Post-romanticism or Postromanticism refers to a range of cultural endeavors and attitudes emerging in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, after the period of Romanticism.

In literature

The period of post-romanticism in poetry is defined as the mid-to-late nineteenth century,[1] but includes the much earlier poetry of Letitia Elizabeth Landon[2] and Tennyson.[3]

Notable post-romantic writers

In music

Post-romanticism in music refers to composers who wrote classical symphonies, operas, and songs in transitional style that constituted a blend of late romantic and early modernist musical languages. Arthur Berger described the mysticism of La Jeune France as post-Romanticism rather than neo-Romanticism.[6]

Post-romantic composers created music that used traditional forms combined with advanced harmony. Béla Bartók, for example, "in such Strauss-influenced works as Duke Bluebeard's Castle", may be described as having still used "dissonance ['such intervals as fourths and sevenths'] in traditional forms of music for purposes of post-romantic expression, not simply always as an appeal to the primal art of sound".[7]

Other notable post-romantic composers


  1. ^ Faith Lagay (August 2006). "Hawthorne's 'Birthmark': Is There a Post-Romantic Lesson for the 'Men of Science'?". Virtual Mentor. 8 (8): 541–544. doi:10.1001/virtualmentor.2006.8.8.mhum1-0608.
  2. ^ Sybille Baumbach, Birgit Neumann [de], Ansgar Nünning [de] (eds). A History of British Poetry, Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier 2015. ISBN 978-3-86821-578-6. Section 19: "Poetic Genres in the Victorian Age I: Letitia Elizabeth Landon's and Alfred Lord Tennyson's Post-Romantic Verse Narratives" by Anne-Julia Zwierlein [de].
  3. ^ Richard Bradford, A Linguistic History of English Poetry, New York: Routledge, 1993, p. 134. ISBN 0-415-07057-0.
  4. ^ a b Robert Milder, Exiled Royalties: Melville and the Life We Imagine, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 41. ISBN 0-19-514232-2
  5. ^ Stephen Heath, Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 13. ISBN 0-521-31483-6.
  6. ^ Virgil Thomson. Virgil Thomson: A Reader: Selected Writings, 1924–1984, edited by Richard Kostelanetz, New York: Routledge, 2002, p. 268. ISBN 0-415-93795-7.
  7. ^ Daniel Albright. Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004, pp. 243–244. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Period: Late– Post-Romantic", Nolan Gasser, Classical Archives

Further reading

See also