Mitsubishi Lancer (A70)
Mitsubishi Lancer 1973 - 79 Hyde Park in Fall.jpg
Overview
Also called
Production1973.02–1979.03 (sedan)
1973.09–1985.02 (van)
1975.03–1981.07 (Celeste)
DesignerShinichi Yamamura (design)
Munechika Namba (engineering)[8]
Body and chassis
Body style2-door sedan
4-door sedan
5-door wagon (van)
3-door hatchback coupé (Celeste)
LayoutFR layout
PlatformA71A-A78A, A141A-A149V
Powertrain
Engine1,187 cc 4G42 I4
1,238 cc 4G36 I4
1,244 cc 4G11/G11B I4
1,410 cc 4G12/G12B I4
1,439 cc 4G33/G33B I4
1,597 cc 4G32/G32B I4
1,995 cc 4G52/G52B I4 (Celeste)
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,340 mm (92.1 in) (sedan)
Length3,960–4,105 mm (155.9–161.6 in)
Width1,525–1,545 mm (60.0–60.8 in)
Height1,360–1,385 mm (53.5–54.5 in)
Curb weight765–900 kg (1,687–1,984 lb)
Chronology
PredecessorMitsubishi Colt 1200
SuccessorMitsubishi Lancer (second generation)

The Mitsubishi Lancer (A70) is the first generation version of Mitsubishi's long-running Lancer nameplate. When introduced in 1973, it filled the gap between the Minica kei car and the considerably larger Galant. It was a replacement for the Colt 1200, last sold in 1970. Although sedan production ended in 1979, vans continued on until 1985. This Lancer also formed the basis for the Lancer Celeste sports coupé of 1975 through to 1981. These Lancers were sold under a multitude of names in different markets.

History

1973–1976

The Lancer A70 was launched in February 1973 in two- and four-door sedan form. It proved to be particularly successful in rallies, a claim that it retains to this day. The Lancer served to fill a gap in Mitsubishi's lineup in the small to lower-medium segment of the growing Japanese market. Twelve models were launched, ranging from a basic 1.2-litre sedan to a more powerful 1600 GSR model, successful in rallying.[9]

Chrysler Lancer (LA) GL sedan (Australia, A72A, pre-facelift)
Chrysler Lancer (LA) GL sedan (Australia, A72A, pre-facelift)
1976 Mitsubishi Lancer GL sedan (NZ)
1976 Mitsubishi Lancer GL sedan (NZ)

There were three body styles (four if the Celeste liftback/coupé is included), two- and four-door sedans and a rarely seen five-door station wagon introduced in September 1973. In October 1975 the smallest engine was replaced by another 1.2-litre four, the 80 hp 4G36. In November, the entire engine lineup lost around eight–nine percent of its power, as a result of the stricter emissions standards for 1976. Reflecting a popular appearance during the 1970s, the Lancer adopted "coke bottle styling" on the sedan and wagon for this entire generation.

Originally, the Lancer received an OHV 1.2-litre Neptune 4G42, an OHC 1.4-litre Saturn 4G33 or the larger 1.6-litre 4G32. Power outputs were 70 PS (51 kW), 92 PS (68 kW), and 100 PS (74 kW) respectively for what was called A71, A72 and A73 models. The 1600 GSR, introduced in September, used two Mikuni-made twin-barrel Solex carburetors for 110 PS (81 kW) at 6,700 rpm.

This vehicle was sold as the Colt Lancer in the United Kingdom, Ireland and other European countries. In some Latin American countries, as for example, in El Salvador, the car initially was known as the Dodge Lancer. This reluctance to use the Mitsubishi brand in many export markets stemmed from a fear of buyer resistance amongst those who could still remember fighting Japanese pilots in Mitsubishi A6M Zeros.

In the Australian market, the first generation models were initially sold under the Chrysler Valiant Lancer name, with approximately 11,800 units sold between late 1974 and 1979.[10] The original LA series was released in September 1974 in two levels of specification, a basic two-door EL and the four-door GL sedan which offered a higher level of equipment.[11] Only one engine was offered, the 1,439 cc single cam, alloy-head four-cylinder engine rated at 92 hp (68.6 kW) at 6,300 rpm.[10][12] This could be paired with either an all-synchromesh four-speed manual,[10] or a three-speed automatic.[13]

European market Lancers received the 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6-litre Saturn 80 engines, with claimed output of 55 PS (40 kW), 68 PS (50 kW), and 82 PS (60 kW) DIN (GSR). The 1.6-liter engine was reserved for the two-door version, while four-door sedans only received the 1.4. Top speeds were 150, 155, and 165 km/h.[14]

1976–1979

Mitsubishi Lancer GL (NZ; facelift)
Mitsubishi Lancer GL (NZ; facelift)
Mitsubishi Lancer sedan (NZ; facelift)
Mitsubishi Lancer sedan (NZ; facelift)

In November 1976 the Japanese market models received a facelift, losing the previous L-shaped/upright rear lamps in favor of wide rectangular units. Front indicators were enlarged and moved, and new bigger rubber bumpers were also added, and new grilles were introduced. This generation gradually became the A140-series in Japan, reflecting the introduction of new engines. Since it kept the 4G32 engine, the GSR was referred to as an A73 until the very end in spite of having received all of the bodywork modifications.

As a response to the new emissions standards taking effect in 1978, the 1.2-litre Saturn engine was replaced by the new 70 PS Orion G11B (1,244 cc) in April 1977. This was the new lean-burning MCA-Jet engine, which was added to the existing Saturn 4G33 and 4G32 engines in June. Power for these (now G33B/G32B) was reduced to 82 PS (60 kW) and 86 PS (63 kW).

It was this series that emerged in the United States as the Dodge Colt for the 1977 model year (Plymouth Colt in Canada), taking over from a badge-engineered Mitsubishi Galant from the previous year. It was offered for one more model year before the Dodge Colt name was gradually transferred to the front wheel drive Mitsubishi Mirage. The very large safety bumpers used in the American market were added to certain models in the domestic range in March 1978 (GL Extra, GSL, GSR) as part of one last minor facelift. This facelift also introduced the larger 1.4-litre Orion engine (G12B), of 80 PS (59 kW).

April 1977 saw the introduction of the facelift model in Australia, designated locally as the LB series. This was discontinued in May 1979, having lost most of its market share to the bigger, locally built Chrysler Sigma.

1600 GSR

The high-performance Mitsubishi Lancer 1600 GSR sold as the Colt Lancer 1600 GSR in Europe, was developed by Mitsubishi Motors to further their aspirations in off-road racing, especially the Safari Rally of Kenya. Thanks to repeated triumphs in what was the most gruelling rally in the world, it earned the nickname "King of Cars" in Africa.[15]

Mitsubishi Lancer 1600 GSR, Safari Rally winner 1974
Mitsubishi Lancer 1600 GSR, Safari Rally winner 1974

In rally spec, the GSR produced 126 kW (171 PS; 169 hp) at 7800 rpm and 162 N⋅m (119 lb⋅ft) at 5500 rpm. Street versions originally developed 110 PS (81 kW), but this dropped to 100 PS (74 kW) when tighter emissions standards were introduced for 1976.

After sporadic successes with the Colt and Galant rally cars in previous years, Mitsubishi decided to develop a Lancer model specifically to tackle the notorious Safari Rally. Run over 6,000 km of arduous terrain under searing equatorial temperatures, the race was regarded as the toughest in the world, and typically only one car in five which set off from the start would manage to reach the finish line in Nairobi. Mitsubishi sanctioned official factory teams for the 1974–77 events, building for itself an enviable reputation for durability when only one of thirteen cars failed to finish in those four attempts. The high point was a clean sweep of the podium places in 1976.[16]

The car had previously demonstrated similar qualities in 1973, with its debut in the Australian Southern Cross Rally being rewarded with a clean sweep of the top four places. Works driver Andrew Cowan would go on to dominate this race in the '70s, winning five consecutive titles from 1972 to '76.[17] Cowan and Joginder Singh also scored a 1–2 finish for the Lancer GSR at the 1977 Rallye Bandama Côte d'Ivoire.[18]

Even after production ended it remained a popular car with privateers into the 1980s. However, the decline of endurance rallying and the rise of the Group B class eventually signaled its demise.

Southern Cross Rally   1977   1977
  1973 4th Kenjiro Shinozuka / Garry Connelly
(1st in class)
4th Andrew Cowan / Paul White
1st Andrew Cowan / John Bryson 5th Joginder Singh / David Doig
2nd Barry Ferguson / Wayne Gregson Safari Rally 6th Davinder Singh / Chris Bates
3rd Doug Chivas / P. Meyer   1974 10th Kenjiro Shinozuka / Bob Graham
4th Joginder Singh / Garry Connelly 1st Joginder Singh / David Doig Rallye Bandama Côte d'Ivoire
  1974   1975   1977
1st Andrew Cowan / John Bryson 4th Andrew Cowan / John Mitchell
(1st in class)
1st Andrew Cowan / Johnstone Syer
2nd Joginder Singh / Garry Connelly 2nd Joginder Singh / Mike Doughty
  1975 8th Davinder Singh / Roger Barnard 1000 Lakes Rally
1st Andrew Cowan / Fred Gocentas 10th Prem Choda / Pauru Choda   1977
2nd Barry Ferguson / L. Adcock ret (Joginder Singh / David Doig) 19th Pertti Kärhä / Seppo Siitonen
(1st in class)
5th Kenjiro Shinozuka / Garry Connelly   1976
  1976 1st Joginder Singh / David Doig International Safari du Zaïre
1st Andrew Cowan / John Bryson 2nd Robin Ulyate / Chris Bates   1979
2nd Barry Ferguson / N.Faulkner 3rd Andrew Cowan / Johnstone Syer 1st Jean-François Vincens / Félix Giallolacci[19]
5th Kenjiro Shinozuka / Garry Connelly 6th Kenjiro Shinozuka / Bob Graham


Van/Wagon

As there was no station wagon version of the Lancer EX, the first generation Lancer Van (wagon) continued in production for the home and select export markets until February 1985, by which time the car was conspicuously outmoded. When the 1.2-litre pushrod was replaced in 1975, Vans for the domestic market retained the old Neptune engine for an extra year, and the 1238/1439 cc Saturn engines weren't replaced by Orions until March 1979. The smaller Orion engined version (1.2 L A141V) continued to be available in Greece and Kenya into the eighties.[20] Wagon versions for export received updates on the same schedule as did export sedans/coupés. The domestic market vans received yet another update in October 1981, again to clean emissions, meaning that a new set of chassis numbers were assigned. The home market vans were available in Standard (only 1200), EL, and GL trim levels.[21] The Lancer Van was finally replaced by the new front-wheel drive Mirage/Lancer Wagon and Van in February 1985.

Celeste

Mitsubishi (Lancer) Celeste
Pre-facelift Celeste (EU)
Early Lancer Celeste (75-77)

In February 1975, the Lancer was complemented by a hatchback coupé called the Mitsubishi Lancer Celeste (A70-series). It succeeded the Galant FTO, which never did very well in the marketplace due to confusion with the Galant GTO and carrying too high a price.[22] It was also called the Mitsubishi Celeste or Colt Celeste in some markets; and sold as the Chrysler Lancer Hatchback in Australia,[1] the Dodge Lancer Celeste in El Salvador, the Plymouth Arrow in the United States, and the Dodge Arrow in Canada. Sitting on the same 2,340 mm wheelbase as the Lancer, length was up to 4,115 mm.[23]

The Celeste was originally available with 1.4- and 1.6-litre options, a bigger 2.0-litre model was added later. The 1979–80 Plymouth Fire Arrow came with an even larger (2,555 cc) four-cylinder, but strangled by American emissions regulations it only offered 105 hp (78 kW),[24] no more than the Japanese market 2000 GT. Along with receiving a light facelift in July 1977, including new taillights and the cleaner (but lower powered) MCA-Jet engines, new model codes (A140-series) were introduced. There was another facelift in April 1978; square headlights and bigger, less integrated bumpers heralded the coming eighties.[25] Named accordingly, a top-of-the-line GT System 80 version had appeared in November 1977, including every possible extra and special black and gold paintwork.[22] This was trumped by the 105 PS (77 kW) 2000 GT introduced in June 1979, with a version of the 2-litre Astron engine already used in export since October 1975. Production of the Lancer Celeste ended in July 1981 and it was replaced by the front-wheel drive Cordia in early 1982.

Because of the Arrow's long, narrow, aerodynamic, lightweight design and rugged suspension, it was used extensively in various types of racing including SCCA road racing, rally and drag racing. The Arrow body design was used on pro stock and funny cars in the late 1970s by noteworthy racers such as Ray Godman, Don Prudhomme, Bob Glidden and Raymond Beadle.

Australia

Facelifted 1980 Chrysler Lancer (LC; Australia)
Facelifted 1980 Chrysler Lancer (LC; Australia)

The 1.6-liter Celeste was sold in Australia as the Chrysler Lancer Hatchback [1] as part of the LB series from April 1977. It featured sports instrumentation and a 55-kilowatt (74 hp) version of the 4G32.[26] The final LC iteration arrived in May 1979 with a rationalised model range which saw the sedan body variant deleted. Changes were as for 1979 Celestes, comprising rectangular headlamps, redesigned tail-lamps,[27] black painted metal bumpers,[28] a new five-speed manual transmission,[27] and a belt driven SOHC version of the 4G32 engine called the G32B. During 1981, the Chrysler was rebranded Mitsubishi Lancer in the Australian market,[29] lasting until August the same year.[27]

Some of the Australian cars featured had "arrow" decals on the hood and stripes on the flanks, depending on the body colour. These were less flamboyant than on those sold in the North American market.

North America

Dodge Arrow GS (Canada)
Dodge Arrow GS (Canada)

Chrysler introduced the Plymouth Arrow as a captive import of the Celeste in January 1976 as an extension to the Dodge Colt lineup.[30] It was also known as the Dodge Arrow in Canada. It was also sold as the Dodge Celeste in Puerto Rico.

The Arrow was a rear-wheel drive car utilizing a solid rear axle and leaf springs in the rear, with MacPherson struts in the front. Transmission types included four and five-speed manual transmissions and a three-speed automatic. A 1.6 L inline-four engine was standard with an optional 2.0 L I4. It was produced in various trim levels including the 160, GS and GT. The first year Arrow is easily identified from later years because its quarter-window louvers have two slats in the center, which were changed to three on all later years. The 1976 Arrow also came with a single windshield-wiper fluid nozzle on the hood, which was changed to dual nozzles for 1977 and remained that way for all later year Arrows.

Sporty exterior finishes were also offered, such as the Arrow Jet package, first offered in 1978. The Arrow Jet paint package was an eye-catching two-tone finish, typically in spit-fire orange and black. The entire car was spit-fire orange, but the entire bottom half of the car was covered in a solid flat black stripe with the words "Arrow Jet" stenciled out of the stripe on the doors so that the underlying body color showed through. This color combination of spit-fire orange and flat black seems to pay tribute to one of the design inspirations for the Plymouth Arrow, that being the Plymouth Barracuda. In 1971, the Barracuda was offered with a "billboard" decal option, which was a large, solid flat black decal that covered the entire back half of the car on both sides (often in a red and flat black color combination).

Dodge Arrow GS (Canada)
Dodge Arrow GS (Canada)

For 1979, the styling was freshened with the addition of flush bumpers, a more horizontal grille with rectangular headlights and hidden turn signals, chrome strips on the tail-lamps, and larger rear glass for the hatchback.[31] Inside, the steering wheel previously found only in the Arrow GT was now standard while the heater provided more output.[31] The rear axle was also extended 2.5 inches for better traction. A sporty variant called the Fire Arrow was first offered this year, which had special decals and a sporty interior, as well as a 2.6 L I4 engine and four-wheel disc brakes. The Fire Arrow had one of the best horsepower/weight ratios among U.S. production cars at the time because of its light weight. The 2.6 was also optional on the GS and GT models, and was only offered in conjunction with disc brakes all around.[31] For 1979 and the succeeding year, the lineup began with the base Arrow (where the 2.0 L I4 engine was a new engine option), followed by the GS, GT, and the Fire Arrow on top.[31]

The styling changes of the 1979 models carried over to 1980. The Fire Arrow however, was changed significantly. The 1980 Fire Arrow was now available with two new paint schemes: tan with a darker caramel-colored hood, and blue with a dark blue hood. These colored models were available with the smaller 1.6 engine and, like the base-model Arrows, had bumpers that were chrome instead of body color. The white Fire Arrow was also changed, and now had a matte-black hood and cowl, with the black paint continuing along the tops of the fenders and doors and ending under the quarter-windows. Unlike the colored versions, the white/black Fire Arrow had only one engine option, the 2.6 I4.

The Arrow coupe was discontinued after the 1980 model-year. A pickup truck version of the Arrow sharing very few parts with the coupe was released in 1979. Also available with the 2.6 L engine, the pickup was discontinued after 1982. The Arrow coupe's styling strongly influenced the design of the Plymouth Arrow Truck and its cousins; the Dodge D-50 and Mitsubishi Mighty Max pickups.

The Harry Nilsson song, Me and My Arrow (from The Point!) was used in television commercials in the United States promoting the Plymouth Arrow during the 1970s.

One of the more interesting options available for the Arrow was a small tent. When the rear seats were lowered and the tent was clipped over the open hatchback, it would allow the back of the car to be used for camping. General Motors would borrow this design many years later for the Pontiac Aztek.

Specifications and timeline

Data tables expand. Models listed are primarily as available in the Japanese domestic market, with notes on important export variants. For information on the Lancer-based Dodge Colt see that article.

Lancer sedan/coupé
Chassis
code
Engine Power Dimensions (mm) Top speed
(km/h)
Transmission Years
(Japan)
Markets Note
code cc hp kW at rpm length width height J EU Aus
A71A 4G42 1187 70 51 6000 3960 1525 1360 150 4MT 73.02-75.10 OHV
A72A 4G33 1439 92 68 6300 3960 1525 1360 165 4/5MT, 3AT 73.02-75.11
85 63 6000 3960
3995
1525
1535
1360
1365
75.11-77.06 MCA
A73A 4G32 1597 100 74 6300 3965 1525 1360 5MT 73.02-75.11
110 81 6700 73.08-75.11 GSR
92 68 6000 3965
3995
1525
1535
1360
1365
75.11-77.06 MCA
100 74 6700
6300
3965
3995
4105
1525
1535
1545
75.11-79.03 GSR MCA
A75A 4G36 1238 80 59 6300 3960 1525 1360 4/5MT 75.10-75.11
73 54 6000 3960
3995
1525
1535
1360
1365
75.11-77.04 MCA
A141A G11B 1244 70 51 5500 3995
4105
1535
1545
1365 4/5MT 77.04-79.03 MCA-Jet
A142A G12B 1410 80 59 5500 3995
4105
1535
1545
1365 4/5MT, 3AT 78.04-79.03 MCA-Jet
A143A G33B 1439 82 60 5400 3995 1535 1365 4/5MT, 3AT 77.06-78.04 MCA-Jet
A144A G32B 1597 86 63 5000 3995
4105
1535
1545
1365 4/5MT 77.06-79.03 MCA-Jet
Lancer van (wagon)
Chassis
code
Engine Power Dimensions (mm) Top speed
(km/h)
Transmission Years
(Japan)
Markets Note
code cc hp kW at rpm length width height J EU Aus
A71V 4G42 1187 70 51 6000 3960 1525 1385 4MT 73.09-76.10 OHV
A72V 4G33 1439 92 68 6300 3960
3995
1525
1535
1385 4MT 73.09-77.10
85 63 6000 3995 1535 1385 4MT 77.10-79.03 MCA
A75V 4G36 1238 80 59 6300 3995 1535 1385 4MT 76.10-77.10
73 54 6000 77.10-79.03 MCA
A141V 4G11 1244 73 54 5500 3995 1535 1385 145 4MT 79.03-81.10 MCA
A142V 4G12 1410 83 61 5500 3995 1535 1385 150 4MT 79.03-81.10 MCA
A148V G11B 1244 70 51 5500 3995 1535 1385 145 4MT 81.10-85.02 MCA-Jet
A149V G12B 1410 80 59 5500 3995 1535 1385 150 4MT 81.10-85.02 MCA-Jet
Lancer Celeste
Chassis
code
Engine Power Dimensions (mm) Top speed
(km/h)
Transmission Years
(Japan)
Markets Note
code cc hp kW at rpm length width height J EU Aus
A72A 4G33 1439 92 68 6300 4115 1610 1340 4/5MT, 3AT 75.03-75.11
85 63 6000 75.11-77.06 MCA
A73A 4G32 1597 100 74 6300 4115
4230 (GT)
1610 1325
1340
4/5MT 75.03-75.11
92 68 6000 75.11-77.06 MCA
110 81 6700 5MT 75.03-75.11 GSR
100 74 6700
6300
4115
4155
75.11-79.06 GSR MCA
A77A G32A 1597 92 68 6000 4115 1610 1340 4MT 75.03-75.11 MCA 50年
A78A 4G52 1995 105 77 5700 4115
4155
1610 1340 5MT, 3AT 75.10-81.07 export only
A142 G12B 1410 80 59 5500 4155 1610 1325 4/5MT 78.04-81.07 MCA-Jet
A143 G33B 1439 82 60 5400 4115 1610 1340 4/5MT, 3AT 77.07-78.03 MCA-Jet
A144 G32B 1597 86 63 5000 4115
4155
1610
1620 (GT)
1340
1325
5MT, 3AT 77.07-81.07 MCA-Jet
A146 G52B 1995 105 77 5400 4155 1620 1345 5MT 79.06-81.07 MCA-Jet
‡: only in New Zealand
  1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
  Lancer sedan/coupé
1200 A71 (80hp) A75 (73hp) A141
1400 A72 (92hp) (85hp) A143 A142
1600 A73 (100hp) (92hp) A144
1600 GSR (110hp) A73 (100hp)
  Lancer van/wagon   (1981.11-1985.02: A148V/A149V)
1200 A71V (80hp) A75V (73hp) A141V
1400 A72V (92hp)  (85hp) A142V
  Lancer Celeste facelift→   (until 1981.07)
1400 (92hp) A72 (85hp) A143 A142
1600 (100hp) A73 (92hp) A144 
A77   ←(MCA 50年, G32A engine)
1600 GSR (110hp) A73 (100hp)
2000 A78 (export)
A146
2600 ("Plymouth Fire Arrow", US only)   A147

References

  1. ^ a b c Sales brochure for Chrysler Lancer Hatchback - Australian market Retrieved from www.productioncars.com on 14 September 2012
  2. ^ LA Lancer brochure Retrieved from www.sigma-galant.com on 14 September 2012
  3. ^ Advertisement for 1977 Colt Celeste Retrieved from www.flickr.com on 14 September 2012
  4. ^ Advertisement for 1975 Colt Lancer Retrieved from www.flickr.com on 14 September 2012
  5. ^ 1977 Dodge Colt brochure Retrieved from www.sigma-galant.com on 14 September 2012
  6. ^ Mitsubishi Celeste 1600 XL Original Sales Sheet Retrieved from www.dmldirect.com on 14 September 2012
  7. ^ Sales brochure for the 1976 Plymouth Arrow Retrieved from paintref.com on 14 September 2012
  8. ^ Long, Brian (2007). Mitsubishi Lancer Evo: The Road Car & WRC Story. Dorchester: Veloce Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84584-055-0.
  9. ^ Car Graphic: Car Archives Vol. 5, '70s Japanese Cars. Tokyo: Nigensha. 2007. p. 77. ISBN 978-4-544-09175-5.
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  13. ^ "Mitsubishi Lancer (Chrysler LB Lancer)". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
  14. ^ Auto Katalog 1978. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. 1977. pp. 200–201.
  15. ^ "A Glorious Heritage - Chronological History of Mitsubishi Motor Sports Activities". Mitsubishi-motors.co.jp. Archived from the original on 2016-01-26. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
  16. ^ "Safari Rally Roll of Honour". Rallybase.nl. Archived from the original on 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
  17. ^ Long, Brian (2007). Mitsubishi Lancer Evo: The Road Car & WRC Story. Dorchester: Veloce Publishing Ltd. p. 30. ISBN 1-84584-055-0.
  18. ^ "9ème Rallye Bandama Côte d'Ivoire". Rallybase.nl. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
  19. ^ Bonnaud, Jean-Claude (February 1981). "15e Safari du Zaïre". Auto-Hebdo (255). Posted by assinie at http://www.forum-auto.com/sport-auto/theme51/sujet377023.htm#t14753843. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  20. ^ Mitsubishi Gasoline Engine 4G1: Parts Catalog, Mitsubishi Lancer Station Wagon. Tokyo: Mitsubishi Motors Corporation. Mar 1980. p. tenth unnumbered front page. C11038.
  21. ^ New model handbook: Mitsubishi Lancer Van (L-A148V, L-A149V). Tokyo: Mitsubishi Motors Corporation. Oct 1981. p. 1. 1031930.
  22. ^ a b "Mitsubishi Lancer: The Complete History, part 2: Lancer CELESTE / Plymouth ARROW: คูเป้ ทรงเสน่ห์ หนึ่งเดียวในตระกูล". Headlight Magazine: Jimmy's Library. 11 July 2010.
  23. ^ CG Car Archives '70s, p.80
  24. ^ James M. Flammang (1994). Standard Catalog of Imported Cars, 1946-1990. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc. pp. 503–504. ISBN 0-87341-158-7.
  25. ^ Car Graphic: Car Archives Vol. 11, '80s Japanese Cars. Tokyo: Nigensha. 2007. p. 214. ISBN 978-4-544-91018-6.
  26. ^ Chrysler Lancer owner's manual (Australia; 1980)
  27. ^ a b c "Mitsubishi Lancer (Chrysler LC Lancer Liftback )". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
  28. ^ Chrysler Australia product information sheet (1979)
  29. ^ Fallah, Alborz (2007-09-21). "Mitsubishi Lancer History". Car Advice. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
  30. ^ Flammang, James. Standard Catalog of Imported Cars, p. 502
  31. ^ a b c d Hogg, Tony (ed.). "Buyer's Guide". Road & Track's Road Test Annual & Buyer's Guide 1979. CBS Publications (January–February 1979): 112.