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The following is a list of Roman external wars and battles[1] fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire against external enemies, organized by date. For internal civil wars, revolts and rebellions, see List of Roman civil wars and revolts.

8th century BC

The city of Rome in 753 BC

7th century BC

6th century BC

508 BC Siege by Etruscans (forces in blue) of Rome (forces in red).

5th century BC

4th century BC

3rd century BC

Roman expansion in Italy from 500 BC to 218 BC through the Latin War (light red), Samnite Wars (pink/orange), Pyrrhic War (beige), and First and Second Punic War (yellow and green). Cisalpine Gaul (238-146 BC) and Alpine valleys (16-7 BC) were later added. The Roman Republic in 500 BC is marked with dark red.
Expansion of Rome by 200 BC

2nd century BC

1st century BC

Expansion of Rome from 200 BC (green) to 100 BC (orange).
Roman holdings in the East (orange), clients (yellow), and other states.
The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests.

1st century

The Roman Empire under Augustus: The Republic in 31 BC (yellow) and Augustus's conquests (shades of green). Client states are in pink.

2nd century

The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117)

3rd century

The Empires of Gaul (green), Rome (red), and Palmyra (yellow) in 271.

See also: Crisis of the Third Century and List of Roman civil wars and revolts § 3rd century

4th century

The Roman Empire in 337, showing the Empire under Constantine (shaded purple) and other Roman dependencies (light purple).

5th century

Map showing the paths of invasion by various groups into Eastern and Western Roman territory
Reconstruction of the 407–409 sack of Gaul, based on Peter Heather (2005)

The 5th century involves the final fall of the Western Roman Empire to Goths, Vandals, Alans, Huns, Franks and other peoples.

6th century and beyond

Main article: List of Byzantine wars

See also


  1. ^ Jones 2013, p. 1–4.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Jones 2013, p. 1.
  3. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 2.14
  4. ^ Webster, Jane (1996). "Ethnographic barbarity: colonial discourse and 'Celtic warrior societies'.". In Cooper, Nick (ed.). Roman Imperialism: Post-Colonial Perspectives (PDF). School of Archaeological Studies, University of Leicester. pp. 117–118. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Jones 2013, p. 2.
  6. ^ a b De Ruggiero, Paolo (2014). Mark Antony: A Plain Blunt Man. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. pp. 44–45. ISBN 9781473834569. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  7. ^ "Aelius Gallus Attempts the Conquest of Arabia—and Reaches the Limits of Roman Power |". Retrieved 2023-05-30.
  8. ^ Di Martino, Vittorio (2006). Roman Ireland. Cork: Collins. ISBN 978-1-905172-19-1
  9. ^ Tacitus claims that Orkney was "discovered and subdued", but Thomson (2008) pp. 4–5 is as sceptical about Tacitus's claims on behalf of Agricola as he is about Claudius's earlier subjugation of Orkney (see above).
  10. ^ Moffat (2005) p. 245.
  11. ^ Lacey, James (2016). Great Strategic Rivalries: From the Classical World to the Cold War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9780190620462. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  12. ^ Bennett, J. Trajan: Optimus Princeps. 1997. Fig. 1
  13. ^ a b Jones 2013, p. 3.
  14. ^ "Valens, Flavius". Encarta Encyclopedie Winkler Prins (in Dutch). Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. 2002.
  15. ^ Boin 2020, p. 52–53.
  16. ^ a b c d e "Alarik I". Encarta Encyclopedie Winkler Prins (in Dutch). Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. 2002.
  17. ^ a b c d Jones 2013, p. 4.