This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Multinomial theorem" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In mathematics, the **multinomial theorem** describes how to expand a power of a sum in terms of powers of the terms in that sum. It is the generalization of the binomial theorem from binomials to multinomials.

For any positive integer m and any non-negative integer n, the multinomial formula describes how a sum with m terms expands when raised to an arbitrary power n:

where

is a **multinomial coefficient**. The sum is taken over all combinations of nonnegative integer indices *k*_{1} through k_{m} such that the sum of all k_{i} is n. That is, for each term in the expansion, the exponents of the x_{i} must add up to n. Also, as with the binomial theorem, quantities of the form *x*^{0} that appear are taken to equal 1 (even when x equals zero).

In the case *m* = 2, this statement reduces to that of the binomial theorem.

The third power of the trinomial *a* + *b* + *c* is given by

This can be computed by hand using the distributive property of multiplication over addition, but it can also be done (perhaps more easily) with the multinomial theorem. It is possible to "read off" the multinomial coefficients from the terms by using the multinomial coefficient formula. For example:

- has the coefficient
- has the coefficient

The statement of the theorem can be written concisely using multiindices:

where

and

This proof of the multinomial theorem uses the binomial theorem and induction on m.

First, for *m* = 1, both sides equal *x*_{1}^{n} since there is only one term *k*_{1} = *n* in the sum. For the induction step, suppose the multinomial theorem holds for m. Then

by the induction hypothesis. Applying the binomial theorem to the last factor,

which completes the induction. The last step follows because

as can easily be seen by writing the three coefficients using factorials as follows:

The numbers

appearing in the theorem are the multinomial coefficients. They can be expressed in numerous ways, including as a product of binomial coefficients or of factorials:

The substitution of *x _{i}* = 1 for all i into the multinomial theorem

gives immediately that

The number of terms in a multinomial sum, #_{n,m}, is equal to the number of monomials of degree n on the variables *x*_{1}, …, *x _{m}*:

The count can be performed easily using the method of stars and bars.

The largest power of a prime p that divides a multinomial coefficient may be computed using a generalization of Kummer's theorem.

By Stirling's approximation, or equivalently the log-gamma function's asymptotic expansion,

so for example,

The multinomial coefficients have a direct combinatorial interpretation, as the number of ways of depositing n distinct objects into m distinct bins, with *k*_{1} objects in the first bin, *k*_{2} objects in the second bin, and so on.^{[1]}

In statistical mechanics and combinatorics, if one has a number distribution of labels, then the multinomial coefficients naturally arise from the binomial coefficients. Given a number distribution {*n _{i}*} on a set of N total items, n

The number of arrangements is found by

- Choosing
*n*_{1}of the total N to be labeled 1. This can be done ways. - From the remaining
*N*−*n*_{1}items choose*n*_{2}to label 2. This can be done ways. - From the remaining
*N*−*n*_{1}−*n*_{2}items choose*n*_{3}to label 3. Again, this can be done ways.

Multiplying the number of choices at each step results in:

Cancellation results in the formula given above.

The multinomial coefficient

is also the number of distinct ways to permute a multiset of n elements, where k_{i} is the multiplicity of each of the ith element. For example, the number of distinct permutations of the letters of the word MISSISSIPPI, which has 1 M, 4 Is, 4 Ss, and 2 Ps, is

One can use the multinomial theorem to generalize Pascal's triangle or Pascal's pyramid to Pascal's simplex. This provides a quick way to generate a lookup table for multinomial coefficients.