SN 1054 remnant
(Crab Nebula)

This is a list of supernovae that are of historical significance. These include supernovae that were observed prior to the availability of photography, and individual events that have been the subject of a scientific paper that contributed to supernova theory.

An alternative, complete and updated list can be found in the Open Supernova Catalog. Recent supernovae can be found at Latest Supernovae. Supernovae in 2023 include SN 2023ixf in Messier 101 (May 2023),[1] SN 2023idj in NGC 4568 (May 2023) and SN 2023gfo in NGC 4995 (April 2023).

List of supernovae

In most entries, the year when the supernova was seen is part of the designation (1st column).

Supernova
designation
(year)
Constellation Apparent
magnitude
Distance
(light years)
Type Galaxy Comments
SN 185 Centaurus −4 (?)[2] 9,100[3] Ia (?) Milky Way Surviving description sketchy; modern estimates of maximum apparent magnitude vary from +4 to −8. The remnant is probably RCW 86, some 8200 ly distant,[4] making it comparable to SN 1572. Some researchers have suggested it was a comet, not a supernova.[5][6]
SN 386 Sagittarius +1.5 14,700 II Milky Way "suggested SN",[7] candidate remnant could be G11.2-0.3.[8][9] There are three suggestions and doubtful if SN at all or classical nova or something else.[10]
SN 393 Scorpius –0 3,400 II/Ib Milky Way "possible SN",[7] could also be classical nova or something else[10]
SN 1006 Lupus –7.5[11] 7,200 Ia Milky Way Widely observed on Earth; in apparent magnitude, the brightest stellar event in recorded history.[12]
SN 1054 Taurus –6[13] 6,500 II Milky Way Remnant is the Crab Nebula with its pulsar (neutron star)
SN 1181 Cassiopeia 0 7,100 sub-luminous Type Iax supernova Milky Way Remnant is Pa 30 with its hot stellar remnant[14]
SN 1572 Cassiopeia –4.0 8,000 Ia Milky Way Tycho's Nova
Kepler's Supernova Ophiuchus –3 14,000 Ia Milky Way Kepler's Star; most recent readily visible supernova within the Milky Way
Cas A,
c. 1680
Cassiopeia +5 9,000 IIb Milky Way Apparently never visually conspicuous, due to interstellar dust; but the remnant, Cas A, is the brightest extrasolar radio source in the sky
G1.9+0.3,
cal. 1868
Sagittarius (visible light masked by dust) 25,000 Ia Milky Way Located near the Galactic Center; "Posthumously" discovered in 1985; age determined in 2008
SN 1885A Andromeda +5.85[15] 2,500,000 Ipec Andromeda Galaxy First observation of an extragalactic supernova
SN 1895B Centaurus +8.0[16] 10,900,000 Ia NGC 5253  
SN 1937C Canes Venatici +8.4[16] 13,000,000 Ia IC 4182  
SN 1939C Cepheus +13 25,200,000 I Fireworks Galaxy  
SN 1940B Coma Berenices +12.8 38,000,000 II-P NGC 4725  
SN 1961V Perseus +12.5 30,000,000 II? NGC 1058 Potential supernova impostor[17]
SN 1972E Centaurus +8.7[18] 10,900,000 Ia NGC 5253 Followed for more than a year; became the prototypical Type Ia supernova
SN 1983N Hydra +11.8 15,000,000 Ib Messier 83 First observation of a Type Ib supernova
SN 1986J Andromeda +18.4 30,000,000 IIn NGC 891 Bright in the radio frequency range
SN 1987A Dorado +2.9 160,000 IIpec Large Magellanic Cloud Intense radiation reached Earth on February 23, 1987, 7:35:35 UT. Notable for archival photos of progenitor star and detection of supernova neutrinos. Most recent Local Group supernova
SN 1993J Ursa Major +10.7[19] 11,000,000 IIb M81 One of the brightest supernovae in the northern sky since 1954
SN 1994D Virgo +15.2 50,000,000 Ia NGC 4526
SN 1998bw Telescopium ? 140,000,000 Ic ESO 184-G82 Linked to GRB 980425, which was the first time a gamma-ray burst has been linked to a supernova.
SN 1999eh Lynx +18.3 +/- 0.3 84,000,000 I NGC 2770 First supernovae in this galaxy, where 3 more was detected later.
SN 2002bj Lupus +14.7 160,000,000 IIn NGC 1821 AM Canum Venaticorum-type outburst.[20]
SN 2003fg Boötes 4,000,000,000 Ia anonymous galaxy Also known as the "Champagne supernova"
SN 2004dj Camelopardalis 8,000,000 II-P NGC 2403 NGC 2403 is an outlying member of the M81 Group
SN 2005ap Coma Berenices 4,700,000,000 II ? Announced in 2007 to be the brightest supernova up to that point.
SN 2005gj Cetus 865,000,000 Ia/II-n ? Notable for having characteristics of both Type Ia and Type IIn.
SN 2005gl Pisces +16.5 200,000,000 II-n NGC 266 Star could be found on old pictures.[21]
SN 2006gy Perseus +15 240,000,000 IIn (*) NGC 1260 Observed by NASA,
*with a peak of over 70 days, possibly a new type.
SN 2007bi Virgo +18.3 Ia anonymous dwarf galaxy Extremely bright and long-lasting, the first good observational match for the pair-instability supernova model postulated for stars of initial mass greater than 140 solar masses (even better than SN 2006gy). The precursor is estimated at 200 solar masses, similar to the first stars of the early universe.[22]
SN 2007uy Lynx +16.8 84,000,000 Ibc NGC 2770 Got overshadowed by SN 2008D.
SN 2008D Lynx 88,000,000 Ibc NGC 2770 First supernova to be observed while it exploded.
MENeaC Abell399.3.14.0 Aries +28.7 1,000,000,000
(z=0.0613)
Ia anonymous red globular cluster associated with anonymous red elliptical galaxy in cluster Abell 399 Observed in 2009. Supernova associated with a globular cluster[23][24]
SN 2009ip Piscis Austrinus 66,000,000 IIn NGC 7259 In 2009 classified as supernova. Redesignated as Luminous blue variable (LBV) Supernova impostor.[25] In September 2012 classified as a young type IIn supernova.[26]
SN 2010lt Camelopardalis +17.0 240,000,000 Ia (sub-luminous) UGC 3378 Discovered by 10-year-old girl, the youngest person to discover a supernova.
SN 2011fe Ursa Major +10.0 21,000,000 Ia M101 One of the very few extragalactic supernovae visible in 50mm binoculars.
SN 2014J Ursa Major +10.5 11,500,000 Ia M82 Closest supernova since SN 2004dj in NGC 2403.
ASASSN-15lh SN 2015L Indus +16.9 3,800,000,000 Ic APMUKS(BJ) B215839.70−615403.9 Most luminous hypernova ever observed.
IPTF14hls Ursa Major +17.7 509,000,000 unknown SDSS J092034.44+504148.7 (possible dwarf galaxy) Unusual supernova
SN 2016aps Draco +18.11 3,600,000,000 SLSB-II ? Most luminous supernova-like event to date.
SN 2018zd Camelopardalis +17.8 70,000,000 Ia-csm NGC 2146 First electron capture supernova ever detected
SN 2019hgp Boötes +20.16 920,000,000 Icn First detected supernova of a Wolf-Rayet star[27][28]
SN 2020fqv Virgo +19.0 59,400,000 IIb NGC 4568 Earliest known observation of an explosion, 26 hours after[29][30][31]
SN 2020tlf Boötes +15.89 120,000,000 IIn NGC 5731 First red supergiant observed before, during and after explosion; earliest known observation, at 130 days before explosion[32][33]
SN 2023ixf Ursa Major +10.8 21,000,000 type II-L Pinwheel Galaxy (M101)[1] Closest and brightest supernova since SN 2014J
SN 2022jli Cetus +14 75,000,000 type I-c NGC 157 Type Ic, shows periodicity[34][35][36][37]

Supernova statistics

Yearly extragalactic supernovae reported
Year Total Type I Type II LBV Brighter than
apmag 13
Apmag of brightest
Supernova of that year
2023[38] 19859 1430 417 7 2 10.9 (2023ixf in M101)
2022[39] 21368 1732 396 7 4 12.3 (2022hrs in NGC 4647)
2021[40] 23665 1849 465 5 8 12.0 (2021aefx in NGC 1566)
2020[41] 21775 1648 451 7 7 11.8 (2020ue in NGC 4636)
2019[42] 18767 1652 485 9 1 13.0 (2019np in NGC 3254)
2018[43] 9525 1206 332 7 5 12.7 (2018pv in NGC 3941)
2017[44] 8293 746 218 4 3 11.5 (2017cbv in NGC 5643)
2016[45] 7737 681 226 3 0 13.0 (2016coj in NGC 4125)
2015[46] 4474 707 214 4 2 12.9 (2015F in NGC 2442)
2014[47] 2243 528 175 2 3 10.1 (2014J in Messier 82)
2013[48] 1922 498 190 7 6 11.3 (2013aa in NGC 5643)
2012[49] 1223 550 152 8 5 11.9 (2012fr in NGC 1365)
2011[50] 1129 439 160 10 7 9.9 (2011fe in Messier 101)
2010[51] 931 279 135 7 2 12.8 (2010ih in NGC 2325)
2009[52] 576 202 137 1 0 13.0 (2009ig in NGC 1015)
2008[53] 511 251 143 1 3 12.4 (2008ge in NGC 1527)
2007[54] 605 442 130 1 3 12.0 (2007it in NGC 5530)
2006[55] 558 418 124 2 3 12.1 (2006dd in NGC 1316)
2005[56] 385 273 94 1 2 12.3 (2005df in NGC 1559)
2004[57] 343 221 79 0 2 11.2 (2004dj in NGC 2403)
2003[58] 384 198 89 1 1 12.3 (2003hv in NGC 1201)
2002[59] 353 163 64 0 1 12.3 (2002ap in Messier 74)
2001[60] 310 108 75 0 2 12.3 (2001e1 in NGC 1448)
2000[61] 199 76 49 1 0 13.1 (2000cx in NGC 528)

See also

References

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  2. ^ Modern estimates vary widely; see SN 185 for more detail.
  3. ^ Ksenofontov, L. T.; Berezhko, E. G.; Völk, H. J. (2005-04-01). "Magnetic field amplification in Tycho and other shell-type supernova remnants". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 433 (1): 229–240. arXiv:astro-ph/0409453. Bibcode:2005A&A...433..229V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20042015. ISSN 0004-6361. S2CID 16726273.
  4. ^ "New evidence links stellar remains to oldest recorded supernova" Chandra X-ray Observatory, released 2006-09-18, revised 2009-02-20, retrieved 2010-02-26.
  5. ^ Chin YN, Huang YL (1994). "Identification of the Guest Star of AD 185 as a comet rather than a supernova". Nature. 371 (6496): 398–399. Bibcode:1994Natur.371..398C. doi:10.1038/371398a0. S2CID 4240119. Archived from the original on 2013-11-05.
  6. ^ Zhao FY, Strom RG, Jiang SY (2006). "The Guest Star of AD185 Must Have Been a Supernova". Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6 (5): 635–40. Bibcode:2006ChJAA...6..635Z. doi:10.1088/1009-9271/6/5/17.
  7. ^ a b "SNR Cat - U Manitoba".
  8. ^ SEDS. "Supernova 386".
  9. ^ National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "The Supernova of 386 AD". Archived from the original on 2018-10-06. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
  10. ^ a b Hoffmann, Susanne M; Vogt, Nikolaus (2020-09-11). "A search for the modern counterparts of the Far Eastern guest stars 369 CE, 386 CE and 393 CE". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 497 (2): 1419–1433. arXiv:2007.01013. Bibcode:2020MNRAS.497.1419H. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa1970. ISSN 0035-8711.
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  13. ^ SEDS, Supernova 1054 – Creation of the Crab Nebula
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  27. ^ Gal-Yam, A.; Bruch, R.; Schulze, S.; Yang, Y.; Perley, D. A.; Irani, I.; Sollerman, J.; Kool, E. C.; Soumagnac, M. T.; Yaron, O.; Strotjohann, N. L. (12 January 2022). "A WC/WO star exploding within an expanding carbon–oxygen–neon nebula". Nature. 601 (7892): 201–204. arXiv:2111.12435. Bibcode:2022Natur.601..201G. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04155-1. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 35022591. S2CID 244527654.
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Further reading