color selection (baby blue for boys, pink for girls). Some of the latter differences apply to life activities, such as career opportunities for men versus women. Finally, Money created the now-common term gender role which he differentiated from the concept of the more traditional terminology sex role. This grew out of his studies of intersex people.

In his studies of intersex people, Money alleged that there are six variables that define sex. While in the average person all six would line up unequivocally as either all "male" or "female", in hermaphrodites any one or more than one of these could be inconsistent with the others, leading to various kinds of anomalies. In his seminal 1955 paper he defined these factors as:[29]

  1. assigned sex and sex of rearing
  2. external genital morphology
  3. internal reproductive structures
  4. hormonal and secondary sex characteristics
  5. gonadal sex
  6. chromosomal sex

and added,

"Patients showing various combinations and permutations of these six sexual variables may be appraised with respect to a seventh variable: 7. Gender role and orientation as male or female, established while growing up."[29]

He then defined gender role as;

"all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman, respectively. It includes, but is not restricted to sexuality in the sense of eroticism. Gender role is appraised in relation to the following: general mannerisms, deportment and demeanor; play preferences and recreational interests; spontaneous topics of talk in unprompted conversation and casual comment; content of dreams, daydreams and fantasies; replies to oblique inquiries and projective tests; evidence of erotic practices, and, finally, the person's own replies to direct inquiry."[29]

Money made the concept of gender a broader, more inclusive concept than one of masculine/feminine. For him, gender included not only one's status as a man or a woman, but was also a matter of personal recognition, social assignment, or legal determination; not only on the basis of one's genitalia but also on the basis of somatic and behavioral criteria that go beyond genital differences. In 1972, Money presented his theories in Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, a college level textbook. The book featured David Reimer as an example of gender reassignment.[citation needed]

This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, there are terms in this section that require explanation as they are technical jargon used in Money's theoretical conceptualizing and do not have broad understanding. Please help clarify the section. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In his book Gay, Straight and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation, Money develops a conception of "bodymind".[30] "Bodymind" is a way for scientists, in developing a science about sexuality, to move on from the platitudes of dichotomy between nature versus nurture, innate versus the acquired, biological versus the social, and psychological versus the physiological. He suggested that all of these capitalize on the ancient, pre-Platonic, pre-biblical conception of body versus the mind, and the physical versus the spiritual. In coining the term "bodymind", in this sense, Money wishes to move beyond these very ingrained principles of our folk or vernacular psychology.

Money also developed a view of "Concepts of Determinism" which, transcultural, transhistorical, and universal, all people have in common, sexologically or otherwise.[31] These include pairbondage, troopbondage, abidance, ycleptance, foredoomance, with these coping strategies: adhibition (engagement), inhibition, explication. Money suggested that the concept of "threshold"[32] – the release or inhibition of sexual (or other) behavior – is most useful for sex research as a substitute for any concept of motivation. Moreover, it confers the distinct advantage of having continuity and unity to what would otherwise be a highly disparate and varied field of research. It also allows for the classification of sexual behavior. For Money, the concept of threshold has great value because of the wide spectrum to which it applies. "It allows one to think developmentally or longitudinally, in terms of stages or experiences that are programmed serially, or hierarchically, or cybernetically (i.e. regulated by mutual feedback)."[30]


Institutionalization of Janet Frame

Main article: Janet Frame

Author Janet Frame attended some of Money's classes at the University of Otago, as part of her teacher training. Frame was attracted to Money, and eager to please him.[33] In October 1945, after Frame wrote an essay mentioning her thoughts of suicide,[34] Money convinced Frame to enter the psychiatric ward at Dunedin Public Hospital, where she was misdiagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia.[35][36][37] Frame then spent eight years in psychiatric institutions, during which she was subjected to electroshock and insulin shock therapy.[38][39] Frame narrowly missed being lobotomized.[40][41][38] In Frame's autobiography, An Angel at My Table, Money is referred to as John Forrest.[34]

Sex reassignment of David Reimer

Main article: David Reimer

During his professional life, Money was respected as an expert on sexual behavior, especially known for his views that gender was learned rather than innate. However, it was later revealed that his most famous case of David Reimer, born Bruce Reimer, was fundamentally flawed.[42] In 1966, a botched circumcision left eight-month-old Reimer without a penis. Money persuaded the baby's parents that sex reassignment surgery would be in Reimer's best interest. At the age of 22 months, Reimer underwent an orchiectomy, in which his testicles were surgically removed. He was reassigned to be raised as female and his name changed from Bruce to Brenda. Money further recommended hormone treatment, to which the parents agreed. Money then recommended a surgical procedure to create an artificial vagina, which the parents refused. Money published a number of papers reporting the reassignment as successful. David Reimer was raised under the "optimum gender rearing model" which was the common model for sex and gender socialization/medicalization for intersex youth. The model was heavily criticized for being sexist, and for assigning an arbitrary gender binary.[43]

According to John Colapinto's biography of David Reimer, starting when Reimer and his twin Brian were six years old, Money showed the brothers pornography and forced the two to rehearse sexual acts. Money would order David to get down on all fours and Brian was forced to "come up behind [him] and place his crotch against [his] buttocks". Money also forced Reimer, in another sexual position, to have his "legs spread" with Brian on top. On "at least one occasion" Money took a photograph of the two children performing these acts.[44]

When either child resisted Money, Money would get angry. Both Reimer and Brian recall that Money was mild-mannered around their parents, but ill-tempered when alone with them. Money also forced the two children to strip for "genital inspections"; when they resisted inspecting each other's genitals, Money got very aggressive. Reimer says, "He told me to take my clothes off, and I just did not do it. I just stood there. And he screamed, 'Now!' Louder than that. I thought he was going to give me a whupping. So I took my clothes off and stood there shaking."[44]

Money's rationale for his treatment of the children was his belief that "childhood 'sexual rehearsal play'" "at thrusting movements and copulation" was important for a "healthy adult gender identity".[10][11]

Both Reimer and Brian were traumatized by the "therapy",[44][45] with Brian speaking about it "only with the greatest emotional turmoil", and David unwilling to speak about the details publicly.[44] At 14 years old and in extreme psychological agony, David Reimer was finally told the truth by his parents. He chose to begin calling himself David, and he underwent surgical procedures to revert the female bodily modifications.[46]

Despite the pain and turmoil of the brothers, for decades, Money reported on Reimer's progress as the "John/Joan case", describing apparently successful female gender development and using this case to support the feasibility of sex reassignment and surgical reconstruction even in non-intersex cases.[47]

By the time this deception was discovered, the idea of a purely socially constructed gender identity and infant Intersex medical interventions had become the accepted medical and sociological standard.[47]

David Reimer's case came to international attention in 1997 when he told his story to Milton Diamond, an academic sexologist, who persuaded Reimer to allow him to report the outcome in order to dissuade physicians from treating other infants similarly.[48] Soon after, Reimer went public with his story, and John Colapinto published a widely disseminated and influential account in Rolling Stone magazine in December 1997.[49] This was later expanded into The New York Times bestselling biography As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl (2000),[50] in which Colapinto described how—contrary to Money's reports—when living as Brenda, Reimer did not identify as a girl. He was ostracized and bullied by peers (who dubbed him "cavewoman"),[51][52] and neither frilly dresses[53] nor female hormones made him feel female.[10]

In July 2002, Brian was found dead from an overdose of antidepressants. In May 2004, David committed suicide by shooting himself in the head with a sawed-off shotgun at the age of 38. According to his mother, "he had recently become depressed after losing his job and separating from his wife."[54]

Money argued that media response to Diamond's exposé was due to right-wing media bias and "the antifeminist movement." He said his detractors believed "masculinity and femininity are built into the genes so women should get back to the mattress and the kitchen".[55] However, intersex activists also criticized Money, stating that the unreported failure had led to the surgical reassignment of thousands of infants as a matter of policy.[56] Privately, Money was mortified by the case, colleagues said, and as a rule did not discuss it.[57]

Researcher Mary Anne Case wrote that Money made "fraudulently deceptive claims about the malleability of gender in certain patients who had involuntarily undergone sex reassignment surgery" and that this fueled the anti-gender movement.[58]

Opinions on pedophilia

Money participated in debates on chronophilias, especially pedophilia.[59] He stated that both sexual researchers and the public do not make distinctions between affectional pedophilia and sadistic pedophilia. Colapinto reported that, Money told Paidika, a Dutch journal, of pedophilia:

If I were to see the case of a boy aged 10 or 12 who's intensely attracted toward a man in his 20s or 30s, if the relationship is totally mutual, and the bonding is genuinely totally mutual, then I would not call it pathological in any way.[60][61]

Personal life

Money was a patron of many famous New Zealand artists, such as Rita Angus and Theo Schoon.[62]


See also


  1. ^ a b Bullough, Vern (2003). "The Contributions of John Money: A Personal View". The Journal of Sex Research. Taylor and Francis, Ltd. 40 (3): 230–236. doi:10.1080/00224490309552186. JSTOR 3813317. PMID 14533016. S2CID 22122271.
  2. ^ a b c Ehrhardt, Anke A. (August 2007). "John Money, PhD". The Journal of Sex Research. 44 (3): 223–224. doi:10.1080/00224490701580741. JSTOR 20620298. PMID 3050136. S2CID 147344556.
  3. ^ a b Tosh, Jemma (25 July 2014). Perverse Psychology: The pathologization of sexual violence and transgenderism. Routledge. ISBN 9781317635444.
  4. ^ a b Byrne, Alex (5 June 2023). "The Origin of "Gender Identity"" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10508-023-02628-0. PMID 37277576. S2CID 259090258 – via Springer Nature.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ a b Downing, Lisa; Morland, Iain; Sullivan, Nikki (2014). Fuckology. University of Chicago Press. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226186757.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-226-18661-0.
  6. ^ a b "Pervert or sexual libertarian?: Meet John Money, "the father of f***ology"". Salon. 4 January 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  7. ^ Germon, Jennifer (2009), Germon, Jennifer (ed.), "Money and the Production of Gender", Gender: A Genealogy of an Idea, New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 23–62, doi:10.1057/9780230101814_2, ISBN 978-0-230-10181-4, retrieved 14 June 2023
  8. ^ Diamond, M; Sigmundson, HK (1997). "Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications". Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 151 (3): 298–304. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170400084015. PMID 9080940.
  9. ^ Martin, Patricia (2002). "Moving toward an international standard in informed consent: The impact of intersexuality and the Internet on the standard of care". Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy. 9: 135–169. PMID 14986668.
  10. ^ a b c Colapinto, John (2001b). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York: Harper Perennial (published 2006). p. 86-88. ISBN 978-0-06-092959-6.
  11. ^ a b "Being Brenda". the Guardian. 12 May 2004. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  12. ^ The Man Who Invented Gender: Engaging the Ideas of John Money. UBC Press. January 2014. p. 17. ISBN 9780774827942.
  13. ^ "John William Money, PhD, 1921–2006". Program in Human Sexuality, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  14. ^ "NZ psychologist silent on former patient". 12 May 2004 – via
  15. ^ "Kiwi sexologist dies in US hospital". The New Zealand Herald. 10 July 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
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  17. ^ Money, John (1944). Career or culture? : a study of the relation of vocation & culture in education (Masters thesis). Open Access Repository Victoria University of Wellington. doi:10.26686/wgtn.17061158.
  18. ^ Diamond, Milton (2004). "Sex, gender, and identity over the years: a changing perspective". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 13 (3): 591–607. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2004.02.008. PMID 15183375. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008.
  19. ^ Green, Richard; Money, John (August 1960). "Incongruous Gender Role: Nongenital Manifestations in Prepubertal Boys". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 131 (2): 160–168. doi:10.1097/00005053-196008000-00009. ISSN 0022-3018. PMID 13708206. S2CID 45302178.
  20. ^ Green, Richard; Money, John (February 1961). "Effeminacy in prepubertal boys. Summary of eleven cases and recommendations for case management". Pediatrics. 27: 286–291. doi:10.1542/peds.27.2.286. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 13708205. S2CID 245091693.
  21. ^ Day, Meagan (15 November 2016). "How one of America's best medical schools started a secret transgender surgery clinic". Medium. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  22. ^ "As Nature Made Him". 27 February 2021. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  23. ^ Green, Richard (1 December 2006). "John Money, Ph.D. (July 8, 1921–July 7, 2006): A Personal Obituary". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 35 (6): 629–632. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9132-5. ISSN 1573-2800. PMID 17123149. S2CID 44468647.
  24. ^ Pyeritz, Reed; Schreier, Herb; Madansky, Chuck; Miller, Larry; Beckwith, Jon (1977). "The XYY male: The making of a myth". In Ann Arbor Science for the Peopleial Collective (ed.). Biology as a social weapon. Minneapolis: Burgess Pub. Co. pp. 86–100. ISBN 978-0-8087-4534-1.
  25. ^ Brewington, Kelly (9 July 2006). "Dr. John Money 1921–2006: Hopkins pioneer in gender identity". Baltimore Sun.
  26. ^ Office of the Prime Minister (12 December 2003). "PM opens new wing at Eastern Southland Gallery" (Press release). Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  27. ^ Highleyman, Liz (3 August 2006). "Sex researcher John Money dies". The Bay Area Reporter. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  28. ^ Fitzgerald, John Warner (9 July 2006). "Obituaries in the News". Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  29. ^ a b c Money, John; Hampson, Joan G; Hampson, John (October 1955). "An Examination of Some Basic Sexual Concepts: The Evidence of Human Hermaphroditism". Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Johns Hopkins University. 97 (4): 301–19. PMID 13260820.
  30. ^ a b Money 1988, p. 116.
  31. ^ Money 1988, pp. 114–119.
  32. ^ Money 1988, p. 115.
  33. ^ King, Michael. An Inward Sun: The World of Janet Frame. Penguin (NZ), 2002. pp. 64-5.
  34. ^ a b Evans, Patrick (2010). "Frame, Janet Paterson". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
  35. ^ King, Michael. An Inward Sun: The World of Janet Frame. Penguin (NZ), 2002. pp. 69–70.
  36. ^ Frame, Janet. An Autobiography. (collected edition). Auckland: Century Hutchinson, 1989; New York: George Braziller, 1991. pp. 374–5
  37. ^ King, Michael. An Inward Sun: The World of Janet Frame. Penguin (NZ), 2002. p. 186.
  38. ^ a b Janet, Frame (2015). An Angel at My Table. Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN 9780349006697.
  39. ^ King, Michael. An Inward Sun: The World of Janet Frame. Penguin (NZ), 2002. pp 97, 105.
  40. ^ Frame, Janet. An Autobiography. (collected edition). Auckland: Century Hutchinson, 1989; New York: George Braziller, 1991. pp. 222–23
  41. ^ King, Michael. An Inward Sun: The World of Janet Frame. Penguin (NZ), 2002. pp. 111–2.
  42. ^ "Dr. Money and the Boy With No Penis". Horizon. Season 41. Episode 8. 4 November 2004. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2010.
  43. ^ Alice D. Dreger; April M. Herndon. "Progress and Politics in the intersex rights movement, Feminist theory in action" (PDF).
  44. ^ a b c d Colapinto, John (2001). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York: Harper Perennial (published 2006). pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-0-06-092959-6.
  45. ^ Burkeman, Oliver; Younge, Gary (12 May 2004). "Being Brenda". The Guardian: G2. London. p. 2. Archived from the original on 25 June 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  46. ^ Ogas, Ogi (2013). "A billion wicked thoughts: What the internet reveals about sexual desire". PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e638152013-018. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  47. ^ a b Puluka, Anne (2015). "Parent versus State: Protecting Intersex Children from Cosmetic Genital Surgery". Michigan State Law Review. 2015: 2095.
  48. ^ Diamond, Milton; Sigmundson, HK (March 1997). "Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 151 (3): 298–304. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170400084015. PMID 9080940. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  49. ^ Colapinto, John (11 December 1997). "The True Story of John/Joan". Rolling Stone. pp. 54–97. Archived from the original on 15 August 2000. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  50. ^ Koch 2017, p. 143.
  51. ^ "Health Check: The Boy Who Was Raised a Girl". BBC News. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  52. ^ Karkazis 2008, p. 74.
  53. ^ Colapinto 2001, p. 115; Warnke 2008, p. 21.
  54. ^ "David Reimer, 38, Subject of the John/Joan Case". The New York Times. 12 May 2004.
  55. ^ Walker, Jesse (24 May 2004). The Death of David Reimer: A tale of sex, science, and abuse. Reason
  56. ^ Who was David Reimer (also, sadly, known as "John/Joan")? via Intersex Society of North America. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
  57. ^ Carey, Benedict (11 July 2006). John William Money, 84, Sexual Identity Researcher, Dies, The New York Times
  58. ^ Case, Mary Anne (2019). "Trans Formations in the Vatican's War on 'Gender Ideology'". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. University of Chicago Press. 44 (3): 639–664. doi:10.1086/701498. ISSN 0097-9740. S2CID 149472746.
  59. ^ Janssen, Diederik (2017). "John Money's "Chronophilia": Untimely Sex between Philias and Phylisms". Sexual Offender Treatment. 12 (1).
  60. ^ Interview: John Money. PAIDIKA: The Journal of Paedophilia, Spring 1991, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 5.
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  62. ^ "John Money Collection". Eastern Southland Gallery.

Further reading