Microsoft Academic
Type of site
Bibliographic database
LaunchedFebruary 22, 2016; 5 years ago (2016-02-22)
Current statusInactive (No longer accessible after Dec. 31, 2021)

Microsoft Academic was a free public web search engine for academic publications and literature, developed by Microsoft Research. It profiles authors, organizations, keywords, and journals.[1] The search engine indexes over 260 million publications,[2] 88 million of which are journal articles.[2]


The Academic Knowledge API offers information retrieval from the underlying database using REST endpoints for advanced research purposes.[3] The search engine provides not only search results and access to sources but also citation information that include the number of sources, g-index, and h-index.[4] Aside from academic publications, it is also used to find websites that contain state and local records.[5] The technology uses machine learning, semantic inference and knowledge discovery from sources crawled and indexed by the Bing search engine.[6]

The service replaces the earlier Microsoft research project, Microsoft Academic Search, which ended development in 2012.[7] The platform was developed in 2009 of the Microsoft Research branch in Asia and the project was headed by Zaiqing Nie.[1] Microsoft Academic was re-launched in 2016, as a tool that features an entirely new data structure and search engine using semantic search technologies.

Preliminary reviews by bibliometricians suggest the new Microsoft Academic Search is a competitor to Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus for academic research purposes[8][9] as well as citation analysis.[10][11][12] However, it is primarily used as a resource in the field of computer science since it is the most completely indexed information.[13]

On May 4, 2021, Microsoft announced that the Microsoft Academic website and APIs would be retired on December 31, 2021.[14]

See also


  1. ^ a b Ortega, Jose Luis (2014). Academic Search Engines: A Quantitative Outlook. Oxford: Elsevier. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-84334-791-0.
  2. ^ a b Microsoft Academic
  3. ^ Microsoft. "Academic Knowledge API". Microsoft. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  4. ^ Thomas, C. George (2021). Research Methodology and Scientific Writing, Second Edition. Cham: Springer Nature. p. 241. ISBN 978-3-030-64864-0.
  5. ^ Parsons, Stephen P. (2019). Interviewing and Investigating: Essentials Skills for the Legal Professional. Frederick, MD: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business. p. 505. ISBN 978-1-5438-0107-1.
  6. ^ Ahmi, Aidi (2021). Bibliometric Analysis for Beginners: A starter guide to begin with a bibliometric study using Scopus dataset and tools such as Microsoft Excel, Harzing's Publish or Perish and VOSviewer software. p. 25.
  7. ^ Van Noorden, Richard (20 May 2014). "The decline and fall of Microsoft Academic Search". Nature. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  8. ^ Harzing, Anne-Wil. "Microsoft Academic (Search): a Phoenix arisen from the ashes?" (PDF). Scientometrics. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  9. ^ Hug, Sven E.; Braendle, Martin P. (2017). "The coverage of Microsoft Academic: Analyzing the publication output of a university". Scientometrics. 113 (3): 1551–1571. arXiv:1703.05539. Bibcode:2017arXiv170305539H. doi:10.1007/s11192-017-2535-3. S2CID 2458635.
  10. ^ Harzing, Anne-Wil; Alakangas, Satu. "Microsoft Academic: is the Phoenix getting wings ?" (PDF). Scientometrics. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  11. ^ Hug, Sven E.; Ochsner, Michael; Braendle, Martin P. (2017). "Citation analysis with Microsoft Academic". Scientometrics. 111: 371–378. arXiv:1609.05354. doi:10.1007/s11192-017-2247-8. S2CID 14179411.
  12. ^ Haunschild, Robin; Hug, Sven E.; Braendle, Martin P.; Bornmann, Lutz (2017). "The number of linked references of publications in Microsoft Academic in comparison with the Web of Science". Scientometrics. 114: 367–370. arXiv:1710.04031. Bibcode:2017arXiv171004031H. doi:10.1007/s11192-017-2567-8. S2CID 21342104.
  13. ^ Chowdhury, G. G.; Foo, Schubert (2012). Digital Libraries and Information Access: Research Perspectives. Facet Publishing. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-85604-821-7.
  14. ^ "Next Steps for Microsoft Academic - Expanding into New Horizons". Microsoft Research. Retrieved 2021-05-28.