The word linear comes from the Latin word linearis, which means created by lines. In mathematics, a linear function f(x) is one which satisfies the following two properties (but see below for a slightly different usage of the term):

• Additivity property (also called the superposition property): f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y). This says that f is a group homomorphism with respect to addition.
• Homogeneity property: fx) = αf(x) for all α. It turns out that homogeneity follows from the additivity property in all cases where α is rational. In that case if the linear function is continuous, homogeneity is not an additional axiom to establish if the additivity property is established.

In this definition, x is not necessarily a real number, but can in general be a member of any vector space.

The concept of linearity can be extended to linear operators. Important examples of linear operators include the derivative considered as a differential operator, and many constructed from it, such as del and the Laplacian. When a differential equation can be expressed in linear form, it is particularly easy to solve by breaking the equation up into smaller pieces, solving each of those pieces, and adding the solutions up.

Nonlinear equations and functions are of interest to physicists and mathematicians because they are hard to solve and give rise to interesting phenomena such as chaos.

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the study of vectors, vector spaces (or linear spaces), linear transformations, and systems of linear equations.

## Integral linearity

For a device that converts a quantity to another quantity there are three basic definitions for integral linearity in common use: independent linearity, zero-based linearity, and terminal, or end-point, linearity. In each case, linearity defines how well the device's actual performance across a specified operating range approximates a straight line. Linearity is usually measured in terms of a deviation, or non-linearity, from an ideal straight line and it is typically expressed in terms of percent of full scale, or in ppm (parts per million) of full scale. Typically, the straight line is obtained by performing a least-squares fit of the data. The three definitions vary in the manner in which the straight line is positioned relative to the actual device's performance. Also, all three of these definitions ignore any gain, or offset errors that may be present in the actual device's performance characteristics.

Many times a device's specifications will simply refer to linearity, with no other explanation as to which type of linearity is intended. In cases where a specification is expressed simply as linearity, it is assumed to imply independent linearity.

Independent linearity is probably the most commonly-used linearity definition and is often found in the specifications for DMMs and ADCs, as well as devices like potentiometers. Independent linearity is defined as the maximum deviation of actual performance relative to a straight line, located such that it minimizes the maximum deviation. In that case there are no constraints placed upon the positioning of the straight line and it may be wherever necessary to minimize the deviations between it and the device's actual performance characteristic.

Zero-based linearity forces the lower range value of the straight line to be equal to the actual lower range value of the device's characteristic, but it does allow the line to be rotated to minimize the maximum deviation. In this case, since the positioning of the straight line is constrained by the requirement that the lower range values of the line and the device's characteristic be coincident, the non-linearity based on this definition will generally be larger than for independent linearity.

For terminal linearity, there is no flexibility allowed in the placement of the straight line in order to minimize the deviations. The straight line must be located such that each of its end-points coincides with the device's actual upper and lower range values. This means that the non-linearity measured by this definition will typically be larger than that measured by the independent, or the zero-based linearity definitions. This definition of linearity is often associated with ADCs, DACs and various sensors.

A fourth linearity definition, absolute linearity, is sometimes also encountered. Absolute linearity is a variation of terminal linearity, in that it allows no flexibility in the placement of the straight line, however in this case the gain and offset errors of the actual device are included in the linearity measurement, making this the most difficult measure of a device's performance. For absolute linearity the end points of the straight line are defined by the ideal upper and lower range values for the device, rather than the actual values. The linearity error in this instance is the maximum deviation of the actual device's performance from ideal.

## Linear polynomials

In a slightly different usage to the above, a polynomial of degree 1 is said to be linear, because the graph of a function of that form is a line.

Over the reals, a linear function is one of the form:

f(x) = m x + b= Line

m is often called the slope or gradient; b the y-intercept, which gives the point of intersection between the graph of the function and the y-axis.

Note that this usage of the term linear is not the same as the above, because linear polynomials over the real numbers do not in general satisfy either additivity or homogeneity. In fact, they do so if and only if b = 0. Hence, if b ≠ 0, the function is often called an affine function (see in greater generality affine transformation).

## Boolean functions

In Boolean algebra, a linear function is one such that:

If there exists a0, a1, ... , an ${\displaystyle \in }$ {0,1} such that ${\displaystyle f(b1,...,bn)=a0}$${\displaystyle (a1\land b1)}$ ⊕ ... #x2295; ${\displaystyle (an\land bn)}$, for all ${\displaystyle b1,...,bn\in }$ {0,1}

## Physics

In physics, linearity is a property of the differential equations governing a lot of systems (like, for instance Maxwell equations or the diffusion equation).

Namely, linearity of a differential equation means that if two functions f and g are solution of the equation, then their sum f+g is also a solution of the equation.

## Electronics

In electronics, the linear operating region of a transistor is where the collector-emitter current is related to the base current by a simple scale factor, enabling the transistor to be used as an amplifier that preserves the fidelity of analog signals. Linear is similarly used to describe regions of any function, mathematical or physical, that follow a straight line with arbitrary slope.

## Military tactical formations

In military tactical formations, "linear formations" were adapted from phalanx-like formations of pike protected by handgunners towards shallow formations of handgunners protected by progressively fewer pikes. This kind of formation would get thinner until its extreme in the age of Wellington with the 'Thin Red Line'. It would eventually be replaced by skirmish order at the time of the invention of the breech-loading rifle that allowed soldiers to move and fire independently of the large scale formations and fight in small, mobile units

## Art

Linear is one of the five categories proposed by Swiss art historian Heinrich Wölfflin to distinguish "Classic", or Renaissance art, from the Baroque. According to Wölfflin, painters of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries (Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael or Albrecht Dürer) are more linear than "painterly" Baroque painters of the seventeenth (Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt, and Velasquez) because they primarily use outline to create form.[1]

## Music

In music the linear aspect is succession, either intervals or melody, as opposed to simultaneity or the vertical aspect.

## References

1. ^ Heinrich Wölfflin, Principles of Art History: the Problem of the Development of Style in Later Art, M. D. Hottinger (trans.), Mineola, N.Y.: Dover (1950): pp. 18-72.