The ** n-body problem** is an ancient, classical problem

Newton actually stated the solution to the *n-body problem* was unsolvable.^{[3]} Also see: Isaac Newton's *Principia*. (The *n*-body problem in general relativity is considerably more difficult).^{[citation needed]}

Newton did prove in his **Principia** a spherically-symmetric body can be modeled as a point-mass. Since gravity is responsible for the motions of planets and stars, Newton expressed the gravitational interactions of point-masses in terms of his *Law of Universal Gravitation*—which is not a general solution to the *n*-body problem. An aside, Newton's *Law of Universal Gravitation* can be derived via the *potential function* V(* r*) =

The physical problem can be informally stated as: *given only the present positions and velocities of a group of celestial bodies, predict their motions for all future time and deduce them for all past time*. The two-body problem has been completely solved. For *n* = 3, solutions exist for special cases, and for the so-called *Restricted 3-body Problem* discussed below. A general solution in terms of first integrals is known to be impossible. An exact theoretical solution for arbitrary *n* can be given in terms of Taylor series, but in practice such an infinite series must be truncated, giving an approximate solution. In addition, many solutions by numerical integration exist, but these too are approximate solutions.

This page develops a general (statics) solution for determining the reactive forces for the general *n*-body Problem case, owning to a concentrated body force (force and moment). Rigid body (*A* 's = 1, see below) applications include distribution of useful loads in a finite element model (FEM); 3D rigid body rivet analyses; and Astronomy problems. Spatial (Astrodynamic) problems and the like are particular solutions to the general *n*-body Problem and once the initial positions and forces on {*m*_{ζ}}, ζ = 1, 2, ... N, bodies are known, the velocities and accelerations, .i.e. their motions, may be determined. Determining equations and numerical values for the latter is beyond this page's scope (see Astrodynamics). Structural analyses or soil analyses elastic solutions (*A* 's < 1) are possible too. Again, the latter applications are beyond the scope of this page.

More precise: consider point masses , ... , in three-dimensional (physical) space. Suppose the attractive force experienced between each pair of particles is Newtonian (i.e., conform to Newton's *Laws of Motion*). Then determine the spatial position of each particle at every future (or past) moment of time if initial positions and velocities in space are specified for every particle at some instant, of time. Note, the solution requires a definition of some coordinate system first.

In mathematical terms this means to find a global solution of the initial value problem for the differential equations describing the -body problem.

The problem of finding the general solution of the *n*-body problem was considered very important and challenging. Indeed in the late 19th century King Oscar II of Sweden, advised by Gösta Mittag-Leffler, established a prize for anyone who could find the solution to the problem. The announcement was quite specific:

Given a system of arbitrarily many mass points that attract each according to Newton's law, under the assumption that no two points ever collide, try to find a representation of the coordinates of each point as a series in a variable that is some known function of time and for all of whose values the series

converges uniformly.

In case the problem could not be solved, any other important contribution to classical mechanics would then be considered to be prize-worthy.

The prize was finally awarded to Poincaré, even though he did not solve the original problem. (The first version of his contribution even contained a serious error; for details see the article by Diacu). The version finally printed contained many important ideas which led to the development of chaos theory. The problem as stated originally was finally solved by Karl Fritiof Sundman for *n* = 3 (see below).

A general, closed-form, *n-body problem* solution (i.,e., *n*-formulas) can * not* be derived employing Newton's

The general *n*-body problem of celestial mechanics is an initial-value problem for ordinary, second order, differential equations.
Given initial values for the positions and velocities of *n* particles (*j* = 1,...,*n*) with for all mutually distinct *j * and *k *, find the solution of the second order system

where are constants representing the masses of *n* point-masses, are 3-dimensional vector functions of the time variable *t*, describing the positions of the point masses, and *G* is the gravitational constant. This equation is Newton's second law of motion (left side) combined with his *Law of Universal Gravitation* (right side). The left-hand side is the mass times acceleration for a *particular* *j*^{th} particle (* F* = m

*G*, the constant of proportional, is the parameter making Newton's *Law* emperialistic (i.e., capable of being verified or disproved by observation or experiment). See Lord Cavendish's experiment measuring *G*. *G* allows mass (matter phenomenon) when combined with distance (spatial phenomenon) to be linked to force ("*force*" phenomenon). All three phenomena have different units of measurement. Then what is *G* physically? Newton's equation is empirical because *G* is empirical, but (*m*_{1}*m*_{2}/*r*^{3})/* r* is not a force and so

*G* allows Newton's *2nd Law* and all others too, to not require incorporating any constants of proportionality.

For every solution of the problem, not only applying an isometry or a time shift but also a reversal of time (unlike in the case of friction) gives a solution as well.

For *n* = 2, the problem was completely solved by Johann Bernoulli, see below. (see Two-body problem below).

In the physical literature about the -body problem ( ≥ 3), sometimes reference is made to *the impossibility of solving the -body problem* (via employing the above approach). However, care must be taken when discussing the 'impossibility' of a solution, as this refers only to the method of first integrals (compare the theorems by Abel and Galois about the impossibility of solving algebraic equations of degree five or higher by means of formulas only involving roots).

Employing Newton's generalized *Law of Universal Gravitation* formula above, the *-body problem* contains 6 variables, since each point particle is represented by three space (displacement) and three momentum components. First integrals (for ordinary differential equations) are functions that remain constant along any given solution of the system, the constant depending on the solution. In other words, integrals provide relations between the variables of the system, so each scalar integral would normally allow the reduction of the system's dimension by one unit. Of course, this reduction can take place only if the integral is an *algebraic* function not very complicated with respect to its variables. If the integral is *transcendent* the reduction cannot be performed.

The -body problem has 10 independent algebraic integrals:

- three for the center of mass;
- three for the linear momentum;
- three for the angular momentum;
- one for the energy.

This allows the reduction of variables to 6 − 10. The question at that time was whether there exist other integrals besides these 10. The answer was given in the negative in 1887 by Heinrich Bruns:

**Theorem (First integrals of the -body problem)** *The only linearly independent integrals of the -body problem, which are algebraic with respect to , and are the 10 described above*.

(This theorem was later generalized by Poincaré). These results however do not imply there does not exist a general solution to the -body problem, or that the perturbation series (Lindstedt series) diverges. Indeed Sundman provided such a solution by means of convergent series. (See Sundman's theorem for the 3-body problem).

*n*-body problems can be solved by numerically integrating the differential equations of motion. Many different ways to do this to varying degrees of accuracy and speed exist.^{[5]}

The simplest integrator is the Euler method, but this is only first order. A second order method is leapfrog integration, but higher-order integration methods such as the Runge–Kutta methods can be employed. Symplectic integrators are often used for *n*-body problems.

Numerical integration has a time complexity of *O*(`n`^{2}), but tree structured methods, such as Barnes-Hut simulation, can improve this to *O*(`n` log `n`), or even to *O*(`n`) such as with the fast multipole method.

The two-body problem solved by *classical* theory correctly, is outlined here^{[6]} Consider the motion of two bodies, say Sun-Earth, with the Sun *fixed*, then:

The equation describing the motion of mass *m*_{2} relative to mass *m*_{1} is readily obtained from the differences between these two equations and after canceling common terms gives: *α* + (η/*r*^{3})* r* = 0, where

It is incorrect to think of *m*_{1} (the Sun) as fixed in space when applying Newton's *Law of Universal Gravitation*, and to do so leads to erroneous results.^{[8]} Dr. Clarence Cleminshaw calculated the approximate position of the Sun's true barycenter, resulting mainly only from the combined masses of Jupiter and the Sun. ** Science Program ** stated "The Sun contains 98 per cent of the mass in the solar system, with the superior planets beyond Mars accounting for most of the rest. On the average, the center of the mass of the Sun-Jupiter system, when the two most massive objects are considered alone, lies 462,000 miles from the Sun's center, or some 30,000 miles

Newton fixed the Sun for his simple calculations, but all following after him have also made the same mistake analytically of fixing the Sun. The *n*-body problem realistically is much more complicated owing to the Sun's wobble than previously thought.

The Sun wobbles as it rotates around the galactic center, dragging the Solar System and Earth along with it. What mathematician Kepler did in arriving at his famous equations was curve-fit the apparent motion of the planets using Tycho Brahe's data, and not curve-fitting their true circular motions about the Sun (see Figure). See also Kepler's first law of planetary motion.

If the common center of mass (i.e., the barycenter) of the two bodies is considered to be at rest, then each body travels along a conic section which has a focus at the barycenter of the system. In the case of a hyperbola it has the branch at the side of that focus. The two conics will be in the same plane. The type of conic (circle, ellipse, parabola or hyperbola) is determined by finding the sum of the combined kinetic energy of two bodies and the potential energy when the bodies are far apart. (This potential energy is always a negative value; energy of rotation of the bodies about their axes is not counted here).

- If the sum of the energies is negative, then they both trace out ellipses.
- If the sum of both energies is zero, then they both trace out parabolas. As the distance between the bodies tends to infinity, their relative speed tends to zero.
- If the sum of both energies is positive, then they both trace out hyperbolas. As the distance between the bodies tends to infinity, their relative speed tends to some positive number.

**Note:** The fact a parabolic orbit has zero energy arises from the assumption the gravitational potential energy goes to zero as the bodies get infinitely far apart. One could assign *any* value to the potential energy in the state of infinite separation. That state is assumed to have zero potential energy (i.e. 0-joules) *by convention*.^{[9]} ^{[citation needed]}

Not as much is known about the *n*-body problem for *n* ≥ 3 as for *n* = 2. The case *n* = 3 was most studied and for many results can be generalized to larger *n*. Many of the early attempts to understand the *Three-body problem* were quantitative, aiming at finding explicit solutions for special situations.

- In 1687 Isaac Newton published in the
**Principia**the first steps taken in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three bodies subject to their mutual gravitational attractions. His descriptions were verbal and geometrical, see especially Book 1, Proposition 66 and its corollaries (Newton, 1687 and 1999 (transl.), see also Tisserand, 1894). - In 1767 Euler found collinear motions, in which three bodies of any masses move proportionately along a fixed straight line.
- In 1772 Lagrange discovered two classes of periodic solution, each for three bodies of any masses. In one class, the bodies lie on a rotating straight line. In the other class, the bodies lie at the vertices of a rotating equilateral triangle. In either case, the paths of the bodies will be conic sections. Those solutions led to the study of
*central configurations*, for which for some constant*k>0*.

Specific solutions to the *Three-body problem* result in chaotic motion with no obvious sign of a repetitious path. A major study of the Earth-Moon-Sun system was undertaken by Charles-Eugène Delaunay, who published two volumes on the topic, each of 900 pages in length, in 1860 and 1867. Among many other accomplishments, the work already hints at chaos, and clearly demonstrates the problem of so-called "small denominators" in perturbation theory.

The *Restricted Three-body Problem* assumes the mass of one of the bodies is negligible^{[citation needed]}; the circular restricted three-body problem is the special case in which two of the bodies are in circular orbits (approximated by the Sun-Earth-Moon system and many others).^{[10]}^{[11]} For a discussion of the case where the negligible body is a satellite of the body of lesser mass, see Hill sphere; for binary systems, see Roche lobe; for another stable system, see Lagrangian point.

The restricted problem (both circular and elliptical) was worked on extensively by many famous mathematicians and physicists, notably Poincaré at the end of the 19th century. Poincaré's work on the *Restricted Three-body Problem* was the foundation of deterministic chaos theory. In the restricted problem, there exist five equilibrium points. Three are collinear with the masses (in the rotating frame) and are unstable. The remaining two are located on the third vertex of both equilateral triangles of which the two bodies are the first and second vertices. This may be easier to visualize if one considers the more massive body (e.g., Sun) to be "stationary" in space, and the less massive body (e.g., Jupiter) to orbit around it, with the equilibrium points maintaining the 60 degree-spacing ahead of and behind the less massive body almost in its orbit (although in reality neither of the bodies is truly stationary; they both orbit the center of mass of the whole system—about the barycenter). For sufficiently small mass ratio of the primaries, these triangular equilibrium points are stable, such that (nearly) massless particles will orbit about these points as they orbit around the larger primary (Sun). The five equilibrium points of the circular problem are known as the Lagrange points. See figure below:

In the *Restricted 3-Body Problem* math model figure above (ref. Moulton), Lagrangian points L_{4} and L_{5} are where the Trojan planets resided; *m*_{1} is the Sun and *m*_{2} is Jupiter. L_{2} is where the asteroid belt is. It has to be realized for this model, this whole Sun-Jupiter diagram is rotating about its barycenter. The *h*-circles and closed loops echo the electromagnetic fluxes issued from the Sun and Jupiter.

This is the most elemental way of solving the *n*-body Problem, the theoretical expression. It is often called "The *n*-body problem by Taylor series", which is an implementation of the Power series solution of differential equations.

We start by defining the differential equations system^{[citation needed]}:

where (in ) the upper index indicates the second derivative with respect to time , represents the number of each body and the coordinate.

Because and are given as initial conditions, then every are known. Doing implicit derivation over every results in which at are known because each depends on known precalculated and given constants and then the Taylor series are constructed theoretically in such way, performing this process infinitely.

Any solution to the *n*-body program requires using Jean Le Rond D'Alembert's *1st and 2nd Principles*.^{[12]}

It is convenient to define the scalar operator, a functional, to be employed in the solution of the *n*-body Problem. *Index notation* is used in this section ^{[13]}. Indexes and scalars are plain italic text; vectors are in bold, italic text.

HOOKEAN Switches: Let there be a scalar function, 0 ≤ *A*_{iζ} ≤ 1, where *i* := *x*, *y*, *z* or 1, 2, 3, are the component directions, ζ := 1...N, is the point-mass *m*_{ζ} coordinate number. The *A*_{iζ}'s are functionally the *feasible*, translational reaction component's allowable degrees of freedom (*DOF*) at *P*_{iζ}⇒ (*x*_{iζ}, *y*_{iζ}, *z*_{iζ}), specified for any and all point-masses *m*_{ζ}, where the N point-masses *m*_{ζ} are defined in a right-handed, Euclidean coordinate system space with (*x*, *y*, *z*) coordinates.

Applying HOOKEAN switches *A'*s at the supports or reaction points for every feasible translational reaction, i.e., for each *P*_{xζ}, *P*_{yζ}, *P*_{zζ}, would be the same as showing those feasible or allowable translational vectors visually on a free-body diagram; but instead of showing by default all three *DOF* possible translational vectors, say (* P *

(Definition continues.) Let the radius vector be:

where ** i, j, k** are the unit directional vectors, and the

(Definition continues.) Then for each point *P*_{iζ} there may be 0, or up to 3 *DOF*, meaning *m _{i}* may be, depending on

The concept is HOOKEAN switches allow point-masses to respond, or *not* respond, as reaction forces in selected directions by setting selected *A*_{iζ}'s components to 0; and vice-verse. When all the feasible *A*_{iζ} = 1 the solution is a rigid-body solution. In this way HOOKEAN switches allows for the solution of the *n*-body Problem. HOOKEAN springs allows a type of finite element model (**FEM**) to be constructed (i.e., 3D rivet analyses).

Let *M* := *m _{1} + m_{2} + m_{3} + …+ m*

Theorem: Let ** r **

Continuing, the massless centroidal mass moments of inertia for N masses, *m _{i}*, again by simple statics are:

where, say *x _{xy}*, etc, are the barycenters calculated above

But before that...qualification for a right-hand coordinate system arises because some USA Aerospace firms use the left-hand system, making their signs for the cross products positive. If the inertia tensor if symmetric and positive-definite (via the value of the its determinant), then the coordinate system is right-handed ― always check this, and if not then your signs are wrong.

Applied forces and moments may be HOOKEAN too. These HOOKEAN definitions (and concept) are missing from physics textbooks, but are somewhat similar in concept to grid-point releases in a finite elements analyses. HOOKEAN points are not Lagrangian coordinates.

Interestingly, if empirical force laws and Euclidean geometry are true, and the Principle of Equilibrium is true of course, then any logical combination therein is also true. In all that follows is naught but simple physics (statics).

If, for example, when the vector * s_{i} * = Є

Let the set {**r** _{ζ}} contain at least three spatial reaction points: **r** := {(**r** _{ζ})_{i}: ζ ≥ 3, *i* = 1, 2, 3} in Euclidean *R*^{3}, react to an applied resultant force * F _{i}* and moment (

Assume only infinitesimal angular displacements (∆θ_{ζ})_{i} are associated with reaction point motions (∆* s *

where * rbar _{j}* is the centroid of the reaction set {

If the reaction points' material is structural; i.e., elastic (* σ = E ε *), then it will be further assumed the structure will conform to a similar linear law, say HOOKE's

The load center is defined to be at (*x*_{cg}, *y*_{cg}, *z*_{cg}), who coordinates are basic input. (*x*bar_{i}, *y*bar_{i}, *z*bar_{i}) -- are use later to calculate the sum of the moments -- are equal to the {*P*_{ζ}} set for ζ = 1, ... N reaction points, and are the centers of gravity of those point-masses. Real masses may be reduced to point-masses the same way NEWTON did it. In this analysis physical real mass is not a variable; only forces, reactions, moments, and geometry are real variables. It is convenient to use HOOKE's Law for the purposes later of eliminating the ∆θ's: *k* ** x ** ≃

where (**F**_{ζ})_{k} are the symmetrical components of force at the reaction points. Taking moments at the centroid (the rest of this development is just simple but messy Algebra…):

where (** M **

Let *k* = 1 for the time being (*k* cancels out later anyway). Then in expanded scalar form:

(It can be easily seen how easy it would be to put these symmetrical equation in matrix form.) The resultant moments at each point owning then to *all* the reaction components at all the points are:

Of course the *r* terms above are immediately recognized as being part of the massless inertia above.

The resultant moments ∑(** M **

Some explanation is in order before preceding: First, referring to the cantilever beam with the off-set load, if the load **F**_{1} is moved to the cantilever's tip's end along the shaft's axis, then (to calculate loads at the root) if the original force, **F**_{1}, is reduplicated and transferred to the tip as ** F **

(Continuing.) The reaction forces owning to moment imbalances are added to the symmetric reaction force components to give the total reaction forces at each reaction point (explanation above). Let this resultant moment be (* M _{R}*)

and (**r**_{p})_{j} is the position of the applied force and moment. Then in expanded scalar form:

When the (∆θ_{ζ})_{i} terms are isolated in ∑(** M **

In the above equation :

*i*= 1, 2, 3, ζ = 1, 2, 3, ... N point-mass*m*coordinate number; brackets [ ] and { } represent matrices where_{i}*T*is for transpose and*-1*is for inverse; and subscript*L*stands for Load,*s*stands for support;- (
**P**_{ζ})are the vector reactions at each support point_{i}*P*⇒ (_{i}*x*,_{i}*y*,_{i}*z*);_{i} - (
*F*)_{L}are the three components of the applied force, transposed; (_{i}*M*_{0})are the the three components of the applied moment, transposed;_{i}*F**M*_{o}are basic inputs; - The load centers at (
*x*_{cg},*y*_{cg},*z*_{cg}is basic input. - [
**I**_{s}^{−1}is the*inverse*of the inertia tensor of the reaction pattern, is a symmetrical 3x3 matrix; - [
*x*]_{L}_{i}is the position of the applied force and moment, 3x3 matrix; [*x*]_{L}(_{i}**F**_{L} - [
*x*]_{s}_{i}are the centroids of the reaction pattern, 3x3 matrix; - [
*x*]_{s}_{i}[**I**_{s}^{−1}[[*x*]_{L}{_{i}**F**_{L}_{i}^{T}+ {**M**_{o}_{i}^{T}]_{3,3}] are the unbalanced moments reacted as couples, 3x3 matrix; - {(
**F**_{L}/(Σ(_{i}*A*_{ζ})_{i})}^{T}_{1,3}are the symmetrical (translational) reactions.

This solution takes an external force and moment and moves it over to the centroids of the reactions or supporting pattern (system); and by incorporating the massless inertial properties of that pattern, beams the applied loads to the support loads. Although somewhat messy algebraically, it's that simple. It's analogous to a 3D rigid body, rivet analysis.

The [*x _{s}*]

The sum of the forces for the entire support or reaction points are:

The load center at (*x*_{cg}, *y*_{cg}, *z*_{cg}) is basic input. (*x*bar_{i}, *y*bar_{i}, *z*bar_{i}), equal to the {*P*_{ζ}} set for ζ = 1, ... N reaction points, are the center of gravity of the point-masses. Then the sum of the moments for the entire supports or reactions are:

*n*-body particle simulations can be effected via computer^{[16]}

In 1912, the Finnish mathematician Karl Fritiof Sundman proved there existed a series solution in powers of for the *3-body Problem*. This series is convergent for **all ** real *t*, except initial data which correspond to *zero angular momentum*. However these initial data are not generic since they have Lebesgue measure zero.

An important issue in proving this result is the fact that the radius of convergence for this series is determined by the distance to the nearest singularity. Therefore it is necessary to study the possible singularities of the *3-body Problem*s. As it will be briefly discussed below, the only singularities in the *3-body Problem* are:

- binary collisions,
- triple collisions.

Now collisions, whether binary or triple (in fact of arbitrary order), are somehow improbable since it has been shown they correspond to a set of initial data of measure zero. However there is no criterion known to be put on the initial state in order to avoid collisions for the corresponding solution. So Sundman's strategy consisted of the following steps:

- He first was able, using an appropriate change of variables, to continue analytically the solution beyond the binary collision, in a process known as regularization.
- He then proved triple collisions only occur when the angular momentum
**L**vanishes. By restricting the initial data to he removed all*real*singularities from the transformed equations for the 3-body problem. - The next step consisted in showing that if , then not only can there be no triple collision, but the system is strictly bounded away from a triple collision. This implies, by using the Cauchy existence theorem for differential equations, there are no complex singularities in a strip (depending on the value of
**L**) in the complex plane centered around the real axis (shades of Kovalevskaya). - The last step is then to find a conformal transformation which maps this strip into the unit disc. For example if (the new variable after the regularization) and if
^{[clarification needed]}then this map is given by:

This finishes the proof of Sundman's *Theorem*. Unfortunately the corresponding convergent series converges very slowly. That is, getting the value to any useful precision requires so many terms, that his solution is of little practical use.

In order to generalize Sundman's result for the case *n* > 3 (or *n* = 3 and *c* = 0^{[clarification needed]}) one has to face two obstacles:

- As it has been shown by Siegel, collisions which involve more than two bodies cannot be regularized analytically, hence Sundman's regularization cannot be generalized.
- The structure of singularities is more complicated in this case: other types of singularities may occur (see below).

Lastly, Sundman's result was generalized to the case of *n* > 3 bodies by Q. Wang in the 1990s. Since the structure of singularities is more complicated, Wang had to leave out completely the questions of singularities. The central point of his approach is to transform, in an appropriate manner, the equations to a new system, such that the interval of existence for the solutions of this new system is .

There can be two types of singularities of the *n*-body problem:

- collisions of two or more bodies, but for which
(**q***t*) (the bodies' positions) remains finite. (In this mathematical sense, a "collision" means that two point-like bodies have identical positions in space.) - singularities in which a collision does not occur, but
(**q***t*) does not remain finite. In this scenario, bodies diverge to infinity in a finite time, while at the same time tending towards zero separation (an imaginary collision occurs "at infinity").

The latter ones are called no-collisions singularities. Their existence has been conjectured for *n* > 3 by Painlevé (see Painlevé's conjecture). Examples of this behavior have been constructed by Xia^{[17]} and Gerver.

- Einstein–Infeld–Hoffmann equations
- Few-body systems
- Natural units
- n-body choreography
- Virial theorem

**^**Leimanis and Minorsky: Our interest is with Leimanis, who first discusses some history about the*n*-body problem, especially Kovalevskaya's ~1868-1888, twenty-year failure;**Section 1: The Dynamics of Rigid Bodies and Mathematical Exterior Ballistics**(Chapter 1,*the motion of a rigid body about a fixed point*(**Euler**and**Poisson***equations*); Chapter 2,*Mathematical Exterior Ballistics*), good precursor background to the*n*-body problem;**Section 2: Celestial Mechanics**(Chapter 1,*The Uniformization of the Three-body Problem*(Restricted Three-body Problem); Chapter 2,*Capture in the Three-Body Problem*; Chapter 3,*Generalized n-body Problem*).**^**Heggie and Hut have many tables and charts, etc.**^**I. Bernard Cohen**^**Brouwer and Clemence: their Chapter**III**(the heart of the book),*Gravitational Attraction Between Bodies of Finite Dimensions*, assumes Newton's*Law of Universal Gravitation*in order to prove it yields the*potential function*V() =**r***m*/. Going the other way (derivation not in their book) and deriving Newton's**r***Law*raises big questions as to which is more fundamental, Newton's*Law*; or the potential function and LaPlace's equation?**^**N-Body/Particle Simulation Methods**^**See Bate, Mueller, and White: Chapter**1**, "," pp 1-49. These authors were from the**Two-Body Orbital Mechanics***Dept. of Astronautics and Computer Science*, United States Air Force Academy. See Chapter**1**. Their textbook is not filled with advanced mathematics.**^**See Lindsay's solution for this last equation. This differential equation has ellipse, or parabola or hyperbola solutions as indicated above.**^****Science Program'**s “*The Nature of the Universe**Griffith Observatory*from 1938-1958 and as Director from 1958-1969. Some publications by Cleminshaw, C. H.: “**Celestial Speeds**,” 4 1953, equation, Kepler, orbit, comet, Saturn, Mars, velocity; Cleminshaw, C. H.: “**The Coming Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn**,” 7 1960, Saturn, Jupiter, observe, conjunction; Cleminshaw, C. H.: “**The Scale of The Solar System**,” 7 1959, Solar system, scale, Jupiter, sun, size, light.**^**Lindsay: See Chapter**3**, "," and specifically paragraph**Curvilinear Motion in a Plane***3-9*, ""; and continue reading on to the Chapter's end, pp. 83-96. Lindsay presentation goes a long way in explaining the initial comments in the**Planetary Motion**section above**2-body problem**- '
*^***Moulton: see his****Restricted Three-body Problem**s analytical and graphical solution. **^**See Meirovitch's book: Chapters 11,*Problems in Celestial Mechanics*; 12,*Problem in Spacecraft Dynamics*; and Appendix A:*Dyadics*.**^**See Gallian and Wilson: this short, highly technical physics paper is a full-blown example of a real-world application of D'Alembert's*1st and 2nd Principles*applied to a body floating in space just above the Earth's surface (and not in outer-space). The D'Alembert theory is: if a body is supported via three points, for a total of six-degrees of freedom for complete initial stability; then, when the applied external loads are applied and equal to the reacting internal inertial loads, there are no forces on the three points (the acid test). All forces, as well as couples, are balanced this way: external = internal. Then the question is, how else are useful body and fuel loads made into inertial loads infused into an aircraft's structure if not by a*n*-body problem type solution? The paper does not actually solve the*n*-body problem per-se.**^**See Koreneu:*Supplement, Elements of Tensor Algebra and Indicial Notation in Mechanics*.- '
*^***These equations, except for the additional****A**s, can be found in any standard dynamics textbooks; say one such as Meriam's**Engineering Mechanics**, Volume 2. **^**. The above equations are computerized (see below) so if the first, front, upper quadrant is used there is no need to worry about getting the signs wrong. If however, the left, front, upper quadrant is used too, then a matrix, and its inverse for an unsymmetrical matrix from the right side is not equal to its inverse and transpose on the left side. Each side must be independently developed. This problem occurs when an aircraft's main coordinate system splits it from the nose -to- the tail down the middle. Be careful using the*n*-body solution in other quadrants. Ref Gelman.**^**See: "*Gravitational N-Body Simulation***^**Xia, Zhihong (1992). "The Existence of Noncollision Singularities in Newtonian Systems".*Annals Math.***135**(3): 411–468. JSTOR 2946572.

- Heggie, Douglas and Hut, Piet
**: The Gravitational Million-Body Problem, A Multidisciplinary Approach to Star Cluster Dynamics**,*Cambridge University Press*, 357 pages, 2003. - Leimanis, E., and Minorsky, N.
**: Dynamics and Nonlinear Mechanics**, Part**I:***Some Recent Advances in the Dynamics of Rigid Bodies and Celestial Mechanics*(Leimanis), Part**II:***The Theory of Oscillations*(Minorsky),*John Wiley & Sons, Inc*., 1958. - Moulton, Forest Ray:
**An Introduction to Celestial Mechanics**,*Dover*, 1970. - Meirovitch, Leonard:
**Methods of Analytical Dynamics**,*McGraw-Hill Book Co*., 1970. - Brouwer, Dirk and Clemence, Gerald M.
**: Methods of Celestial Mechanics**,*Academic Press*, 1961. - Cohen, Bernard I.: "
,"**Newton's Discovery of Gravity**, pp. 167–179, Vol. 244, No. 3, Mar. 1980.**Scientific American** *Science Program'*s “*The Nature of the Universe**Nelson Doubleday, Inc*., in 1968:- Bate, Roger R.; Mueller, Donald D.; and White, Jerry
**: Fundamentals of Astrodynamics**,*Dover*, 1971. - Batin, Richard H.
**: An Introduction to The Mathematics and Methods of Astrodynamics**,, 1987.**AIAA** - Gallian, Dave A. and Wilson, Henry E.: "
,"**The Integration of NASTRAN Into Helicopter Airframe Design/Analysis**Pub., May 1973.**American Helicopter Society** - Lindsay, Robert Bruce:
**Physical Mechanics**, 3rd Ed.,*D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.*, 1961. - Gelman, Harry: Part I:
*The second orthogonality conditions in the theory of proper and improper rotations: Derivation of the conditions and of their main consequences,*J. Res. NBS 72B (Math. Sci.)No. 3, 1968. Part II:*The intrinsic vector*; Part III:*The Conjugacy Theorem*,J. Res. NBS 72B (Math. Sci.) No. 2, 1969.*A Note on the time dependence of the effective axis and angle of a rotation,*J. Res. NBS 72B (Math. Sci.)No. 3&4, Oct. 1971. These papers are on the Internet. - Meriam, J. L.:
**Engineering Mechanics**, Volume 1*Statics*, Volume 2*Dynamics*,*John Wiley & Sons*, 1978. - Quadling, Henley:
**"**June 1994. nbody*.zip is available at the http://www.ftp.cica.indiana.edu: see external links.*Gravitational N-Body Simulation: 16 bit DOS version*,"

Korenev, G. V.: **The Mechanics of Guided Bodies**, **CRC***Press*, 1967.

- Diacu, F.:
*The solution of the n-body problem*, The Mathematical Intelligencer,1996,18,p. 66–70 - Mittag-Leffler, G.:
*The n-body problem (Price Announcement)*, Acta Matematica, 1885/1886,7 - Saari, D.:
*A visit to the Newtonian n-body problem via Elementary Complex Variables*,*American Mathematical Monthly*, 1990, 89, 105–119 - Newton, I.:
*Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica*, London, 1687: also English translation of 3rd (1726) edition by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman (Berkeley, CA, 1999). - Wang, Qiudong (1991). "The global solution of the n-body problem".
*Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy*.**50**(1): 73–88. Bibcode:1991CeMDA..50...73W. ISSN 0923-2958.`((cite journal))`

:`|access-date=`

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(help) - Sundman, K. F.:
*Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps, Acta Mathematica 36 (1912): 105–179.* - Tisserand, F-F.:
*Mecanique Celeste*, tome III (Paris, 1894), ch.III, at p. 27. - Hagihara, Y: Celestial Mechanics. (Vol I and Vol II pt 1 and Vol II pt 2.) MIT Press, 1970.
- Boccaletti, D. and Pucacco, G.: Theory of Orbits (two volumes). Springer-Verlag, 1998.
- Havel, Karel. N-Body Gravitational Problem: Unrestricted Solution (ISBN 978-09689120-5-8). Brampton: Grevyt Press, 2008. http://www.grevytpress.com
- Saari, D. G.; Hulkower, N. D. (1981). "On the Manifolds of Total Collapse Orbits and of Completely Parabolic Orbits for the n-Body Problem".
*Journal of Differential Equations*.**41**(1): 27–43. doi:10.1016/0022-0396(81)90051-6.

- Three-Body Problem at Scholarpedia
- More detailed information on the three-body problem
- Regular Keplerian motions in classical many-body systems
- Applet demonstrating chaos in restricted three-body problem
- Applets demonstrating many different three-body motions
- On the integration of the
*n*-body equations - Java applet simulating Solar System
- Java applet simulating a ring of bodies orbiting a large central mass
- Java applet simulating dust in the Solar System
- Java applet simulating a stable solution to the equi-mass 3-body problem
- Java applet simulating choreographies and other interesting n-body solutions
- A java applet to simulate the 3-d movement of set of particles under gravitational interaction
- Javascript Simulation of our Solar System
- The Lagrange Points - with links to the original papers of Euler and Lagrange, and to translations, with discussion
- http://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toc/sciam1980.html#242%281%29:January:1980
- http://www.ftp.cica.indiana.edu

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Parameters |
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Maneuvers | |||||||||

Orbital mechanics | - Astronomical coordinate systems
- Characteristic energy
- Escape velocity
- Ephemeris
- Equatorial coordinate system
- Ground track
- Hill sphere
- Interplanetary Transport Network
- Kepler's laws of planetary motion
- Lagrangian point
*n*-body problem- Orbit equation
- Orbital state vectors
- Perturbation
- Retrograde and prograde motion
- Specific orbital energy
- Specific angular momentum
- Two-line elements
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