Hua Xin
Grand Commandant (太尉)
In office
January or February 227 (January or February 227) – 30 January 232 (30 January 232)
MonarchCao Rui
Succeeded bySima Yi
Minister over the Masses (司徒)
In office
11 December 220 (11 December 220) – January or February 227 (January or February 227)
MonarchCao Pi
Succeeded byWang Lang
Chancellor of State (相國)
(in Cao Pi's vassal kingdom)
In office
6 April (6 April) – 11 December 220 (11 December 220)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
ChancellorCao Pi
Preceded byZhong Yao
Grandee Secretary (御史大夫)
(in Cao Cao's vassal kingdom)
In office
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
ChancellorCao Cao
Prefect of the Masters of Writing (尚書令)
In office
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
ChancellorCao Cao
Preceded byXun Yu
Administrator of Yuzhang (豫章太守)
In office
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Personal details
Yucheng, Shandong
Died(232-01-30)30 January 232 (aged 74)[a]
RelationsHua Ji (brother)
  • Hua Biao
  • Hua Bo
  • Hua Zhou
  • Hua Bing
  • Luo Tong (stepson)
Courtesy nameZiyu (子魚)
Posthumous nameMarquis Jing (敬侯)
PeerageMarquis of Boping

Hua Xin (157 – 30 January 232),[a][3] courtesy name Ziyu, was a Chinese politician who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of China. He initially served directly under the central government of the Eastern Han dynasty. Later, he served under the warlord Sun Ce and then under the warlord Cao Cao. He continued to serve in the Cao Wei state during the Three Kingdoms period.


As a clerk in Gaotang County, Hua Xin was nominated as xiaolian, and appointed as Langzhong (郎中). In 187, Hua was appointed as Shangshu Lang (尚书郎). When Dong Zhuo evacuated the court from Luoyang to Chang'an, Hua requested a position as the administrator of Shanggui County (上邽) . He encountered Yuan Shu's army en route and was accepted to the latter's court. However, Hua left after his advice for Yuan to attack Dong Zhuo was dismissed.

In 192, Hua was appointed as the administrator of Yuzhang (豫章) Commandery. After Liu Yao, governor of Yang Province died, his troops were willing to transfer the commandership to Hua. Hua declined, believing it to be inappropriate as an official of the Han. He joined the forces of Sun Ce as the latter was preparing the conquest of Jiangdong. Sun treated him as an honored guest.[4]

In 200, after Sun Ce was assassinated, the imperial court under Cao Cao called Hua back to Luoyang. Sun Quan was hesitant to allow him to go, but Hua convinced Sun that his departure would be a sign of goodwill to Cao Cao. Eventually, Hua replaced Xun Yu as the Shangshu Ling (尚书令, Prefect of the Masters of Writing). In 213, Hua was Junshi (军师, military advisor) in Cao's war against Sun Quan. In 217, Hua became the first Grandee Secretary (御史大夫) in the Kingdom of Wei. In 220, Hua became the Chancellor of Wei, and the Marquis of Anle Ting (安乐亭侯).

In 221, Hua was appointed the Minister over the Masses. In 226, Hua was granted the Marquis of Boping (博平侯), and appointed as Grand Commandant. In October 230, after more than a month of slow progress, he sent a memorial to the Imperial Court to oppose Cao Zhen's campaign, resulting in Cao Rui ordering the troops to retreat. Hua Xin died in 232.[4]


A famous story of Hua Xin was recorded in A New Account of the Tales of the World:

Both Hua Xin and Wang Lang were fleeing in a boat. On person hoped to board, but Hua Xin was hesitant. Wang Lang said:" Fortunately the boat is still spacious. Why not?" Later, the bandits approached, and Wang wanted to abandon the person whom they took along. Hua Xin said:" This is why I was originally hesitant. Now that we have accepted his entrustment of himself, can we abandon him because of emergency?" Therefore they carried and saved him as before. This is how people determined who is better between Hua and Wang.

— Volume 1. Virtuous Conduct, A New Account of the Tales of the World [5]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Cao Rui's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Hua Xin died on the wuwu day of the 12th month of the 5th year of the Taihe era of Cao Rui's reign.[1] This date corresponds to 30 January 232 in the Gregorian calendar. The Wei Shu also recorded that Hua Xin was 75 (by East Asian age reckoning) when he died.[2] By calculation, Hua Xin was born in 157.


  1. ^ ([太和五年十二月]戊午,太尉華歆薨。) Sanguozhi vol. 3.
  2. ^ (魏書云:歆時年七十五。) Wei Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 13.
  3. ^ de Crespigny (2007), p. 333.
  4. ^ a b Sanguozhi vol. 13.
  5. ^ 華歆、王朗俱乘船避難,有一人欲依附,歆輒難之。朗曰:「幸尚寬,何為不可?」後賊追至,王欲舍所攜人。歆曰:「本所以疑,正為此耳。既已納其自託,寧可以急相棄邪?」遂攜拯如初。世以此定華、王之優劣。