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Volcanic eruptions can be highly explosive. Some volcanoes have undergone catastrophic eruptions, killing large numbers of humans or other life forms. This list documents volcanic eruptions by human death toll.

Volcanic eruptions

Human death toll Volcano VEI Location Year Eruption Source(s)
71,000 to 250,100+ Mount Tambora 7 Indonesia 1815 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, Year Without a Summer
36,000+ Krakatoa 6 Indonesia 1883 1883 eruption of Krakatoa
30,000 Mount Pelée 4 Martinique 1902 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée
23,000 Nevado del Ruiz 3 Colombia 1985 Armero tragedy
20,000~ (estimated) Santorini 7 Greece c. 1600 BC Minoan eruption
15,000 to 20,000 Mount Samalas 7 Indonesia 1257 1257 Samalas eruption
15,000 Mount Unzen 2 Japan 1792 1792 Unzen earthquake and tsunami
13,000+ (estimated) Mount Vesuvius 5 Italy 79 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD
10,000+ Laki and Grímsvötn 4 Iceland 1783 Laki#1783 eruption [1]
10,000 Kelud 5 Indonesia 1586 [2]
6,000 Santa María 6 Guatemala 1902 [3]
5,160 Kelud 4 Indonesia 1919 [2]
4,011 Mount Galunggung 5 Indonesia 1822 [4]
3,360 Mount Vesuvius 5 Italy 1631 1631 eruption of Mount Vesuvius
3,000 Ritter Island 2 Papua New Guinea 1888 1888 Ritter Island eruption and tsunami
2,957 Mount Papandayan 3 Indonesia 1772 [5]
2,942 Mount Lamington 4 Papua New Guinea 1951 1951 eruption of Mount Lamington
2,806 Mount Awu 3 Indonesia 1856 [6]
2,033 Oshima Oshima 4 Japan 1741 1741 eruption of Oshima–Ōshima and the Kampo tsunami
2,000 Tseax Cone ? Canada 1700 c. 1700 [7][8]
1,900 El Chichón 5 Mexico 1982 [9]
1,700 Soufrière 4 St. Vincent 1902 [10]
1,584 Mount Agung 5 Indonesia 1963
1,532 Mount Awu 3 Indonesia 1892 [6]
1,500 Huaynaputina 6 Peru 1600 [11][12]
1,369 Mount Merapi 3 Indonesia 1930 [13]
1,335 Taal 3 Philippines 1911 [14]
1,300 Gamalama 3 Indonesia 1775 [15]
1,200 Mount Mayon 4 Philippines 1814 [16]
1,151 Mount Asama 4 Japan 1783 Tenmei eruption
1,000 Nevado del Ruiz 3 Colombia 1845 [17]
847 Mount Pinatubo 6 Philippines 1991 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo
700 Hokkaido Komagatake 5 Japan 1640 [18]
600 Nevado del Ruiz 4 Colombia 1595 [17]
507 Tavurvur 4 Papua New Guinea 1937 [19]
500 Hibok-Hibok 3 Philippines 1951 [20][21]
477 Mount Bandai 4 Japan 1888 1888 eruption of Mount Bandai
426 Anak Krakatoa 3 Indonesia 2018 2018 Sunda Strait tsunami
416 Ruang 2 Indonesia 1871 1871 Ruang eruption and tsunami
400+ Kilauea 4 Hawaii, United States 1790 Keanakakoi eruption
350 to 400 Mount Mayon 4 Philippines 1897 [22]
353 Mount Merapi 4 Indonesia 2010 2010 eruptions of Mount Merapi
340 Cotopaxi 4 Ecuador 1877 [23]
326 Makian 4 Indonesia 1861 [6]
245 Nyiragongo 1 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002
216 Mount Vesuvius 4 Italy 1906 [24]
190 to 2,900 Volcán de Fuego 3 Guatemala 2018 2018 Volcán de Fuego eruption [25]
160+ Paluweh 3 Indonesia 1928 [26]
151 Mount Ruapehu ? New Zealand 1953 Tangiwai disaster
150 Tori-shima 3 Japan 1902 [27]
149 Dieng Volcanic Complex 1 Indonesia 1979 1979 eruption of Sinila crater [28]
144 Mount Tokachi 3 Japan 1926 [29][better source needed]
117 Dieng Volcanic Complex 2 Indonesia 1944 [30]
114 Dieng Volcanic Complex 1 Indonesia 1964 [30]
108 to 120 Mount Tarawera 5 New Zealand 1886 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera
106 Dubbi 3 Eritrea 1861 [6]
87 Volcán Arenal 3 Costa Rica 1968 [31]
80 Mount Marapi 2 Indonesia 1979 1979 eruption of Mount Marapi [32]
79 Mount Mayon 2 Philippines 1993 [16]
70 Nyiragongo 1 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1977 [33]
70~ Kolumbo 4 Greece 1650 [34]
69 Semeru 4 Indonesia 2021 2021 Semeru eruption
64 Mount Merapi 2 Indonesia 1994 [35]
63 Mount Ontake 3 Japan 2014 2014 Mount Ontake eruption
58 Sakurajima 4 Japan 1914 [36]
57 Mount St. Helens 5 United States 1980 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens
56 Mount Etna 2 Italy 1843 [6]
56 La Soufrière 4 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1812 [37]
50 Mount Usu 4 Japan 1822 [38]
43 Mount Unzen 1 Japan 1991 [39]
40 Dieng Volcanic Complex 2 Indonesia 1928 [30]
39 Taal 4 Philippines 2020 2020–2022 Taal Volcano eruptions
38 Dieng Volcanic Complex 2 Indonesia 1786 [30]
32 Mount Nyiragongo 1 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2021 2021 Mount Nyiragongo eruption
32 Kelud 4 Indonesia 1990 [40]
31 Bayonnaise Rocks 2 Japan 1952 [41]
31 Nabro Volcano 4 Eritrea 2011 2011 Nabro eruption
30 Rinjani 3 Indonesia 1994 [42]
27 Mount Vesuvius 3 Italy 1944 [6]
25 Villarrica 2 Chile 1964 [43]
24 Monte Nuovo (Phlegraean Fields) 3 Italy 1538 [44]
23 Villarrica 3 Chile 1948 [45]
23 Mount Marapi ? Indonesia 2023 2023 eruption of Mount Marapi
22 Whakaari/White Island 2 New Zealand 2019 2019 Whakaari / White Island eruption
19 Soufrière Hills 3 Montserrat 1997 [46]
18 Galunggung 4 Indonesia 1982
16 Sinabung 4 Indonesia 2014 [47]
15 to 30 Villarrica 2 Chile 1971 [48]
15 Raikoke 4 Russia 1778 [49]
10 Dieng Volcanic Complex 1 Indonesia 1939 [30]
10 Whakaari/White Island ? New Zealand 1914
9 Galeras 2 Colombia 1993 Galeras tragedy
9 Mount Etna 3 Italy 1979 [50]
8 Dieng Volcanic Complex 1 Indonesia 2017 [51]
8 Kuchinoerabu-jima 4 Japan 1933 [52]
7 Kelud 4 Indonesia 2014 [53]
7 Jabal al-Tair 3 Yemen 2007 [54]
6 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai 5 Tonga 2022 2021–22 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai eruption and tsunami
6 Karangetang 2 Indonesia 1992 [55]
5 Mount Tavurvur 4 Papua New Guinea 1994 [56]
5 Mount Hudson 3 Chile 1971 [57]
4 Gamalama 2 Indonesia 2011 [58]
4 Yakedake 1 Japan 1995 [59]
4 Stromboli 2 Italy 1930 [60]
3 Pacaya 3 Guatemala 2010 [61]
3 Kanlaon 2 Philippines 1996 [62]
3 Didicas 2 Philippines 1969 [63]
2 Santa Ana 3 El Salvador 2005 [64]
2 Mount Bromo 2 Indonesia 2004 [65]
1 Popocatépetl 2 Mexico 2022 [66]
1 Cumbre Vieja 3 Spain 2021 2021 Cumbre Vieja volcanic eruption
1 Stromboli 2 Italy 2019 [67]
1 Chaitén 4 Chile 2008 [68]
1 Raoul Island 1 New Zealand 2006 [69]
1 Eldfell 3 Iceland 1973 [70][71][72]

See also

References

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