Map of the Median Empire
Map of the Median Empire

The Kurdish calendar[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] is a calendar used in the Kurdistan region of Iraq alongside the Islamic and Gregorian calendar.[8]

The First day in this month is called "Newroz" it means "New Day"


The start of the calendar is marked by the Battle of Nineveh, a conquest of the Assyrians by the Medes and the Babylonians in 612 BC.[1][2][4][5]

Although the calendar is officially adopted in Iraqi Kurdistan its use is limited. Kurds in Iran use the calendar extensively as it is nearly identical to the Iranian Calendar. The calendar is not used by Kurds in Turkey and Syria as it is associated with Kurdish Nationalism and clashes with the official state calendars.[9][10]

Details of the Kurdish calendar

The calendar is made to fit into society's constructions by being divided into two seasons (summer and winter). The year is divided into four seasons consisting of 12 weeks with each week having seven days.[7] Months that fall into the summer season are 31 days long while months that fall into the winter season are 30 days long. The exception to this is the last month of winter which acts as a leap year and therefore will variate between 29 and 30 days.[7]


The names for the months are often derived from society's events in that month[7][11]

Order Days Native Script Romanized Likely Meaning
1 31 خاکەلێوە Xakelêwe
2 31 گوڵان Gułan Likely derived from the Kurdish word 'Gul' meaning flower.
3 31 جۆزەردان Jozerdan
4 31 پووشپەڕ Pûşpeř
5 31 گەلاوێژ Gelawêj Named after the Gelawêj star that becomes visible in this month.
6 31 خەرمانان Xermanan Likely derived from the word Kurdish word 'Xerm' meaning warm.
7 30 ڕەزبەر Řezber
8 30 گەڵاڕێزان Gełařêzan
9 30 سەرماوەز Sermawez
10 30 بەفرانبار Befranbar Likely derived from the word 'Befr' meaning snow.
11 30 ڕێبەندان Řêbendan Road will be blocked because of snow,
12 29/30 ڕەشەمە Řeşeme



  1. ^ a b Kirmanj, pp. 367–384.
  2. ^ a b Hirschler 2001, pp. 145–166.
  3. ^ Rafaat, pp. 488–504.
  4. ^ a b Elis, pp. 193.
  5. ^ a b Gunter, pp. 191–209.
  6. ^ Leary 2005, p. 176.
  7. ^ a b c d Izady 1992, p. 241.
  8. ^ Kirmanj, pp. 372–373.
  9. ^ Izady 1992, p. 242.
  10. ^ Izady 1992.
  11. ^ Roshani 2004.