Lagash is located in Iraq
Shown within Iraq
Alternative nameAl-Hiba
LocationAl-Shatrah, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq
Coordinates31°24′41″N 46°24′26″E / 31.41139°N 46.40722°E / 31.41139; 46.40722
Area400 to 600 ha
Founded3rd millennium BC
PeriodsEarly Dynastic, Sargonic, Ur III
Site notes
Excavation dates1887, 1968-1976, 1990, 2019-present
ArchaeologistsRobert Koldewey, Vaughn E. Crawford, Donald P. Hansen

Lagash[4]/ˈlɡæʃ/ (cuneiform: 𒉢𒁓𒆷𒆠 LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) was an ancient city state located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about 22 kilometres (14 mi) east of the modern town of Al-Shatrah, Iraq. Lagash (modern Al-Hiba in Dhi Qar Governorate) was one of the oldest cities of the Ancient Near East. The ancient site of Nina (Tell Zurghul) is around 10 km (6.2 mi) away and marks the southern limit of the state. Nearby Girsu (modern Telloh), about 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Lagash, was the religious center of the Lagash state. The Lagash state's main temple was the E-ninnu at Girsu, dedicated to the god Ningirsu. The Lagash state incorporated the ancient cities of Lagash, Girsu, Nina.[5]


Though some Uruk period pottery shards were found in a surface survey, significant occupation at the site of Lagash began early in the 3rd Millennium BC, in the Early Dynastic I period (c. 2900-2600 BC), surface surveys and excavations show that the peak occupation, with an area of about 500 hectares occurred during the Early Dynastic III period (c. 2500–2334 BC). The later corresponds with what is now called the First Dynasty of Lagash.[6] Lagash then came under the control of the Akkadian Empire for several centuries. With the fall of that empire, Lagash had a period of revival as an independent power during the 2nd Dynasty of Lagash before coming under the control of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur. After the fall of Ur, there was some modest occupation in the Isin-Larsa and Old Babylonian periods.[7] Lagash was then largely deserted until a Seleucid era fortress was built there in the 2nd century BC.[8]

Location of Lagash before the expansion of the Akkadian Empire (in green). The territory of Sumer appears in orange. Circa 2350 BC

First dynasty of Lagash (c. 2500–2300 BC)

Relief of Ur-Nanshe. At the top he creates the foundation for a shrine, at the bottom he presides over the dedication (Louvre).
Entemena's inscribed silver vase, c. 2400 BC (Louvre)

The dynasties of Lagash are not found on the Sumerian King List (SKL) despite being a power in the Early Dynastic period and a major city in the centuries that followed. One tablet, from the later Old Babylonian period and known as The Rulers of Lagash, was described by its translator as "rather fanciful" and is generally considered to be a satirical parody of the SKL. The thirty listed rulers, in the style of the SKL, having improbable reigns, include seven known rulers from the 1st Dynasty of Lagash, including Ur-Nanshe, "Ane-tum", En-entar-zid, Ur-Ningirsu, Ur-Bau, and Gudea.[9][10]

Little is known of the first two rulers of Lagash. En-hegal is believed to be the first ruler of Lagash. A tablet with his name describes a business transaction, in which a possible King En-hegal buys land.[11] Both his status and date are disputed.[12] He was followed by Lugalshaengur about whom also little is known.[13] Mesilim, who called himself King of Kish though it is uncertain which city he was from, named Lugalshaengur as an "ensi" of Lagash on a mace head.[14]


While many details like the length of reign are not known for the next ruler, Ur-Nanshe, a number of his inscriptions have been found, most at Lagash with one stele at Ur, which along with Umma, he claimed to have conquered in battle.[15] Almost all deal with the construction of temples, one details how he "built the wester[n] channel at the side of Sa[la]/ channel at the side of S[al] (against) the Amorites". He is described as the "son of Gu-NI.DU" (occasionally as "son of Gur:SAR"), and his inscriptions list a number of sons and daughters.[16] Several inscription say "He [had the ships of Dil]mun sub[mit] [timber] (to Lagaß) as tribute." His son Akurgal ruled briefly after him.[17]


The next ruler, Eannatum (earlier referred to as "Eannadu"), son of Akurgal and grandson of Ur-Nanshe, turned Lagash into an major power extending throughout large areas of Mesopotamia and to the east as well. In an inscription found at ancient Adab:

"Eannatum, ruler of Lagash, granted strength by Enlil, nourished with special milk by Ninhursag, nominated by Ningirsu, chosen in her heart by Nanshe, son of Akurgal ruler of Lagash, defeated mountainous Elam, defeated Urua, defeated Umma, defeated Ur. At that time, he built a well of fired bricks for Ningirsu in his (Ningirsu’s) broad courtyard. His personal god is Shulultul. Then, Ningirsu loved Eannatum."[18]

Eannatum, King of Lagash, riding a war chariot (detail of the Stele of the Vultures). His name "Eannatum" (𒂍𒀭𒈾𒁺) is written vertically in two columns in front of his head. Louvre Museum.

Another inscription detail his destruction of "Kiß, Akßak, and Mari at a place named Antasur". He also claimed to have taken the city of Akshak and killed its king, Zuzu.[19] Eannatum took the city of Uru'az on the Persian Gulf, and exacted tribute as far as Mari; however, many of the realms he conquered were often in revolt.[20] During his reign, temples and palaces were repaired or erected at Lagash and elsewhere and canals and reservoirs were excavated.[21] During his reign, Dilmun was a major trading partner.[22]

A long running border dispute, dating back at least to the time of Lugalshaengur, existed between the city-states of Umma and Lagash.[23] In the time of Umma ruler Mesilim a formal border was established. Eannatum restored the border, including the boundary markers of Mesilim.

"Eanatum, ruler of Lagash, uncle of Enmetena ruler of Lagash, demarcated the border with Enakale, ruler of Umma. He extended the [boundary-]channel from the Nun-channel to Guʾedena, leaving a 215-nindan [= 1,290 meters] [strip] of Ningirsu’s land under Umma’s control, establishing a no-man’s land there. He inscribed [and erected] monuments at that [boundary-]channel, and restored the monument of Mesalim, but did not cross into the plain of Umma. "[24]

Vase of King Gishakidu, king of Umma, and son of Ur-Lumma, giving the city of Umma's account of its long-running border dispute with Lagash. The vase redefines the frontier by recording the locations of stelae to the god Shara, as well as the distances between them. Circa 2350 BC. From Umma, Iraq. Ref. 140889, British Museum, London.[25]

In c. 2450 BC, Lagash and the neighboring city of Umma fell out with each other after a border dispute over the Guʾedena, a fertile area lying between them. As described in Stele of the Vultures, of which only a portion has been found (7 fragments), the current king of Lagash, Eannatum, inspired by the patron god of his city, Ningirsu, set out with his army to defeat the nearby city.[26] According to the Stele's engravings, when the two sides met each other in the field, Eannatum dismounted from his chariot and proceeded to direct his men on foot. After lowering their spears, the Lagash army advanced upon the army from Umma in a dense phalanx.[27] After a brief clash, Eannatum and his army had gained victory over the army of Umma. This battle is one of the earliest depicted organised battles known to scholars and historians.[28]

Eannatum was succeeded by his brother, En-anna-tum I. Given the many inscriptions his reign is assumed to be of some length. Most of them detailed the usual temple construction. On long tablet described the continued conflict with Umma:

"For the god Hendursag, chief herald of the Abzu En-anatum, [ru]ler of [Laga]ß ... When the god Enlil(?)], for the god [Nin]g[ir]s[u], took [Gu'edena] from the hands of Gisa (Umma) and filled En-anatum’s hands with it, Ur-LUM-ma, ruler of Gisa (Umma), [h]i[red] [(mercenaries from) the foreign lands] and transgressed the boun[da]ry-channel of the god Ningirsu (and said): ... En-anatum crushed Ur-LUM-ma, ruler of Gisa (Umma) as far as E-kisura (“Boundary) Channel”) of the god Ninœirsu. He pursued him into the ... of (the town) LUM-ma-girnunta. (En-anatum) gagged (Ur-LUM-ma) (against future land claims)"[14]

The conflict from the Umma side of things from its ruler Ur-Lumma:

"Urlumma, ruler of Umma, diverted water into the boundary-channel of Ningirsu and the boundary-channel of Nan-she. He set fire to their monuments and smashed them, and destroyed the established chapels of the gods that were built on the boundary-levee called Namnunda-kigara. He recruited foreigners and transgressed the boundary-ditch of Ningirsu."[29]


The next ruler, Entemena increased the power of Lagash during his rule. A number of inscriptions from his reign are known.[30][31] He was a contemporary of Lugalkinishedudu of Uruk.[32]

Entemena was succeeded by his brother Enannatum II, with only one known inscription where he "restored for the god Ningirsu his brewery".[14] He was followed by two more minor rulers, Enentarzi (only one inscription from his 5 year reign, which mentions his daughter Gem[e]-Baba), and Lugalanda (several inscriptions, one mentions his wife Bara-namtara) the son of Enentarzi. The last ruler of Lagash, Urukagina, was known for his judicial, social, and economic reforms, and his may well be the first legal code known to have existed.[33][34] He was defeated by Lugalzagesi, beginning when Lugalzagesi was ruler of Umma and culminating as ruler of Uruk, bringing an end to the First Dynasty of Lagash.[35] About 1800 cuneiform tablets from the reigns of the last three rulers of Lagash, of an administrative nature, have been found, mostly.[36][37][38] The tablets are mostly from the "woman’s quarter" also known as the temple of the goddess Babu. It was under the control of the Queen.[39]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
(En-hegal) c. 2570 BC One inscription known, recording a purchase of land.[12]
(Lugalshaengur) c. 2550 BC High priest or ensi. Mentioned as Ensi of Lagash in a unique inscription on the macehead of Mesilim: “Mesilim, king of Kish, builder of the temple of Ningirsu, brought [this mace head] for Ningirsu, Lugalshaengur [being] prince of Lagash”.[40]
c. 2520 BC King ("Lugal")
Akurgal c. 2460 BC King, son of Ur-Nanshe
Eannatum c. 2450 BC Grandson of Ur-Nanshe, king, took Sumer away from Enshagkushana of Uruk and repulsed the armies of Kish, Elam and Mari
Enannatum I c. 2420 BC brother to Eanatum, high priest, Ur-Luma and Illi of Umma, as well as Kug-Bau of Kish gained independence from him.
Entemena c. 2400 BC Son of Enanatum I, king, contemporary with Lugal-ure (or Lugalkinishedudu) of Uruk and defeated Illi of Umma
Enannatum II c. 2370 BC Son of Entemena, last member of the dynasty of Ur-Nanshe.
Enentarzi c. 2360 BC A priest of Lagash.
Lugalanda c. 2355 BC
Urukagina c. 2350 BC king, defeated by Lugalzagesi of Uruk, issued a proclamation of social reforms.

Under the Akkadian Empire

In his conquest of Sumer circa 2300 BC, Sargon of Akkad, after conquering and destroying Uruk, then conquered Ur and E-Ninmar and "laid waste" the territory from Lagash to the sea, and from there went on to conquer and destroy Umma, and he collected tribute from Mari and Elam. He triumphed over 34 cities in total.[41]

Sargon's son and successor Rimush faced widespread revolts, and had to reconquer the cities of Ur, Umma, Adab, Lagash, Der, and Kazallu from rebellious ensis.[42]

Rimush introduced mass slaughter and large scale destruction of the Sumerian city-states, and maintained meticulous records of his destruction.[42] Most of the major Sumerian cities were destroyed, and Sumerian human losses were enormous: for the cities of Ur and Lagash, he records 8,049 killed, 5,460 "captured and enslaved" and 5,985 "expelled and annihilated".[42][43]

A Victory Stele in several fragments (three in total, Louvre Museum AO 2678)[44] has been attributed to Rimush on stylistic and epigraphical grounds. One of the fragments mentions Akkad and Lagash.[45] It is thought that the stele represents the defeat of Lagash by the troops of Akkad.[46] The stele was excavated in ancient Girsu, one of the main cities of the territory of Lagash.[45]

Second dynasty of Lagash (c. 2230–2110 BC)

Gudea of Lagash (ruled c. 2144–2124 BC). Diorite statue found at Girsu (Louvre Museum)

During the reigns of the first two rulers of this dynasty Lugal-ushumgal (under Naram-Sin and Shar-Kali-Sharri) and Puzur-Mama (under Shar-kali-shari), Lagash was still under the control of the Akkadian Empire. It has been suggested that another governor, Ur-e, fell between them.[51] After the death of Shar-Kali-shari Puzur-Mama declared Lagash independent (known from an inscription that may also mention Elamite ruler Kutik-Inshushinak). This independence appears to have been tenuous as Akkadian Empire ruler Dudu reports taking booty from there.[14]

With the fall of Akkad, Lagash achieved full independence under Ur-Ningirsu I (not to be confused with the later Lagash ruler named Ur-Ningirsu, the son of Gudea). Unlike the 1st Dynasty of Lagash, this series of rulers used year names. Two of Ur-Ningirsu are known including "year: Ur-Ningirsu (became) ruler". His few inscriptions are religious in nature.[52] Almost nothing is known of his son and successor.[53] The next three rulers, Lu-Baba, Lugula, and Kaku are known only from their first year names. The following ruler, Ur-Baba, is notable mainly because three of his daughters married later rulers of Lagash, Gudea, Nam-mahani, and Ur-gar.[54] His inscriptions are all of a religious nature, including building or restoring the "Eninnu, the White Thunderbird".[55] Five of his year names are known. At this point Lagash is still at best a small local power. In some case the absolute order of rulers is not known with complete certainty.[56]


While the Gutians had partially filled the power vacuum left by the fall of the Akkadian Empire, under Gudea Lagash entered a period of independence marked by riches and power.[57] Thousands of inscriptions of various sorts have been found from his reign and an untold number of statues of Gudea.[58] A number of cuneiform tablets of an administrative nature, from Gudea's rule were found at nearby Girsu.[59] Also found at Girsu were the famous Gudea cylinders which contain the longest known text in the Sumerian language.[60][61] He was prolific at temple building and restoring.[62] He is known to have conducted some military operations to the east against Anshan and Elam.[63][64] Twenty of Gudea's year names are known. All are of a religious nature except for one that marks the building of a canal and year six "Year in which the city of Anszan was smitten by weapons".[65] While the conventional view has been that the reign of Gudea fell well before that of Ur-Nammu, ruler of Ur, and during a time of Gutian power, a number of researchers contend that Gudea's rule overlaps with that of Ur-Nammu and the Gutians had already been defeated.[66] This view is strengthened by the fact that Ur-Baba appointed Enanepada as high preiestess of Ur while Naram-Sin of Akkad had appointed her predecessor Enmenana and Ur-Namma of Ur appointed her successor Ennirgalana.[67]

Gudea was succeeded by his son Ur-Ningirsu, followed by Ur-gar. Little is known about either aside from an ascension year name each and a small handful of inscriptions. It has been suggested that two other brief rulers fit into the sequence here, Ur-ayabba and Ur-Mama but the evidence for that is thin.[68] Two tablets dated to the reign of Ur-Nammu of Ur refer to Ur-ayabba as "ensi" of Lagash, meaning governor in Ur III terms and king in Lagash.[67]


Little is known of the next ruler aside from his ascension year name and a handful of religious inscriptions. Nam-mahani is primarily known for being defeated by Ur-Nammu, first ruler of the Ur III empire and being considered the last ruler of the second dynasty of Lagash (often called the Gudean Dynasty). In the prologue of the Code of Ur-Nammu it states "He slew Nam-ha-ni the ensi of Lagash".[69] A number of his inscriptions were defaced and the statues of Nam-mahani and his wife were beheaded (the head were not found with the statues by Ur-Nammu in what is usually called an act of Damnatio memoriae.[58]

Ruler Proposed reign (middle chronology) Notes
(Lugal-ushumgal) c. 2230-2210 BC Vassal of Akkadian Empire rulers Naram-Sin and Shar-Kali-Sharri
(Puzer-Mama) c. 2210 BC Wrested independence from the Akkadian Empire
Ur-Ningirsu I[70] c. 2205 BC
Pirig-me c. 2200 BC Son of Ur-Ningirsu I.[70]
Ur-Baba c. 2164-2144 BC
Gudea c. 2144-2124 BC Son-in-law of Ur-baba
Ur-Ningirsu c. 2124-2119 BC Son of Gudea
Ur-gar c. 2117-2113 BC
Nam-mahani Human-headed bull in the name of King Nan-Mahani of Lagash, dedicated to Nanshe, circa 2100 BCE c. 2113-2110 BC Grandson of Kaku, defeated by Ur-Nammu

Under the Ur III Empire

Under the control of Ur, the Lagash state (Lagash. Girsu, and Nigin) were the largest and most prosperous province of the empire. Such was its importance that the second highest official in the empire, the Grand Vizier, resided there.[71][72][73][74] The name of one governor of Lagash under Ur is known, Ir-Nanna. After the fifth year of the last Ur II ruler, Ibbi-Sin, his year name was no longer used at Lagash, indicating Ur no longer controlled that city.[75]


At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was located near the shoreline of the gulf.
Goddess Nisaba with an inscription of Entemena, ruler of Lagash (2430 BC), steatite, Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin

Lagash is one of the largest archaeological sites in the region, measuring roughly 3.5 kilometers north to south and 1.5 kilometers east to west though is relatively low being only 6 meters above the plain level at maximum. Much of the older area is under the current water table and not available for research. A drone survey determined that Lagash developed on four marsh islands some of which were gated.[76] The notion that the city was marsh-based is in contention.[77] Estimates of its area range from 400 to 600 hectares (990 to 1,480 acres). The site is divided by the bed of a canal/river, which runs diagonally through the mound. The site was first excavated, for six weeks, by Robert Koldewey in 1887.[78] It was inspected during a survey of the area by Thorkild Jacobsen and Fuad Safar in 1953, finding the first evidence of its identification as Lagash.[79] The major polity in the region of al-Hiba and Tello had formerly been identified as ŠIR.BUR.LA (Shirpurla).[80]

Remains of the ancient city of Lagash

Tell Al-Hiba was again explored in five seasons of excavation between 1968 and 1976 by a team from the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Institute of Fine Arts of New York University. The team was led by Vaughn E. Crawford, and included Donald P. Hansen and Robert D. Biggs. Twelve archaeological layers were found with the bottom 9 being Early Dynastic and the lowest under the water table. The primary focus was the excavation of the temple Ibgal of Inanna and the temple Bagara of Ningirsu, as well as an associated administrative area.[81][82][83][84] The team returned 12 years later, in 1990, for a sixth and final season of excavation led by D. P. Hansen. The work primarily involved areas adjacent to an, as yet, unexcavated temple Ibgal of the goddess Inanna in the southwest edge of the city. The Bagara temple of Ningirsu was also worked on. Both were built by Early Dynastic III king Eannatum. Temples to the goddesses Gatumdag, Nanshe, and Bau are known to have existed but have not yet been found. A canal linked the E-ninnu temple of Ningirsu at Girsu, the E-sirara temple of Nanshe at Nigin, and the Bagara temple at Lagash, the three cities being part of one large state.[85][86][87] In 1984 a surface survey found that most finds were from the Early Dynastic III period. Small amounts of Uruk, Jemdet Nasr, Isin-Larsa, Old Babylonian and Kassite shards were found in isolated areas.[88]

The name Lagash Ki (𒉢𒁓𒆷𒆠, "Country of Lagash") on inscriptions of Gudea, in monumental linear script and cuneiform script on clay.

In March–April 2019, field work resumed as the Lagash Archaeological Project[89] under the directorship of Dr. Holly Pittman of the University of Pennsylvania's Penn Museum in collaboration with the University of Cambridge and Sara Pizzimenti of the University of Pisa. A second season ran from October to November in 2021. A third season ran from March 6 to April 10, 2022.[90] The work primarily involved the Early Dynastic Period Area G and Area H locations along with Geophysical Surveying and Geoarchaeology. The focus was on an industrial area and associated streets, residences, and kilns. Aerial mapping of Lagash, both using UAV drone mapping and satellite imagery was performed.[91] In the fall of 2022 a 4th season of excavation resumed. Among the finds were a public eatery with ovens, a refrigeration system, benches, and large numbers of bowls and beakers.[92][93][94][95]

Archaeological remains

Area A (Ibgal of Inanna)

Though commonly known as Area A or the Ibgal of Inanna, this temple complex was actually named Eanna during the Ur periods, while Inanna’s sanctuary within Eanna was known as Ibgal.[96]

Level I architecture

3-D reconstruction of Area A by Keifuhui (Front)

Level I of Area A was occupied from Early Dynastic (ED I) to Ur III.[96] It was used for both daily worship activities and festive celebrations, particularly for the queen of Lagash during the Barley and Malt-eating festivals of Nanše.[96][97]

Level I consists of an oval wall on the Northeast end, surrounding an extensive courtyard. The fragments, together comparison to another Sumerian temple at Khafajah, show that the wall should originally be approximately 130m long.[98]

For the temple-building, it is connected to the courtyard with steps. Twenty-five rooms have been excavated inside the building, in which the western ones would open up to the outside of the temple with corridors and form a tripartite entrance.[96] Both the temple-building and the oval wall were built with plano-convex mud bricks, which was a very common material up to the late Early Dynastic III period. Additionally, foundations are found under the temple-building. They are composed of rectangular areas of various sizes, some as solid mud bricks and some as cavities of broken pieces of alluvial mud and layers of sand, then capped again with mud bricks.[98]

3-D reconstruction of Area A by Keifuhui

Level II and Level III architecture

Two more levels are present beneath Level I. Interestingly, all of them are similar to each other in terms of layout and construction materials. During the process of building on top of each other, workers at that time would choose to destroy some portions while keeping some others, leading to much open speculation as to the rationales behind.[99]

Area B (3HB Building and 4HB Building at Bagara of Ningirsu)

The 3HB Building

Three building levels were discovered and 3HB III is the earliest and most well-preserved level. 3HB II and 3HB I shared the same layout with 3HB III. All three levels have a central niched-and-buttressed building which is surrounded by a low enclosure wall with unknown height.[96]

Building Level Building Material[96] Occupation Period[96] Notes[96]
3HB III Plano-convex bricks, mud plaster ED IIIB

(Eannatum’s rule or later)


3HB Building: 24 x 20m

Enclosure Wall:

approximately 31m x 25m

3HB II Plano-convex bricks, mud plaster ED IIIB – Late Akkadian
3HB I Plano-convex bricks, mud plaster Late – Post-Akkadian
3-D reconstruction of Area B by Dcldeobi (Front)

An excavator believes that the 3HB Building was a “kitchen temple” that aimed at meeting some of the god’s demands.[100] Alternatively, it has been suggested that the building was a shrine in the Bagara complex as it shared more similarities with other temples than kitchens in terms of layout, features and contents.[96]

The 4HB Building

3-D reconstruction of Area B by Dcldeobi (Back)

The excavators discovered five building levels. The layout of 4HB V cannot be obtained due to limited exploration. 4HB IV-4HB I shared the same layout. 4HB IVB was the first level that was exposed completely.[96]

Building Level Building Material[96] Occupation Period[96] Notes[96]
4HB V Plano-convex bricks ED III

(Evidence from pottery)

4HB IVA Plano-convex bricks ED III

(Evidence from pottery)

4HB IVB Plano-convex bricks ED IIIB Dimensions:

4HB Building: 23 x 14m

4HB III Plano-convex bricks ED IIIB – Late Akkadian
4HB II Plano-convex bricks Late – Post-Akkadian
4HB I Plano-convex bricks

and flat, square bricks

Gudea’s rule

It has been suggested that the 4HB Building is a brewery as ovens and storage vats and a tablet mentioning “the brewery” and “a brewer” were found.[100] An alternate proposal is that 4HB building is a kitchen as it shared lots of similarities with temple kitchens at Ur and Nippur.[96]

Area C

Located 360 meters southeast of Area B. It contains a large Early Dynastic administrative area with two building levels (1A and 1B). In level 1B were found sealing and tablets of Eanatum, Enanatum I, and Enmetena.[101]

Area G

3-D reconstruction of Area G by Nic9137

Area G is located at the midway of Area B in the North and Area A in the South. First excavated by Dr Donald P. Hansen in season 3H, Area G consists of a building complex and a curving wall which are separated by around 30-40m.[96]

Western Building Complex

3-D reconstruction of Area G by Nic9137

5 building levels are found in the area. There is little information about Levels I and IIA as they were poorly preserved without sealed floor deposits.[102] In Levels IIB, III and IV, changes can be found in the building complex with reconstructions. In Level III, benches are built near the eastern and northern courtyards. Sealings made in the “piedmont” style which are found in the rooms share a resemblance with the Seal Impression Strata of Ur and sealings from Inanna Temple at Nippur,[102] indicating the administrative nature of the buildings. Apart from institutional objects, fireplaces, bins and pottery were found in the rooms as well.[100]

Curving Wall (Eastern Zone)

A 2-m wide wall that runs from the south to the north is found on the eastern part of Area G. The features of the curving wall and the rooms found near it are determined to be different from other oval temples built in the Early Dynastic in other major states. Intrusive vertical drains are found at the base of the plano-convex foundation.[100] Archaeologists excavated further deeper to the water level during season 4H and found extensive Early Dynastic I deposits.[96]

See also


  1. ^ "ETCSLsearch". Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  2. ^ The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary. "Lagash." Accessed 19 Dec 2010.
  3. ^ "ePSD: lagaš[storehouse]". Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  4. ^ [NU11.BUR].LAKI[1] or [ŠIR.BUR].LAKI, "storehouse;"[2] Akkadian: Nakamtu;[3]
  5. ^ Williams, Henry (2018). Ancient Mesopotamia. Ozymandias Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-5312-6292-1.
  6. ^ McMahon, Augusta, et al., "Dense urbanism and economic multi-centrism at third-millennium BC Lagash", Antiquity, pp. 1-20, 2023
  7. ^ Westenholz, Joan Goodnick (1984). "Kaku of Ur and Kaku of Lagash". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 43 (4): 339–342. doi:10.1086/373095. ISSN 0022-2968. JSTOR 544849. S2CID 161962784.
  8. ^ CHH,"Sumerian Diorite Head: Purchased from the Francis Bartlett Donation of 1912", Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, pp. 30-34, 1927
  9. ^ Sollberger, Edmond. “The Rulers of Lagaš.” Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 21, pp. 279–91, 1967
  10. ^ "The rulers of Lagaš". Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature. June 1, 2003 [1998]. Retrieved 2021-07-26.
  11. ^ Barton, George A., "Sumerian Business and Administrative Documents", Philadelphia University, 1915
  12. ^ a b "Enhegal". CDLI Wiki. January 14, 2010. Retrieved 2020-12-22.
  13. ^ Maeda, Tohru, "King of Kish" in Pre-Sargonic Sumer", Orient 17, pp. 1-17, 1981
  14. ^ a b c d Frayne, Douglas R., "Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia: Early Periods", RIME 1.08, 2007
  15. ^ Romano, Licia, "Urnanshe’s Family and the Evolution of Its Inside Relationships as Shown by Images", La famille dans le Proche-Orient ancien: réalités, symbolismes et images: Proceedings of the 55e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Paris, edited by Lionel Marti, University Park, USA: Penn State University Press, pp. 183-192, 2014
  16. ^ Jacobsen, Thorkild, "Ur-Nanshe’s Diorite Plaque", Orientalia, vol. 54, no. 1/2, pp. 65–72, 1985
  17. ^ Douglas Frayne, "Lagas", in Presargonic Period: Early Periods, Volume 1 (2700-2350 BC), RIM The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia Volume 1, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 77-293, 2008 ISBN 9780802035868
  18. ^ Wilson, Karen, "Bismaya: Recovering the Lost City of Adab", Oriental Institute Publications 138, Chicago, Ill, Univ. of Chicago Press, 2012 ISBN 9781885923639
  19. ^ Curchin, Leonard, "Eannatum and the Kings of Adab", Revue d’Assyriologie et d’archéologie Orientale, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 93–95, 1977
  20. ^ Steinkeller, Piotr (2018-01-29). "The birth of Elam in history". The Elamite World. Routledge. pp. 177–202. doi:10.4324/9781315658032-11. ISBN 978-1-315-65803-2.
  21. ^ Vukosavović, Filip, "On Some Early Dynastic Lagaš Temples", Die Welt Des Orients, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 126–30, 2014
  22. ^ Foster, Benjamin R. and Foster, Karen Polinger, "Early City-States", Civilizations of Ancient Iraq, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 35-50, 2009
  23. ^ Hritz, C., "The Umma-Lagash Border Conflict: A View from Above" in Altaweel, M. and Hritz, C. (eds.), From Sherds to Landscapes: Studies on the Ancient Near East in Honor of McGuire Gibson. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, pp. 109–32, 2021
  24. ^ Jerrold S. Cooper, "Reconstructing History from Ancient Inscriptions:The Lagash-Umma Border Conflict", Sources from the Ancient Near East 2/1; Malibu, CA: Undena, 1983
  25. ^ "Vase of Lugalzagezi". British Museum.[dead link]
  26. ^ Winter, Irene J., "After the Battle Is Over: The ‘Stele of the Vultures’ and the Beginning of Historical Narrative in the Art of the Ancient Near East", Studies in the History of Art, vol. 16, pp. 11–32, 1985
  27. ^ Alster, Bendt., "Images and Text on the ‘Stele of the Vultures.’", Archiv Für Orientforschung, vol. 50, pp. 1–10, 2003
  28. ^ Grant, R.G. (2005). Battle. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN 978-1-74033-593-5.
  29. ^ Cooper, Jerrold S., "Sumerian and Akkadian Royal Inscriptions, I. Presargonic Inscriptions", The American Oriental Society Translation Series 1, New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1986
  30. ^ Nies, James B., "A Net Cylinder of Entemena", Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 36, pp. 137–39, 1916
  31. ^ Barton, George A., "A New Inscription of Entemena", Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 262–65, 1931
  32. ^ Gadd, C. J., "Entemena : A New Incident", Revue d’Assyriologie et d’archéologie Orientale, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 125–26, 1930
  33. ^ A. Deimel, "Die Reformtexte Urukaginas", Or. 2, 1920
  34. ^ Foxvog, Daniel A., "A New Lagaš Text Bearing on Uruinimgina’s Reforms", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 46, pp. 11–15, 1994
  35. ^ Lambert, Maurice, "La guerre entre Urukagina et Lugalzagesi", Rivista Degli Studi Orientali, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 29–66, 1966
  36. ^ Stephens, Ferris J., "Notes on Some Economic Texts of the Time of Urukagina", Revue d’Assyriologie et d’archéologie Orientale, vol. 49, no. 3, 1955, pp. 129–36
  37. ^ Joachim Marzahn, "Altsumerische Verwaltungstexteaus Girsu/Lagaš. Vorderasiatische Schriftdenkmälerder Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, Neue Folge Heft IX (Heft XXV), Berlin, Akademie-Verlag, 1991
  38. ^ Barton, George A., "The Babylonian Calendar in the Reigns of Lugalanda and Urkagina", Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 251–71, 1911
  39. ^ Schrakamp, Ingo, "Irrigation in 3rd millennium southern Mesopotamia: cuneiform evidence from the Early Dynastic IIIB City-State of Lagash (2475–2315 BC)", in Water Management in Ancient Civilizations, pp. 117-195, 2018
  40. ^ "CDLI-Found Texts".
  41. ^ "MS 2814 – The Schoyen Collection".
  42. ^ a b c Hamblin, William J. (2006). Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC: Holy Warriors at the Dawn of History. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-52062-6.
  43. ^ Crowe, D. (2014). War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice: A Global History. Springer. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-137-03701-5.
  44. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre".
  45. ^ a b c Heuzey, Léon (1895). "Le Nom d'Agadé Sur Un Monument de Sirpourla". Revue d'Assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale. 3 (4): 113–117. ISSN 0373-6032. JSTOR 23284246.
  46. ^ a b Thomas, Ariane; Potts, Timothy (2020). Mesopotamia: Civilization Begins. Getty Publications. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-60606-649-2.
  47. ^ "Musée du Louvre-Lens - Portail documentaire - Stèle de victoire du roi Rimush (?)". (in French).
  48. ^ McKeon, John F. X. (1970). "An Akkadian Victory Stele". Boston Museum Bulletin. 68 (354): 235. ISSN 0006-7997. JSTOR 4171539.
  49. ^ Thomas, Ariane; Potts, Timothy (2020). Mesopotamia: Civilization Begins. Getty Publications. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-60606-649-2.
  50. ^ Foster, Benjamin R. (1985). "The Sargonic Victory Stele from Telloh". Iraq. 47: 15–30. doi:10.2307/4200229. JSTOR 4200229. S2CID 161961660.
  51. ^ Volk, K., "Puzur-Mama und die Reise des Königs", Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie und verwandte Gebiete, vol. 82 (ZA. 82), Berlin, 1992
  52. ^ Edzard, Sibylle, "Ur-Ningirsu I", Gudea and his Dynasty, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 7-11, 1997
  53. ^ Edzard, Sibylle, "Pirig-me", Gudea and his Dynasty, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 12-13, 1997
  54. ^ Suter, Claudia E, "Who are the Women in Mesopotamian Art from ca. 2334-1763 BCE?", Who are the Women in Mesopotamian Art from ca. 2334-1763 BCE?", Kaskal, vol. 5, 1000-1055, 2008
  55. ^ Heimpel, Wolfgang, "The Gates of the Eninnu", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 48, pp. 17–29, 1996
  56. ^ Edzard, Sibylle, "Ur-Baba", Gudea and his Dynasty, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 15-25, 1997
  57. ^ Zarins, Juris, "Lagash and the Gutians: a study of late 3rd millennium BC Mesopotamian archaeology, texts and politics", In Context: the Reade Festschrift, pp. 11-42, 2020
  58. ^ a b H. Steible, "Neusumerische Bau- und Weihinschriften, Teil 1: Inschriften der II. Dynastie von Lagas", FAOS9/1, Stuttgart 1991
  59. ^ Molina Martos, Manuel, and Massimo Maiocchi, "Pre-Ur III administrative cuneiform tablets in the British Museum. I. Texts from the archives of Gudea's Dynasty", Kaskal, vol. 15, pp. 1-46, 2018
  60. ^ Ira M. Price, "The great cylinder inscriptions A & B of Gudea: copied from the original clay cylinders of the Telloh Collection preserved in the Louvre. Transliteration, translation, notes, full vocabulary and sign-lifts", Volume 1 Volume 2, Hinrichs, 1899
  61. ^ Suter, Claudia E., "A New Edition of the Lagaš II Royal Inscriptions Including Gudea’s Cylinders", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 50, pp. 67–75, 1998
  62. ^ Suter, Claudia E. Gudea's temple building: A comparison of written and pictorial accounts", Brill, 2000 ISBN 978-90-56-93035-6
  63. ^ Bartash, Vitali, "Gudea's Iranian Slaves: An Anatomy of Transregional Forced Mobility", Iraq 84, pp. 25-42, 2022
  64. ^ Hansen, Donald P, "A sculpture of Gudea, governor of Lagash", Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 64.1, pp. 4-19, 1988
  65. ^ Year Names of Gudea at CDLI
  66. ^ Steinkeller, Piotr, "The Date of Gudea and His Dynasty", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 1988
  67. ^ a b Michalowski, Piotr, "Networks of Authority and Power in Ur III Times", in From the 21st Century B.C. to the 21st Century A.D.: Proceedings of the International Conference on Neo-Sumerian Studies Held in Madrid, 22–24 July 2010, edited by Steven J. Garfinkle and Manuel Molina, University Park, USA: Penn State University Press, pp. 169-206, 2013
  68. ^ Maeda, Tohru, "Two Rulers by the Name of Ur-Ningirsu in Pre-Ur III Lagash", acta sumerologica Japan 10, pp. 19–35, 1988
  69. ^ Finkelstein, J. J., "The Laws of Ur-Nammu", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 22, no. 3/4, pp. 66–82, 1968
  70. ^ a b c d e "Brief notes on Lagash II chronology [CDLI Wiki]".
  71. ^ Maekawa, Kazuya, "The erín-people in Lagash of Ur III times", Revue d'Assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale 70.1, pp. 9-44, 1976
  72. ^ Maekawa, Kazuya, "The agricultural texts of Ur III Lagash of the British Museum (V)", Acta Sumerologica 3, pp. 37-61, 1981
  73. ^ Maekawa, Kazuya, "The agricultural texts of Ur III Lagash of the British Museum (VIII)", ASJ, vol. 14, pp. 145-169, 1992
  74. ^ Zarins, Juris, "Magan Shipbuilders at the Ur III Lagash State Dockyards (2062-2025 BC)", in Intercultural Relations Between South and Southwest Asia. Studies in Commemoration of ECL During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxford: BAR International Series (1826), pp. 209-229, 2008
  75. ^ Frayne, Douglas, "Ibbi-Sîn E3/2.1.5", in Ur III Period (2112-2004 BC), Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 361-392, 1997
  76. ^ E. Hammer. Multi-centric, marsh-based urbanism at the early Mesopotamian city of Lagash (Tell al-Hiba, Iraq). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. Vol. 68, December 2022, 101458. doi: 10.1016/j.jaa.2022.101458
  77. ^ Pittman, Holly, et al., "Response to Emily Hammer’s article:“Multi-centric, Marsh-based urbanism at the early Mesopotamian city of Lagash (Tell al Hiba, Iraq)”", Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 2023
  78. ^ Koldewey, Robert (1887-01-01). "Die altbabylonischen Gräber in Surghul und El Hibba". Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie (in German). 2 (Jahresband): 403–430. doi:10.1515/zava.1887.2.1.403. ISSN 1613-1150. S2CID 162346912.
  79. ^ Falkenstein, Adam, "Die Inschriften Gudeas von Lagaš", Analecta Orientalia 30, Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1966
  80. ^ Amiaud, Arthur. "The Inscriptions of Telloh." Records of the Past, 2nd Ed. Vol. I. Ed. by A. H. Sayce, 1888. Accessed 19 Dec 2010. M. Amiaud notes that a Mr. Pinches (in his Guide to the Kouyunjik Gallery) contended ŠIR.BUR.LAki could be a logographic representation of "Lagash," but inconclusively.
  81. ^ Donald P. Hansen, "Al-Hiba, 1968–1969: A Preliminary Report", Artibus Asiae, 32, pp. 243–58, 1970
  82. ^ Donald P. Hansen, "Al-Hiba, 1970–1971: A Preliminary Report", Artibus Asiae, 35, pp. 2–70, 1973
  83. ^ Donald P. Hansen, "Al-Hiba: A summary of four seasons of excavation: 1968–1976", Sumer, 34, pp. 72–85, 1978
  84. ^ Vaughn E. Crawford, "Inscriptions from Lagash, Season Four, 1975–76", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 29, pp. 189–222, 1977
  85. ^ "Excavations in Iraq 1989-1990". Iraq. 53: 169–182. 1991. doi:10.1017/S0021088900004277. ISSN 0021-0889. JSTOR 4200346. S2CID 249898405.
  86. ^ Hansen, D. P., "The Sixth Season at Al-Hiba", Mār Šipri 3 (1): 1–3, 1990
  87. ^ S. Renette, "Lagash I: The Ceramic Corpus from Al-Hiba, 1968–1990 A Chrono-Typology of the Pottery Tradition in Southern Mesopotamia during the 3rd and Early 2nd Millenium BCE", Brepols, 2021 ISBN 978-2-503-59020-2
  88. ^ E. Carter, "A surface survey of Lagash, al-Hiba", 1984, Sumer, vol. 46/1-2, pp. 60–63, 1990
  89. ^ Lagash Archaeological Project Official website
  90. ^ Ashby, Darren P., and Holly Pittman, "The Excavations at Tell al-Hiba–Areas A, B, and G", in Ancient Lagash Current Research and Future Trajectories - Proceedings of the Workshop held at the 10th ICAANE in Vienna, April 2016, pp. 87-114, 2022
  91. ^ Hammer, Emily, Elizabeth Stone, and Augusta McMahon. "The Structure and Hydrology of the Early Dynastic City of Lagash (Tell al-Hiba) from Satellite and Aerial Images". Iraq, vol. 84, pp. 1-25, 2022
  92. ^ Pittman, Holly, "Lagash Archaeological Project, Dhi Qar Province, Iraq: The First Four Seasons, 1LAP-4LAP, 2019-2022", Video Presentation for the Archaeological Institute of America, National Lecture Program, March 21, 2023
  93. ^ Iraq dig uncovers 5,000 year old pub restaurant - - Asaad Niazi - February 15, 2023
  94. ^ Unearthing the archaeological passing of time at Lagash, a site in southern Iraq - Michele W. Berger, University of Pennsylvania - - January 24, 2023
  95. ^ Current Excavations Season 4: Fall 2022 - Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania
  96. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p [1] Darren Ashby, "Late Third Millennium Bce Religious Architecture At Tell Al-Hiba, Ancient Lagash", Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations, 2017
  97. ^ Beld, S. G., "The queen of Lagash: ritual economy in a Sumerian State", Ph.D Dissertation, Near East Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2002
  98. ^ a b Hansen, Donald P. (1970). "Al-Hiba, 1968-1969, a Preliminary Report". Artibus Asiae. 32 (4): 243–258. doi:10.2307/3249506. ISSN 0004-3648. JSTOR 3249506.
  99. ^ Hansen, Donald P. (1973). "Al-Hiba, 1970-1971: A Preliminary Report". Artibus Asiae. 35 (1/2): 65. doi:10.2307/3249575. ISSN 0004-3648. JSTOR 3249575.
  100. ^ a b c d Donald P. Hansen, "Royal building activity at Sumerian Lagash in the Early Dynastic Period", Biblical Archaeologist, vol. 55, pp. 206–11, 1992
  101. ^ Bahrani, Zainab, "The administrative building at Tell Al Hiba, Lagash", (Volumes I and II), Ph.D Dissertation, New York University, 1989.
  102. ^ a b "Excavations in Iraq 1989-1990". Iraq. 53: 175. 1991. ISSN 0021-0889. JSTOR 4200346.

Further reading