Luo Tong
Area Commander of Ruxu (濡須督)
In office
223 (223)–228 (228)
MonarchSun Quan
Lieutenant-General (偏將軍)
In office
222 (222)–223 (223)
MonarchSun Quan
Personal details
Yiwu, Zhejiang
Died228 (aged 35)[1]
Spouse(s)Lady Sun
FatherLuo Jun
Courtesy nameGongxu (公緒)
PeerageMarquis of Xinyang Village

Luo Tong (193–228),[1] courtesy name Gongxu, was an official serving under the warlord Sun Quan during the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China.


Luo Tong was from Wushang County (烏傷縣), Kuaiji Commandery, which is around present-day Yiwu, Zhejiang. His father Luo Jun (駱俊), who served the Prince of Chen Liu Chong as his chancellor (陳相) in the Eastern Han dynasty, was killed by the warlord Yuan Shu.[2] Luo Tong's mother remarried after her husband's death, and became a concubine of the official Hua Xin. Luo Tong, who was seven years old then, returned to Kuaiji Commandery with his close friends. Before he left, his mother tearfully saw him off, but Luo Tong did not look back when he boarded the carriage. When the carriage driver told him his mother was behind him, Luo Tong said, "I don't want to make my mother miss me even more. That's why I don't look back." Luo Tong was also known for being filial to his stepmother (Hua Xin's official spouse).[3]

At the time, there was a famine, so the residents in Luo Tong's hometown and other travellers taking shelter there suffered from hunger. Luo Tong was very worried about this and his appetite decreased. His elder sister, who was widowed and had no children, was known for being very kind. She saw that her brother looked very upset, so she asked him why. Luo Tong said, "I feel bad when I can fill my own stomach while those people don't have enough to eat." His sister replied, "You're right. Why do you suffer in silence and not tell me about this?" She then took grain from her personal stores and gave it to Luo Tong, and also informed their mother about it. Luo Tong's mother agreed with what they were doing, and she distributed grain to the people. Luo Tong became famous after this incident.[4]

When the warlord Sun Quan was nominally serving as the Administrator (太守) of Kuaiji Commandery, Luo Tong, then 19 years old, was appointed as the Chancellor of Wucheng County (烏程縣; south of present-day Huzhou, Zhejiang), which had over 10,000 residents. He performed well in office and received praise from Sun Quan, who promoted him to an Officer of Merit (功曹) and acting Cavalry Commandant (騎都尉). He married the daughter of Sun Quan's cousin, Sun Fu.[5] Luo Tong was known for being very diligent in examining the state of affairs in his jurisdiction. Whenever he encountered important issues that required action, he would attempt to resolve them within the day itself. He also advised Sun Quan to give greater attention to talented and virtuous people, so as to attract them to serve him. He suggested that Sun Quan meet the guests individually (instead of in groups) and hold private conversations with them to understand them better and make them feel appreciated and grateful to him. Sun Quan accepted Luo Tong's advice.[6] Luo Tong was appointed as "General of the Household Who Builds Loyalty" (建忠中郎將) and was placed in charge of 3,000 troops. He was placed in command of Ling Tong's unit after Ling died.[7]

Some time later, Luo Tong noticed that the people were suffering not only because of heavy taxes and being recruited to perform hard labour, but also because of contagious diseases spreading around. He wrote a long memorial to Sun Quan, explaining the difficult situation the people are in, and pointing out that if the problems could affect the stability of Eastern Wu in the long term if they were not resolved. He urged Sun Quan to implement policies to help the people and relieve their burdens. Sun Quan felt touched after reading Luo Tong's memorial and he paid greater attention to Luo's ideas.[8] Throughout his career, Luo Tong had written many memorials to Sun Quan, giving appropriate advice on policies. Among all the pieces of advice he gave to Sun Quan, the most notable one is his suggestion to stop increasing conscription, because he felt that forcing the people into conscription would lead to social problems and make them feel resentful. Sun Quan argued with him again and again over this issue, but eventually accepted his ideas.[9]

In 221–222, Luo Tong participated in the Battle of Xiaoting between Eastern Wu and its former ally state, Shu Han. He was a subordinate of the Wu general Lu Xun, and the Wu forces emerged victorious in the battle. Luo Tong was promoted to Lieutenant-General (偏將軍) for his contributions. Later, in 222–223, he participated in the Battle of Ruxu against Wu's rival state Cao Wei. The Wei general Cao Ren had sent his subordinate Chang Diao (常雕) to attack Zhongzhou (中洲). Luo Tong and Yan Gui (嚴圭) led the Wu forces to Zhongzhou to resist the enemy and defeated them. For his success, Luo Tong was promoted to Area Commander of Ruxu (濡須督) and enfeoffed as the Marquis of Xinyang Village (新陽亭侯).[10] He also spoke up for Zhang Wen when Zhang Wen was implicated in a scandal involving Ji Yan, but Sun Quan did not accept his advice.[11]

Luo Tong died in 228 at the age of 36 (by East Asian age reckoning).[1]

Luo Jun

Luo Tong's father was Luo Jun (駱俊), whose courtesy name was Xiaoyuan (孝遠). Luo Jun was known for being skilful in handling both civil and military affairs. He served as a minor officer in his home commandery when he was young and was nominated as a xiaolian (civil service candidate). He was subsequently promoted to a Gentleman of Writing (尚書郎), and was later appointed as the Chancellor of Chen State. When chaos broke out towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, Luo Jun successfully maintained law and order within Chen State and ensured that the people lived well and were safe. Sometime in the 190s, when the warlord Yuan Shu was running short of supplies, he sent a messenger to Chen State to request for grain. Luo Jun saw Yuan Shu as a traitor and despised him, so he refused to send supplies. The angry Yuan Shu then sent assassins to kill Luo Jun.[12]


Chen Shou, who wrote Luo Tong's biography in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, appraised Luo Tong as follows: "Luo Tong understood righteousness and provided rational advice. He was able to convince those in power."[13]

See also


  1. ^ Luo Tong's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that he died in the 7th year of the Huangwu era (228) of Sun Quan's reign at the age of 36 (by East Asian age reckoning).[1] By calculation, his birth year should be around 193.


  1. ^ a b c d (年三十六,黃武七年卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  2. ^ (駱統字公緒,會稽烏傷人也。父俊,官至陳相,為袁術所害。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  3. ^ (統母改適,為華歆小妻,統時八歲,遂與親客歸會稽。其母送之,拜辭上車,面而不顧,其母泣涕於後。御者曰:「夫人猶在也。」統曰:「不欲增母思,故不顧耳。」事適母甚謹。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  4. ^ (時饑荒,鄉里及遠方客多有困乏,統為之飲食衰少。其姊仁愛有行,寡歸無子,見統甚哀之,數問其故。統曰:「士大夫糟糠不足,我何心獨飽!」姊曰:「誠如是,何不告我,而自苦若此?」乃自以私粟與統,又以告母,母亦賢之,遂使分施,由是顯名。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  5. ^ (孫權以將軍領會稽太守,統年二十,試為烏程相,民戶過萬,咸歎其惠理。權嘉之,召為功曹,行騎都尉,妻以從兄輔女。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  6. ^ (統志在補察,苟所聞見,夕不待旦。常勸權以尊賢接士,勤求損益,饗賜之日,可人人別進,問其燥濕,加以密意,誘諭使言,察其志趣,令皆感恩戴義,懷欲報之心。權納用焉。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  7. ^ (出為建忠中郎將,領武射吏三千人。及凌統死,復領其兵。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  8. ^ (是時徵役繁數,重以疫癘,民戶損耗,統上疏曰:「臣聞君國者,以據疆土為彊富,制威福為尊貴,曜德義為榮顯,永世胤為豐祚。然財須民生,彊賴民力,威恃民勢,福由民殖,德俟民茂,義以民行,六者旣備,然後應天受祚,保族宜邦。書曰:『衆非后無能胥以寧,后非衆無以辟四方。』推是言之,則民以君安,君以民濟,不易之道也。今彊敵未殄,海內未乂,三軍有無已之役,江境有不釋之備,徵賦調數,由來積紀,加以殃疫死喪之災,郡縣荒虛,田疇蕪曠,聽聞屬城,民戶浸寡,又多殘老,少有丁夫,聞此之日,心若焚燎。思尋所由,小民無知,旣有安土重遷之性,且又前後出為兵者,生則困苦無有溫飽,死則委棄骸骨不反,是以尤用戀本畏遠,同之於死。每有徵發,羸謹居家重累者先見輸送。小有財貨,傾居行賂,不顧窮盡。輕剽者則迸入險阻,黨就羣惡。百姓虛竭,嗷然愁擾,愁擾則不營業,不營業則致窮困,致窮困則不樂生,故口腹急,則姧心動而攜叛多也。又聞民間非居處小能自供,生產兒子,多不起養;屯田貧兵,亦多棄子。天則生之,而父母殺之,旣懼干逆和氣,感動陰陽。且惟殿下開基建國,乃無窮之業也,彊鄰大敵非造次所滅,疆埸常守非期月之戍,而兵民減耗,後生不育,非所以歷遠年,致成功也。夫國之有民,猶水之有舟,停則以安,擾則以危,愚而不可欺,弱而不可勝,是以聖王重焉,禍福由之,故與民消息,觀時制政。方今長吏親民之職,惟以辨具為能,取過目前之急,少復以恩惠為治,副稱殿下天覆之仁,勤恤之德者。官民政俗,日以彫弊,漸以陵遲,勢不可乆。夫治疾及其未篤,除患貴其未深,願殿下少以萬機餘閑,留神思省,補復荒虛,深圖遠計,育殘餘之民,阜人財之用,參曜三光,等崇天地。臣統之大願,足以死而不朽矣。」權感統言,深加意焉。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  9. ^ (數陳便宜,前後書數十上,所言皆善,文多故不悉載。尤以占募在民間長惡敗俗,生離叛之心,急宜絕置,權與相反覆,終遂行之。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  10. ^ (以隨陸遜破蜀軍於宜都,遷偏將軍。黃武初,曹仁攻濡須,使別將常雕等襲中洲,統與嚴圭共拒破之,封新陽亭侯,後為濡須督。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  11. ^ (將軍駱統表理溫曰:「 ... 」權終不納。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  12. ^ (謝承後漢書曰:俊字孝遠,有文武才幹,少為郡吏,察孝廉,補尚書郎,擢拜陳相。值袁術僭號,兄弟忿爭,天下鼎沸,羣賊並起,陳與比界,姧慝四布,俊厲威武,保疆境,賊不敢犯。養濟百姓,災害不生,歲獲豐稔。後術軍衆饑困,就俊求糧。俊疾惡術,初不應荅。術怒,密使人殺俊。) Annotation from Xie Cheng's Houhanshu in Sanguozhi vol. 57.
  13. ^ (評曰: ... 駱統抗明大義,辭切理至,值權方閉不開。) Sanguozhi vol. 57.