Millennium Dome
General information
TypeExhibition space
Architectural styleDome
LocationGreenwich Peninsula
London, SE10
United Kingdom
Coordinates51°30′10″N 0°0′11″E / 51.50278°N 0.00306°E / 51.50278; 0.00306
Current statusConverted into The O2 Arena
Opening31 December 1999; 23 years ago (1999-12-31)
Closed31 December 2000; 22 years ago (2000-12-31)
Cost£789 million
(£1.45 billion in 2023 pounds[1])
Technical details
Structural systemSteel, tensioned fabric
Design and construction
Architect(s)Richard Rogers
Structural engineerBuroHappold Engineering
Services engineerBuroHappold Engineering
Awards and prizes

The Millennium Dome was the original name of the large dome-shaped building on the Greenwich Peninsula in South East London, England, which housed a major exhibition celebrating the beginning of the third millennium. As of 2022, it is the ninth largest building in the world by usable volume. The exhibition was open to the public from 1 January to 31 December 2000. The project and exhibition were highly contentious and attracted barely half of the 12 million customers its sponsors forecasted, and so were deemed a failure by the press.[2] All the original exhibition elements were sold or dismantled.

In a 2005 report, the cost of the Dome and surrounding land (which increased to 170 acres from the initial offering of the 48 acres enclosed by the Dome) and managing the Dome until the deal was closed was £28.7 million. The value of the 48 acres occupied by the Dome was estimated at £48 million, which could have been realised by demolishing the structure, but it was considered preferable to preserve the Dome. The structure itself still exists and is now a key exterior feature of The O2.

The Prime Meridian passes the western edge of the Dome and the nearest London Underground station is North Greenwich on the Jubilee line.


The dome, seen from above
The dome, seen from the London Cable Car, with Canary Wharf in the background.

The dome is one of the largest of its type in the world.[3] Externally, it appears as a large white marquee with twelve 100-metre-high (330 ft) yellow support towers, one for each month of the year, or each hour of the clock face, representing the role played by Greenwich Mean Time. In plan view it is circular, 365 metres (1,200 ft) (one metre or 39 inches for each day in a standard year) in diameter.[4] It has become one of the United Kingdom's most recognisable landmarks, and can be easily identified on satellite images of London. Its exterior is reminiscent of the Dome of Discovery built for the Festival of Britain in 1951.

The architect was Richard Rogers and the contractor was a joint venture company, McAlpine/Laing Joint Venture (MLJV) formed between Sir Robert McAlpine and Laing Management.[5] The building structure was engineered by Buro Happold, and the entire roof structure weighs less than the air contained within the building.[4] Although referred to as a dome it is "not a dome in the structural sense [...] In this building, a dome-shaped cable network is supported on a ring of [...] masts".[6] It has been disparagingly referred to as the Millennium Tent.[7][8][9]

The canopy is 52 metres (170 ft) high in the middle – one metre (3.3 ft) for each week of the year[4] and is made of durable and weather-resistant PTFE-coated glass fibre fabric panels (original plans to use PVC-coated polyester fabric were dropped after protest led by Greenpeace[10]), with each of the 72 segments containing two panels.[11] Its symmetry is interrupted by a hole through which a ventilation shaft from the Blackwall Tunnel rises. Six segments were destroyed during Storm Eunice on 18 February 2022.[10]

Built in 15 months, the dome structure was delivered under budget, at a cost of £43m.[12]

The critic Jonathan Meades has scathingly referred to the Millennium Dome as a "Museum of Toxic Waste",[13] and apart from the dome itself, the project included the reclamation of the entire Greenwich Peninsula. The land was previously derelict and contaminated by toxic sludge from East Greenwich Gas Works that operated from 1889 to 1985. The clean-up operation was seen by the then Deputy Prime Minister Michael Heseltine as an investment that would add a large area of useful land to the crowded capital.

Background to the Dome project

The Dome project was conceived, originally on a somewhat smaller scale, under John Major's Conservative government, as a Festival of Britain or World's Fair-type showcase to celebrate the third millennium. The incoming Labour government elected in 1997 under Tony Blair greatly expanded the size, scope and funding of the project,[citation needed] and construction began in June 1997.[14] It also significantly increased expectations of what would be delivered. Just before its opening Blair claimed the Dome would be "a triumph of confidence over cynicism, boldness over blandness, excellence over mediocrity".[15] In the words of BBC correspondent Robert Orchard, "the Dome was to be highlighted as a glittering New Labour achievement in the next election manifesto", but criticised in the 2001 Conservative Party manifesto as "banal, anonymous and rootless", and lacking "a sense of Britain's history or culture".[16] Following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, a member of the Dome's board suggested the project be refashioned and extended "to accommodate, for example, a hospital, businesses, charities, private residences, and the whole thing named 'the Princess Diana Centre'". The idea was later scrapped.[17]

Before its opening, the Dome was excoriated in Iain Sinclair's diatribe, Sorry Meniscus – Excursions to the Millennium Dome (Profile Books: London 1999, ISBN 1-86197-179-6), which forecast the hype, the associated political posturing, and the eventual disillusion. The post-exhibition plan had been to convert the Dome into a European football stadium which would last for 25 years: Charlton Athletic at one point considered a possible move but instead chose to redevelop their own stadium. Local team Fisher Athletic were at one time interested in moving to the Dome, but they were considered to have too small a fan base to make this feasible. The Dome was planned to take over the functions performed by the London Arena after its closure. This is the function which The O2 Arena has now undertaken.

Millennium Experience

The Millennium Dome Show, October 2000
The Millennium Dome at night, September 2000

After a private opening on the evening of 31 December 1999, including a New Year's Eve celebration attended by Queen Elizabeth II, the Millennium Experience at the Dome was open to the public for the whole of 2000, and contained a large number of attractions and exhibits.

Millennium Dome Show

Main article: Millennium Dome Show

The English musician Peter Gabriel issued in 2000 The Story of OVO which was released in a CD-booklet-shaped comic book as part of the CD edition with the title "OVO The Millennium Show". The story of the 2000 Millennium Dome Show based on it.[18] The show opened on 1 January 2000 and was performed 999 times before closing on 31 December of that year. sponsored by Walt Disney World.

The exhibits

A short clip inside the Millennium Dome in London, mid 2000. Shows some of the interior, a robot figure, inside of the brain exhibit.

The interior space was subdivided into 14 zones (with the lead designers of the zones):

Who we are:

What we do:

Where we live:

Surrounded by the zones was a performance area in the centre of the dome. With music composed by Peter Gabriel and an acrobatic cast of 160, the Millennium Dome Show was performed 999 times over the course of the year. Throughout the year, the specially-commissioned film Blackadder: Back & Forth was shown in Skyscape (a separate cinema on the site sponsored by BSkyB).[21] There was also the McDonald's Our Town Story project in which each Local Education Authority in the UK was invited to perform a show of their devising which characterised their area and its people.

As well as the above, the first ever series of Techno Games was filmed there and shown on BBC Two the same year.

Other attractions

There were a number of other attractions both in and outside of The Dome. Inside the Dome there was a play area named Timekeepers of the Millennium (featuring the characters Coggsley and Sprinx), The Millennium Coin Minting Press in association with the Royal Mint, the 1951 Festival of Britain Bus, and the Millennium Star Jewels (focus of the failed Millennium Diamond heist.[22]) Outside was the Millennium Map (thirteen metres; 43' high), the Childhood Cube, Looking Around (a hidden installation), Greenwich Pavilion, the Hanging Gardens at the front of the Dome, as well as a number of other art installations and sculptures.

Two of the remaining art installations form the start of The Line, a modern art trail connecting the O2 to the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.[23]

Financial and management problems

At worst it is a millennial metaphor for the twentieth century. An age in which all things, like the Dome itself, became disposable. A century in which forest and cities, marriages, animal species, races, religions and even the Earth itself, became ephemeral. What more cynical monument can there be for this totalitarian cocksure fragile age than a vast temporary plastic bowl, erected from the aggregate contribution of the poor through the National Lottery. Despite the spin, it remains a massive pantheon to the human ego, the Ozymandias of its time.[24][25][not specific enough to verify]

Bob Marshall-Andrews MP, Sunday Times 1 February 1998

The project was largely reported by the press to have been a failure. During 2000, the organisers repeatedly asked for, and received, more cash from the Millennium Commission, the Lottery body which supported it.[citation needed] Numerous changes at management and Board level, before and during the exhibition, had only limited, if any, results.[citation needed] Jennifer Page was sacked as chief executive of the New Millennium Experience Company just one month after the dome's opening.[26] Press reports suggested that the then Prime Minister Tony Blair personally placed a high priority on making the Dome a success.[citation needed] But part of the problem was that the financial predictions were based on an unrealistically high forecast of visitor numbers at 12 million. During the 12 months it was open there were approximately 6.5 million visitors[27] – significantly fewer than the approximately 10 million paying visitors that attended the Festival of Britain, which only ran from May to September. Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938, held in Glasgow, attracted more than 12 million visitors, being open May to October. Unlike the press, visitor feedback was extremely positive. It was the most popular tourist attraction in 2000. Second was the London Eye; third was Alton Towers, which had been first in 1999.[citation needed]

According to the UK National Audit Office,[28] the total cost of The Dome at the liquidation of the New Millennium Experience Company in 2002 was £789 million, of which £628 million was covered by National Lottery grants and £189 million through sales of tickets etc. A surplus of £25 million over costs meant that the full lottery grant was not required. However, the £603 million of lottery money was still £204 million in excess of the original estimate of £399 million required, due to the shortfall in visitor numbers.[29]

The aftermath

The Dome was, however, still of interest to the press, the government's difficulties in selling it being the subject of much critical comment.[30] The amount spent on maintaining the closed building was also criticised.[31] Shortly after it had closed, Lord Falconer reported that The Dome was costing over £1 million per month to maintain.[32]

Dispersal of exhibits

Following closure of the Dome, some Zones were dismantled by the sponsoring organisations, but much of the content was auctioned. This included a number of artworks specially commissioned from contemporary British artists. A piece by Gavin Turk was sold for far below his then auction price, though Turk stated that he did not think the piece had worked.[clarification needed] The Timekeepers of the Millennium attraction was acquired by the Chessington World of Adventures theme park in Surrey. A unique record of the memorabilia and paraphernalia of the Millennium Experience is held by a private collector in the United States.[33] Many of the fixtures and fittings were also purchased by Paul Scally, chairman of Gillingham F.C., for the club's stadium.[34]

The stage that the millennium dome show was performed on along with its accompanying sets were transported to a storage building at Disney's Hollywood Studios, where they were later used to create Toy Story Midway Mania which opened in May 2008.[citation needed]

Temporary reopenings

Despite the ongoing debate about the Dome's future use, the Dome opened again during December 2003 for the Winter Wonderland 2003 experience. The event, which featured a large funfair, ice rink, and other attractions, culminated in a laser and firework display on New Year's Eve. It also served as the venue for a number of free music festivals organised by the Mayor of London under the "Respect" banner.[35][36]

Over the 2004 Christmas period, part of the main dome was used as a shelter for the homeless and others in need, organised by the charity Crisis after superseding the London Arena, which had previously hosted the event. In 2005, when work began for the redevelopment of the Dome, the London Arena hosted the event again.[37][38]

Redevelopment and rebranding as The O2

Entrance of the O2 Arena
Interior of The O2

By late 2000, a proposal had been made for a high-tech business park to be erected under the tent area, creating an "indoor city" complete with streets, parks, and buildings. The business park was actually the original 1996 proposal for the site of the peninsula before the plans for the Millennium Dome were proposed.

A suggestion was also made that the entire Dome be relocated to Swindon to serve as a research centre and extension of the Science Museum; this proposal only came to light when released by The National Archives in 2022.[39]

In December 2001, it was announced that Meridian Delta Ltd had been chosen by the government to develop the Dome as a sports and entertainment centre, and to develop housing, shops and offices on 150 acres (0.61 km2) of surrounding land. It also hoped to relocate some of London's tertiary education establishments to the site.[40] Meridian Delta is backed by the American billionaire Philip Anschutz, who has interests in oil, railways, and telecommunications, as well as a string of sports-related investments.

A report in 2005 by the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee found that the cost of the process of selling the Dome and surrounding land (which increased to 170 acres from the initial offering of the 48 acres enclosed by the Dome) and managing the Dome until the deal was closed was £28.7 million. £33 million were expected to be returned to the taxpayer by 2009. The value of the 48 acres occupied by the Dome was estimated at £48 million, which could have been realised by demolishing the structure, but it was considered preferable to preserve the Dome.[41]

The dome was publicly renamed as The O2 on 31 May 2005, in a £6 million-per-year deal with telecommunications company O2 plc, now a subsidiary of Telefónica Europe. This announcement, which presaged a major redevelopment of the site that retained little beyond the shell of the dome, gave publicity to the dome's transition into an entertainment district including an indoor arena, a music club, a cinema, an exhibition space and bars and restaurants. This redevelopment was undertaken by the dome's new owners, the Anschutz Entertainment Group, to a design by HOK SVE and Buro Happold. It cost £600 million, and the resulting venue opened to the public on 24 June 2007, with a concert by rock band Bon Jovi.[42]

During the 2012 Summer Olympics, the artistic gymnastics events, along with the medal rounds of basketball, were held at The O2. It also held wheelchair basketball events during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. For sponsorship reasons, during those times the arena was temporarily renamed the North Greenwich Arena.

The O2 now contains several VR theme park rides and a trampoline park.

Effects on political careers

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2008)

Issues related to the Dome damaged the political careers of government ministers Peter Mandelson[43] and John Prescott.[44] The scheme was seen as an early example of what some saw as Tony Blair's often excessive optimism, who stated at the Dome's opening: "In the Dome we have a creation that, I believe, will truly be a beacon to the world".[45] The fact that Mandelson's grandfather was Herbert Morrison—who as a minister had been involved with the Festival of Britain—was often drawn on for negative comparisons.[43]

Chronology of the project

In popular culture

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also


  1. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  2. ^ "White elephant 'not forgotten'". 12 April 2006.
  3. ^ "Millennium Dome - Designing Buildings Wiki". Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  4. ^ a b c "Millennium Dome". Buro Happold. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  5. ^ "Millennium Dome site in £44m work bonanza". Construction News. 28 May 1998. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  6. ^ Macdonald, Angus J. (26 March 2003). "Long span structures". Architecture Week. Excerpt from Structure and Architecture (2nd ed.), Architectural Press, 2001
  7. ^ Hellman, Louis (26 June 1997). "Letter: Millennium Tent". Letters to The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 14 May 2022. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  8. ^ "House of Commons Hansard Debates 13 November 2000". Commons Hansard Debates. 13 November 2000. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  9. ^ "Stephen Bayley on the rebirth of the Millennium Dome". The Observer. London. 24 June 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  10. ^ a b Hakimian, Rob (18 February 2022). "Millennium Dome roof shredded as Storm Eunice rips through the UK". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  11. ^ "Millennium Dome". Engineering Timelines. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  12. ^ "Millennium Dome". Buro Happold. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  13. ^ "In praise of … Jonathan Meades". The Guardian. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  14. ^ "The Dome - from conception to birth". BBC News. 6 February 2000. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  15. ^ "Dome woes haunt Blair". BBC News. 15 February 2001. Retrieved 31 January 2007.
  16. ^ p.43
  17. ^ Sephton, Connor (20 July 2021). "Bill Clinton turned down tea with the Queen: Five things we learned from newly declassified papers". Sky News. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  18. ^ Gabriel, Peter (2000). The Story of OVO. Peter Gabriel Ltd. ISBN 0-9520864-3-3.
  19. ^ Millennium Experience. p. 26. EAN 5060006651519.
  20. ^ Millennium Experience. p. 60. EAN 5060006651519.
  21. ^ SkyScape Greenwich 2000
  22. ^ "Timeline: Dome diamond heist". BBC News. 18 February 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  23. ^ "Homepage - The Line - London's public art walk". The Line. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  24. ^ Sunday Times. 1 February 1998.
  25. ^ Off message. Bob Marshall-Andrews
  26. ^ Page, Jennifer (4 May 2000). "My Crown of Thorns". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
  27. ^ "Dome visitor total way off target". BBC. 3 January 2001. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  28. ^ "Winding-up the New Millennium Experience Company Limited" (Press release). National Audit Office. 17 April 2002. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
  29. ^ "Experience". New Millennium Experience Company. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
  30. ^ "Legacy loses exclusive dome bidding rights". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. 18 December 2001. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
  31. ^ Davey, Jenny. "Taxpayers' £33m bill for Dome". The Times Online. The Times.
  32. ^ "Legacy loses exclusive dome bidding rights". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. 15 February 2001. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
  33. ^ "The Millennium Dome: A collection". Retrieved 4 July 2007.
  34. ^ Tongue, Steve (19 January 2003). "Football: He paid £1 for the club. Now the Gills are quids in". The Independent on Sunday. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
  35. ^ Respect Festival 2003 Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine The Situation
  36. ^ "Over 30 acts to perform at respect festival's Comedy Dome". Archived 28 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Greater London Authority, 17 July 2003.
  37. ^ Heald, Claire (24 December 2004). "Dome hosts homeless for Christmas". BBC News. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  38. ^ "Christmas services for homeless". BBC News. 14 November 2005. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  39. ^ "National Archives: Swindon move for Millennium Dome proposed". BBC News. 30 December 2022. Retrieved 30 January 2023.
  40. ^ Staff and Agencies (18 December 2001). "Done to become sports venue". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  41. ^ "House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts: The regeneration of the Millennium Dome and associated land; Second Report of Session 2005–06, 18 July 2005" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  42. ^ Bon Jovi open new O2 venue Archived 24 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 25 June 2007.
  43. ^ a b "Mandelson: Dome alone". BBC News. 23 December 1998. Retrieved 4 March 2007.
  44. ^ "A hollow man and an empty tent". The Guardian. London. 7 July 2006. Retrieved 31 January 2007.
  45. ^ "The Dome: A Message from Tony Blair". Greenwich2000. 24 February 1998. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2007.
  46. ^ "Millennium Dome". Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  47. ^ Evening Standard, 19 June 1997
  48. ^ Evening Standard, 20 June 1997
  49. ^ The Times, 10 January 1998
  50. ^ Birmingham Post, 14 November 2000
  51. ^ "Blue Peter time capsule dug up 33 years early". 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  52. ^ "'Dug up' Blue Peter millennium time capsule set to go on UK tour". 10 May 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  53. ^ Sellers, Andrea (4 May 2005). "Older couple Meredith and Gretchen Smith get eliminated from 'The Amazing Race 7'". Reality TV World. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
Preceded byOlympia Hall London Miss World Venue 2000 Succeeded bySun City Exhibition Center Sun City