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Linode, LLC
Company typeSubsidiary
IndustryCloud computing, web services, Internet hosting services
Founded2003; 21 years ago (2003)
DefunctFebruary 14, 2023 (2023-02-14)
HeadquartersPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
  • Christopher Aker
  • (Founder and CEO)
ProductsCloud-hosting provider
Virtual private servers
Revenue$100 million
Number of employees
200+
ParentAkamai Technologies
ASN
  • 63949
Websitewww.linode.com

Linode, LLC (/ˈlɪnd/)[1] was an American cloud hosting provider that focused on providing Linux-based virtual machines, cloud infrastructure, and managed services.

In 2003, at the time of its launch, Linode provided virtual private server (VPS) hosting. It had grown over the years into a multinational corporation, with over 800,000 customers from 196 countries and data centers in 11 locations worldwide. Linode was considered one of the largest independent cloud infrastructure providers before its acquisition.

Linode was acquired by Akamai Technologies in February 2022 for $900 million.[2] Akamai discontinued the Linode brand on February 14, 2023, with the launch of its "Akamai Connected Cloud" product line based on the combination of the Linode cloud computing platform and Akamai's existing content delivery network business.

History

Linode (a portmanteau of the words Linux and node) was founded in 2003 by Christopher Aker. Aker is a graduate of Full Sail University in Florida.

Linode focused on providing Linux-based virtual servers to hobbyists, developers, and small and medium-sized businesses. The company grew steadily, and in 2008 moved its headquarters to Galloway, New Jersey. Linode continued to expand over the years, relocating to the historic Corn Exchange National Bank building in Old City, Philadelphia, in 2018. Built in 1902, the Corn Exchange National Bank & Trust is a landmark in the City of Philadelphia. Named on Philadelphia’s registrar of historic places,[3][4] the building was once an MTV Real World house.

Linode opened its first data centers in Fremont, and Dallas in 2003. It subsequently opened its regions in Atlanta in 2007, Newark in 2008, London in 2009, Tokyo[5] in 2011 and 2016, Frankfurt[6] and Singapore[7] in 2015, and Toronto,[8] Mumbai,[9][10] and Sydney[11] in 2019.

Linode transitioned its virtualization platform from UML to Xen virtualization in March 2008 and then to KVM based virtualization in mid-2015. Over the years, Linode launched numerous supporting services and products in combination with its core Linux-based VPS product (typically referred to as "Linodes").

On February 15, 2022, Akamai Technologies announced its intent to acquire Linode for $900 million; the company's founder and CEO Tom Leighton stated that it sought to "combine Linode's developer-friendly cloud computing capabilities with Akamai’s market-leading edge platform and security services".[12]

On February 14, 2023, Akamai announced that the Linode brand had been discontinued, with all of its services brought under those of its parent as "Akamai Connected Cloud". The company announced that it would expand the footprint of the former Linode service offering by adding 13 new sites in Europe and the United States, some of which will be co-located with existing Akamai facilities.[13]

Products and services

Linode's flagship products were cloud-hosting services with multiple packages at different price points. As of November 2019, Linode offered five kinds of virtualization-based computing services geared towards specific customer requirements like high memory requirements, dedicated CPU resources, virtual machines with direct access to GPUs, or general purpose usage. Linode Block Storage allowed users to extend their server storage capacity with network-based storage volumes.[14] Linode Backup allowed customers to backup their servers on a daily, weekly, or biweekly basis.[15] The Linode Manager allowed users to manage multiple server instances across a single interface.

In September 2013, Linode launched Longview, a system performance monitoring package for Linux that allowed users to view performance metrics of their instances from the Linode Cloud Manager.[16] In late October 2019, Linode launched its S3-Compatible Object Storage service to enable customers to store large, unstructured data. On November 11, 2019, at CNCF KubeCon, Linode announced the availability of its managed Kubernetes engine service.[17][18]

Compute

Storage

Networking

Management tools

Professional services

Regions and data centers

Linode operated 11 data centers worldwide, interconnected by a backbone network. The company maintained internet exchange presence and peering arrangements with Internet service providers (ISPs) and other networks in each region to improve latency and connectivity to end users.

As of Q2 2020, Linode was available in 11 regions worldwide.[21] A region is a specific datacenter in a geographical location where users can deploy cloud resources.

Region ID Location Launch date
1 Dallas, Texas, US Q2, 2003
2 Fremont, California, US Q4, 2003
3 Atlanta, Georgia, US Q1, 2007
4 Newark, New Jersey, US Q2, 2008
5 London, UK Q4, 2009
6 Tokyo, Japan Q3, 2011
7 Singapore, Singapore Q2, 2015
8 Frankfurt, Germany Q3, 2015
9 Toronto, Canada Q2, 2019
10 Mumbai, India Q2, 2019
11 Sydney, Australia Q3, 2019

Awards

Linode is a recipient of the Stevie Award for Sales and Customer Service.[22] In 2019, Linode was awarded a Top Workplaces honor by The Philadelphia Inquirer.[23] Linode’s headquarters building received the 2019 Grand Jury Award from the Preservation Alliance for Greater Philadelphia.[24][25] The building, built in 1902, is a Philadelphia landmark, named on Philadelphia’s registrar of historic places, and was once an MTV Real World house.[26]

Security incidents

The accounts of eight Linode customers that held Bitcoin electronic currency were compromised in March 2012.[27] Roughly 40,000 bitcoins were stolen.[27]

Hack The Planet (HTP) accessed Linode's web servers in 2013.[28][29][30] The group exploited a technical vulnerability in Adobe's ColdFusion application server.[28][29] Linode said that HTP could not decrypt any financially sensitive information and reset all account passwords.[28][30] Linode announced plans to introduce two-factor authentication for its services in May 2013.[31]

Starting Christmas Day 2015 and continuing until January 10, 2023, Linode was hit by large and frequent DDoS attacks, which were being caused by a "bad actor" purchasing large amounts of botnet capacity in an attempt to significantly damage Linode's business.[32] Linode was the victim of another severe DDoS attack over the 2016 Labor Day weekend.[33]

Starting April 2023 and up to October 2023, Linode and Hetzner traffic for the largest Russian XMPP messaging service (jabber.ru) was intercepted through a Man-in-the-middle attack.[34]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Open Source Is Critical To Linode: Christopher Aker, Founder & CEO". TFiR. June 19, 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  2. ^ "Akamai To Acquire Linode to Provide Businesses with a Developer-friendly and Massively-distributed Platform to Build, Run and Secure Next Generation Applications". Akamai. 2022-02-15.
  3. ^ "Philadelphia Register of Historic Places | Philadelphia Historical Commission". City of Philadelphia. Retrieved 2023-02-15.
  4. ^ Design, Untuck (2019-05-29). "Preservation Alliance to Honor Linode Headquarters with Award". The Lighting Practice. Retrieved 2023-02-15.
  5. ^ "New data center: Tokyo 2". Linode. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  6. ^ "Introducing Linodes in Frankfurt!". Linode. Retrieved 2015-08-23.
  7. ^ "Singapore Linodes are now available!". Linode. Retrieved 5 Aug 2021.
  8. ^ "Linode unveils first ever Canadian data centre hub". Data Economy. 2019-05-02. Archived from the original on 2020-04-30. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Linode's 10th Data Center Location : Mumbai, India". Webopedia. 2019-07-17. Retrieved 5 Aug 2021.
  10. ^ "Linode Expands Global Data Center Network to India". Linode. Retrieved 5 Aug 2021.
  11. ^ "Linode Expands Global Infrastructure with Sydney Data Center". Linode. Retrieved 5 Aug 2021.
  12. ^ Lardinois, Frederic (2022-02-15). "Akamai acquires Linode for $900M". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2023-02-15.
  13. ^ Lardinois, Frederic (2023-02-14). "Akamai reaches for the cloud". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2023-02-15.
  14. ^ "Block Storage Volumes". Linode. Retrieved 5 Aug 2021.
  15. ^ "Backups". Linode. Retrieved 2023-02-16.
  16. ^ "Linode Launches Longview, Takes Deep Look at Data Center and Server Performance". www.techzone360.com. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  17. ^ "Linode Managed Kubernetes Now Available". Linode. 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  18. ^ "It's clear to Linode: There's a market to bring cloud services to small companies". New Jersey Business Journal. 2013-11-04. Retrieved 5 Aug 2021.
  19. ^ "Linode VLAN | Secure Networks for Cloud Infrastructure". Linode. Retrieved 2023-02-16.
  20. ^ "Advanced Cloud DDoS Protection". Linode. Retrieved 2023-02-16.
  21. ^ "Global Infrastructure". Linode. Retrieved 2020-07-22.
  22. ^ "2020 Stevie® Award Winners | Stevie Awards". stevieawards.com. Retrieved 2020-07-09.
  23. ^ "Top Workplaces | The Philadelphia Inquirer". TopWorkplaces. Retrieved 2020-07-09.
  24. ^ "Linode Headquarters receives 2019 Grand Jury Award from the Preservation Alliance of Greater Philadelphia | American Institute of Architects". www.aiaphiladelphia.org. Archived from the original on 2020-07-10. Retrieved 2020-07-09.
  25. ^ "Linode Headquarters to receive Grand Jury Award from Preservation Alliance". Ballinger.com. 2019-05-01. Archived from the original on 2020-07-10. Retrieved 2020-07-09.
  26. ^ Saffron, Inga (May 4, 2018). "Remember that 'Real World' house? It's now a sleek tech headquarters". inquirer.com. Retrieved 2020-07-09.
  27. ^ a b Leyden, John. "Linode hackers escape with $70K in daring bitcoin heist". The Register. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  28. ^ a b c Lee, Michael. "VPS host Linode issues customer-wide password reset". ZDNet. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  29. ^ a b Dumon, Marv. "Amazon Launches Cloud Computing Certification Program - Page 2". Technorati. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  30. ^ a b Leyden, John. "Web host Linode, hackers clash over credit-card raid claim". The Register. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  31. ^ Bandoim, Lana. "Two-Step Authentication Grows in Popularity". Yahoo! Voices. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  32. ^ Forster, Alex. "An update from Linode about the recent DDoS attacks". Linode. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
  33. ^ Cimpanu, Catalin. ""Catastrophic" DDoS Attack Pummels Linode Servers over Labor Day Weekend".
  34. ^ "Encrypted traffic interception on Hetzner and Linode targeting the largest Russian XMPP (Jabber) messaging service". Retrieved November 2, 2023.