This article may contain unverified or indiscriminate information in embedded lists. Please help clean up the lists by removing items or incorporating them into the text of the article. (April 2021)
This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience. Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia's inclusion policy. (July 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

British royal residences are palaces, castles and houses which are occupied by members of the British royal family in the United Kingdom. The current residences are owned by the Crown, the Duchy of Cornwall, and privately by members of the royal family; all the official residences are owned by the Crown.[1][2] Some official residences, such as the Palace of Holyroodhouse and Hillsborough Castle, serve primarily ceremonial functions and are rarely used residentially.

The occupied royal residences are cared for and maintained by the Property Section of the Royal Households of the United Kingdom.[1] Public opening is overseen by the Royal Collection Trust.[3] The unoccupied royal palaces of England, along with Hillsborough Castle, are the responsibility of Historic Royal Palaces.

Unlike the other nations of the United Kingdom, there is no official residence for a member of the royal family in Wales;[4] Llwynywermod is the private Welsh residence of the Prince of Wales.

Map of select residences

List of British royal residences is located in City of Westminster
Red: Used by the King and Queen
Blue: Used by the Prince and Princess of Wales
Green: Used by other members of the royal family

Official residences

Residence Location Ownership Residents Notes
Buckingham Palace London The Crown The King and Queen The King and Queen use Buckingham Palace for official business but do not reside there.[5]
Clarence House London The Crown The King and Queen Grace and favour

Clarence House is the current London Residence for the King and Queen

Kensington Palace London The Crown Also in part a Historic Royal Palace, otherwise, grace and favour
St James's Palace London The Crown Grace and favour
Windsor Castle Windsor, Berkshire, England The Crown The King and Queen Official country residence
Palace of Holyroodhouse Edinburgh, Scotland The Crown The King and Queen Used whenever the royal family undertake official duties in Scotland: primarily 'Holyrood week' in July
Hillsborough Castle County Down, Northern Ireland The Crown The King and Queen Used whenever the royal family undertake official duties in Northern Ireland. Also, a Historic Royal Palace.[6]

Private residences

London

Residence Location Ownership Residents Notes
Ivy Cottage Kensington Palace, London The Crown Princess Eugenie and Jack Brooksbank Current residence, leased from the Crown Estate
Wren House Kensington Palace, London The Crown The Duke and Duchess of Kent Official London residence, also a Historic Royal Palaces, grace and favour
Thatched House Lodge Richmond, London The Crown Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy Official country residence, leased from the Crown Estate

Windsor and nearby

Residence Location Type Residents Notes
Adelaide Cottage Windsor Estate, Berkshire The Crown The Prince and Princess of Wales Located in Windsor Home Park, close to Windsor Castle
Frogmore Cottage Windsor Estate, Berkshire The Crown The Duke and Duchess of Sussex
(Vacant as of June 2023)
Part of the Crown Estate
Royal Lodge Windsor Estate, Berkshire The Crown The Duke of York Leased from the Crown Estate
Bagshot Park Bagshot, Surrey, England The Crown The Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh Leased from the Crown Estate

Balmoral

Residence Location Type Residents Notes
Balmoral Castle Aberdeenshire, Scotland Private The King and Queen August and September, inherited from Elizabeth II.
Birkhall Balmoral Estate, Aberdeenshire, Scotland Private The King and Queen Previously owned by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother; located on the estate of Balmoral Castle. Charles inherited the home when his grandmother died in 2002.
Craigowan Lodge Balmoral, Aberdeenshire, Scotland Private The King and Queen Inherited from Elizabeth II.

Elsewhere in the United Kingdom

Residence Location Type Residents Notes
Sandringham House Sandringham, Norfolk, England Private The King and Queen Christmas until February, inherited from Elizabeth II
Anmer Hall Sandringham Estate, Norfolk, England Private The Prince and Princess of Wales Located on the grounds of Sandringham House. Wedding gift from Elizabeth II to Prince William and Catherine[7]
Highgrove House Gloucestershire, England Duchy of Cornwall Control of the house was transferred to William, Prince of Wales, when he inherited the Duchy of Cornwall.[8]
Llwynywermod Myddfai, Carmarthenshire, Wales Duchy of Cornwall The Prince and Princess of Wales Usual country residence of the Prince of Wales
Tamarisk House Isles of Scilly, England Duchy of Cornwall The Prince and Princess of Wales
Gatcombe Park Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire, England Private The Princess Royal

Former royal residences

London

Residence Location Royals and Dates
145 Piccadilly Piccadilly Prince Albert, Duke of York and Elizabeth, Duchess of York and Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret of York (1926–1936)
Albany House / The Albany Piccadilly Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1791–1802)
Bentley Priory Borough of Harrow Queen Adelaide (leased 1846/8–1849)
Bridewell Palace City of London Henry VIII; Edward VI (1515–1523, owned until 1556)
Bushy House Teddington William IV; the FitzClarences, Dorothea Jordan, Adelaide of Saxe-Meinigen (1797–1849; still owned)
Cambridge House Piccadilly Official London residence of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge (1829–1850)
Cambridge Cottage Kew
Carlton House Westminster George IV (1783–1827; demolished and Carlton House Terrace constructed on the site, owned by the Crown Estate)
Castle Hill Lodge Ealing Used by Maria Anne Fitzherbert from October 1795 and George, Prince of Wales; then, bought by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (father of Queen Victoria), who spent £100,000 enhancing the house (£9.62 million in 2023).[9] His aide-de-camp, General Sir Frederick Augustus Wetherall, bought the house to rescue the Duchess from creditors following the Duke of Kent's death. The house was demolished in 1845 by General Sir George Augustus Wetherall.
Chelsea Manor Chelsea Princess Elizabeth; Anne of Cleves (1536–1547, c. 1547–1557)
Chesterfield House Westminster London home of Princess Mary (1923–1937) – owned by Harewood Estates
Crosby Hall Chelsea Richard, Duke of Gloucester (mid-late 15th century)[10]
Cumberland House Pall Mall Prince Edward, Duke of York; Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland (c. 1760–1801; as York House until 1767)
Dolphin Square Embankment The Princess Royal, rented a flat here
Dover House Whitehall Prince Frederick, Duke of York (1788–1792)
East Sheen Lodge Princess Louise, Princess Royal (1889–1931)
Gloucester House, Mayfair Piccadilly Prince William, Duke of Gloucester died here in 1805, as did his daughter-in-law Princess Mary, the last surviving child of George III, on 30 April 1857
Gunnersbury Park Borough of Hounslow Summer retreat of Princess Amelia (1760–1786)
Hampton Court Palace Richmond-upon-Thames The Crown, since Henry VIII (1525), now managed by Historic Royal Palace agency
Hanworth Manor Borough of Hounslow Henry VII; Henry VIII; Elizabeth I; also Anne Boleyn and Katherine Parr
Kennington Palace Kennington Built by Edward the Black Prince around 1350. Demolished c.1531 to provide materials for the Palace of Whitehall.
Kew Palace Kew Frederick, Prince of Wales; George III; The Crown since (mid-18th century –; managed by Historic Royal Palaces
Lancaster House Westminster
Leicester House Westminster Frederick, Prince of Wales (c. 1730–1751)
Tower of London City of London Now managed by Historic Royal Palaces
Marlborough House Westminster Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh; Queen Adelaide (1837–1849); Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra, Princess of Wales (1863–1901); George, Prince of Wales and Mary, Princess of Wales (1901–1910). Occupied by Queen Mary 1945–1953.
Nonsuch Palace Built by Henry VIII, later dismantled and sold-off by Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland
Norfolk House Frederick, Prince of Wales
Nottingham Cottage grounds of Kensington Palace
Palace of Placentia The Palace at Greenwich, acquired by Margaret of Anjou (consort to Henry VI). Demolished and rebuilt for Charles II in 1664 (King Charles Wing).Given by Queen Mary to Trustees for the Royal Hospital for Seamen (now referred to as the Old Royal Naval College) who have leased it to Trinity Laban University.
Queen's House Greenwich Built in the Gardens of the Palace of Greenwich for Anne of Denmark, consort to James I a small part of a proposed rebuilding of Greenwich (Placentia) Palace. Given by Queen Mary to Trustees for the Royal Hospital for Seamen (now referred to as the Old Royal Naval College). Part of the National Maritime Museum.
Richmond Palace Also known as Palace of Sheen, Royal Residence 1327 to 1649. A few above ground remains survive in Palace Yard, Richmond
Savile House Leicester Square
Savoy Palace
Schomberg House Pall Mall Princess Helena (until 1923) and daughters Princess Helena Victoria and Princess Marie Louise (1920–1939)[11]
Somerset House Queen Elizabeth I; Queen Henrietta Maria
Sussex House Upper Mall, Hammersmith Prince Augustus, Duke of Sussex
Palace of Westminster Anglo-Saxon era – 1530
Palace of Whitehall 1530–1698
White Lodge Richmond Princess Amelia of Great Britain; George III and Queen Charlotte; Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh; Albert Edward, Prince of Wales; Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge and family; Prince Albert, Duke of York and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (c. 1740–1923)
York House, St James's Palace Various royal residents

England

Residence Location Royals and Dates
Allerton Castle North Yorkshire Prince Frederick, Duke of York (1786–1789)
Apethorpe Palace Apthorp Park, in Apethorpe, Northamptonshire Henry VIII to Charles I
Audley End House Saffron Walden, Essex Charles II (1668–1701)
Barnwell Manor Northamptonshire Princes Henry and Richard, Dukes of Gloucester (1938–1995; sold 2024)
Palace of Beaulieu Chelmsford, Essex Henry VIII; Edward VI; Mary I; Elizabeth I (1517–1622)
Beaumont Palace Oxford Henry I to Edward II; 1130–1318)
Fort Belvedere Windsor Great Park Prince William, Duke of Cumberland; Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught; Edward VIII, Gerald and Angela Lascelles (1953–1976)
Berkhamsted Castle Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire William the Conqueror (1066); Henry I (1123); Edward, the Black Prince (1337); a number of Queens consort (1191–1400); last occupied 1469–1496 by Cecily Neville, Duchess of York
Brantridge Park Balcombe, West Sussex Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone; Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (1919–1941)
Brill Palace Brill, Buckinghamshire Edward the Confessor; Harold Godwinson; William the Conqueror; William II; Henry I; Stephen; Henry II; John; Henry III; Edward I; Edward II; Edward III (c. 1042–1337; given to Sir John de Moleyns)
Carisbrooke Castle Newport, Isle of Wight Charles I; Princess Elizabeth; Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester and Princess Henrietta; Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (1647 – c. 1652, 1896–1944; now managed by English Heritage)
Castlewood House Egham, Surrey Leased by The Duke and Duchess of York (1987–1990)
Chideock Manor Dorset Rented by The Duke and Duchess of York (1986–1987)
Claremont Esher, Surrey Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales and Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld; Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany and Princess Helena, Duchess of Albany (1816–1831; owned until 1865, 1882–1922)[clarification needed]
Clarendon Palace Salisbury, Wiltshire Used for hunting trips during the Middle Ages. Now ruined.
Cliveden Buckinghamshire George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke of Sutherland
Coombe Abbey Warwickshire Owned 16th century–?; Elizabeth of Bohemia (early 17th century)
Coppins Buckinghamshire Princess Victoria; Princes George and Edward, Dukes of Kent (1925–1973)
Crocker End House Oxfordshire Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (1990–?)
Cumberland Lodge Windsor Great Park Princes William and Henry, Dukes of Cumberland; Anne, Duchess of Cumberland; Prince Augustus, Duke of Sussex; Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1746–1803; 1830–1843; 1872–1923; still owned)
Eastwell Park Kent Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Maria, Duchess of Edinburgh (rented 1874–1893)
Eltham Palace Kent The Crown (Edward II to Henry VIII; now managed by English Heritage)
Frogmore House Windsor Queen Charlotte and her then-unmarried daughters – Charlotte, Princess Royal, Princesses Princess Augusta, Elizabeth, Mary, Sophia, Amelia; Princess Augusta; Princess Victoria, Duchess of Kent (leased 1792–?)
Gloucester House Weymouth Summer residence of Prince William, Duke of Gloucester (later 18th century)
Goldsborough Hall North Yorkshire Yorkshire home of Princess Mary (1923–1930) – owned by the Estate of Harewood
Harewood House West Yorkshire Yorkshire home of Princess Mary (1930–1965) – owned by the Estate of Harewood
Hatfield House Hertfordshire The Crown (residents included Prince Edward and Princess Elizabeth; 16th century – 1607)
Havering Palace Havering, Essex c. 1050 – c. 1640
Kent House Isle of Wight Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (from 1901)
King James' Palace Royston, Hertfordshire Built by James I as a hunting lodge, it was also used by his son Charles I (1607–1649)
Kingsbourne House Wentworth, Surrey Leased by Sarah, Duchess of York (1994–1997)
Kings Langley Palace Hertfordshire Used by the Plantagenet to Tudor Kings (1276–1558)
Leeds Castle Kent Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile (1278); Edward II and Isabella of France (1321); Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon (1519)
Nether Lypiatt Manor Stroud, Gloucestershire Former country home of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent
Oak Grove House Sandhurst
Oatlands Palace Weybridge, Surrey Henry VIII; Edward VI; Mary I; Elizabeth I (and the Stuart line)
Oatlands Park Weybridge, Surrey
Osborne Cottage Isle of Wight Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (1901–1912)
Osborne House Isle of Wight Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (1846–1901). Queen Victoria died there on 22 January 1901. Bequeathed to her successor Edward VII, who gave it to the nation later that year.
Ribsden Holt Windlesham, Surrey Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll; Princess Patricia of Connaught
Romenda Lodge Wentworth Estate, Surrey Detached house leased by the Duchess of York 1992–1994
The Royal Pavilion, Brighton Brighton, East Sussex George IV; William IV; Victoria (1786–1838)
Sunninghill Park Ascot, Windsor Prince Andrew, Duke of York and family (c. 1990–2004)
Theobalds Palace Hertfordshire The Crown. James I exchanged it by Act of Parliament with Lord Burleigh; Charles I also lived there; granted in 1 & 2 William and Mary to William, Duke of Portland
Walmer Castle Walmer, Kent
Westfield Bonchurch, Isle of Wight Built as hunting lodge for Queen Adelaide in 1825, now converted into apartments, most of the estate sold
The King's House Winchester Proposed and partly completed royal residence for Charles II designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
Windlesham Moor Windsor The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (1947–4 July 1949[12])
Witley Court Worcestershire
Wood Farm Sandringham Estate From his retirement in 2017, the house was home to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
Woodstock Palace Oxfordshire
York Cottage In the grounds of Sandringham House, Norfolk Occupied by George V and his wife Queen Mary as Duke and Duchess of York. They retained use of the small cottage after their accession in 1910. It was later given to George V's son, Prince Albert, Duke of York and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon.

Scotland

Residence Location Royals and Dates
Abergeldie Castle Abergeldie, Aberdeenshire Queen Victoria to Elizabeth II (1848–1970)
Cadzow Castle South Lanarkshire, Scotland Scottish crown (David I, Alexander II, Alexander III, John, Robert I); Mary, Queen of Scots (mid-early 12th century to early 14th century, early May 1568)
Doune Castle Stirlingshire Seat of the Duke of Albany (1380–1603)
Dunfermline Palace Dunfermline, Fife Seat of the King of Scots (1500–1650)
Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh A residence of the Kings of Scots from the 11th to the 17th centuries, last used by Charles I in 1633 (now managed by Historic Scotland)
Falkland Palace Falkland, Fife Various, including Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany; David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (The Scottish Crown 14th century –; now National Trust for Scotland)
Glamis Castle Glamis, Angus Residence of the Kings of Scots up to Robert II. Much later, three rooms were let to George VI and Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother
The Castle of Mey near John o' Groats Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (1952–2002)
Linlithgow Palace West Lothian
Stirling Castle Stirling Kings of Scots

Wales

Residence Location Royals and Dates
Bodorgan Hall Bodorgan, Anglesey, Wales Prince William and Catherine lived in a four-bedroom cottage on the Bodorgan Hall estate from 2010 to 2013. Their son, Prince George (b. July 2013), spent his first months on the estate.[13][14]
Caernarfon Castle Caernarfon, Wales Edward I (until 1283; still owned)
Castell y Bere Llanfihangel-y-Pennant, Wales Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales (until 1284) then Edward I
Criccieth Castle Criccieth, Wales Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales (until 1284) then Edward I
Dolbadarn Castle Llanberis, Wales Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales (and Princes of Wales until 1284) then Edward I
Dolwyddelan Castle Dolwyddelan, Wales Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales (until 1284) then Edward I

Outside the United Kingdom

Residence Location Royals and Dates
4 route du Champ d'Entraînement Paris, France The Duke and Duchess of Windsor (1937-1986)
Dublin Castle Dublin, Republic of Ireland Seat of Lords and Kings of Ireland (1171–1922)
Les Jolies Eaux Mustique, St Vincent Gift to Princess Margaret. Sold by her son Viscount Linley in 2000.
Les Bruyeres Cap Ferrat, France Owned by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1921-1942)
Sagana Lodge Kenya
Verdala Palace Siġġiewi, Malta
San Anton Palace Attard, Malta
Grandmaster's Palace Valletta, Malta
Villa Guardamangia Pietà, Malta

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Maintaining the Occupied Royal Palaces". Parliamentary website. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  2. ^ "Royal Property". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Vol. 252. United Kingdom: House of Commons. 16 January 1995. col. 301W.
  3. ^ "Royal Collection Trust". www.rct.uk. Retrieved 6 July 2024.
  4. ^ "Royal palace in Wales 'could bring £36m'". BBC News. 15 April 2018.
  5. ^ "King Charles' grand rooms at Clarence House which remain out of bounds". HELLO!. 19 October 2022. Retrieved 25 October 2022.
  6. ^ "Guide to Hillsborough Castle - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. 26 March 2015.
  7. ^ Ward, Victoria (29 July 2013). "Duke and Duchess of Cambridge 'to move into country bolt-hole'". Archived from the original on 2 August 2013 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  8. ^ "Prince William's most surprising residences in new £1.2bn property portfolio". HELLO!. 21 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  9. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 7 May 2024.
  10. ^ Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea – Interesting Places – Crosby Hall Archived 13 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Princess Marie Louise (née Princess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenberg), My Memories of Six Reigns London: Evans Brothers, 1956
  12. ^ Royal.gov.uk – 60 Facts, Fact 50 Archived 27 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "First look inside the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's Anglesey home". The Telegraph. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  14. ^ "Prince William and Kate revisit former home of Anglesey". BBC. 8 May 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2020.