An open ballot system is a voting method in which voters vote openly, in contrast to a secret ballot, where a voter's choices are confidential.

The open ballot system was the norm prior to Australia adopting the secret ballot in 1856.[1] It was used in Argentina until the adoption of the secret ballot in 1912.[2] In the late twentieth century, the open ballot was used in the Third Nigerian Republic during the 1993 Nigerian presidential election (the method was referred to as "Option A4"), an election widely considered by Nigerians as a significant symbol of democracy in Nigerian political history.[3][4]

See also


  1. ^ Terry Newman, "Tasmania and the Secret Ballot" (PDF). (144 KiB) (2003), 49(1) Aust J Pol & Hist 93, accessed May 20, 2015
  2. ^ "Roque Sáenz Peña | Reformer, Radicalism, Politics | Britannica". Retrieved 2024-01-22.
  3. ^ "Nigerians remember MKO Abiola on June 12". TVC News. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  4. ^ "Making a point with Option A4". The Nation. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2016.

Further reading