Ignacy Jan Paderewski
Paderewski circa 1935
3rd Prime Minister of Poland
In office
18 January 1919 – 27 November 1919
PresidentJózef Piłsudski (Chief of State)
Preceded byJędrzej Moraczewski
Succeeded byLeopold Skulski
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
16 January 1919 – 9 December 1919
Prime Minister
  • Himself
  • Leopold Skulski
Preceded byLeon Wasilewski
Succeeded byWładysław Wróblewski
Chief of the National Council of Poland
In office
9 December 1939 – 29 June 1941
Personal details
Ignacy Jan Paderewski

(1860-11-06)6 November 1860
Kurylivka, Podolia Governorate, Russian Empire
Died29 June 1941(1941-06-29) (aged 80)
New York City, US
  • Antonina Korsakówna
    (m. 1880; died 1880)
  • (m. 1899; died 1934)
EducationWarsaw Conservatory
ProfessionPianist, composer, politician, diplomat

Ignacy Jan Paderewski (Polish: [iɡˈnatsɨ ˈjan padɛˈrɛfskʲi] ; 18 November [O.S. 6 November] 1860 – 29 June 1941) was a Polish pianist, composer and statesman who was a spokesman for Polish independence. In 1919, he was the nation's prime minister and foreign minister during which he signed the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I.[1]

A favorite of concert audiences around the world, his musical fame opened access to diplomacy and the media, as possibly did his status as a freemason,[2] and charitable work of his second wife, Helena Paderewska. During World War I, Paderewski advocated an independent Poland, including by touring the United States, where he met with President Woodrow Wilson, who came to support the creation of an independent Poland in his Fourteen Points at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, which led to the Treaty of Versailles.[3]

Shortly after his resignations from office, Paderewski resumed his concert career to recoup his finances and rarely visited the politically chaotic Poland thereafter, the last time being in 1924.[4]

Early life, marriage and education

Paderewski was born to Polish parents in the village of Kurylivka, in the Podolia Governorate of the Russian Empire. The village is now part of the Khmilnyk raion of Vinnytsia Oblast in Ukraine. His father, Jan Paderewski, administered large estates. His mother, Poliksena, née Nowicka, died several months after Paderewski was born, and he was raised mostly by distant relatives.[5]

From his early childhood, Paderewski was interested in music. He initially lived at a private estate near Zhytomyr, where he moved with his father. However, soon after his father's arrest in connection with the January Uprising (1863), he was adopted by his aunt. After being released, Paderewski's father married again and moved to the town of Sudylkov, near Shepetovka.[6]

Initially, Paderewski took piano lessons with a private tutor. At the age of 12, in 1872, he went to Warsaw and was admitted to the Warsaw Conservatory. Upon graduating in 1878, he became a tutor of piano classes at his alma mater. In 1880, Paderewski married a fellow student at the conservatory, Antonina Korsakówna. The next year, their son Alfred was born severely handicapped. Antonina never recovered from childbirth and died several weeks later. Paderewski decided to devote himself to music and left his son in the care of friends, and in 1881, he went to Berlin to study music composition with Friedrich Kiel[7] and Heinrich Urban.

A chance meeting in 1884 with a famous Polish actress, Helena Modrzejewska, began his career as a virtuoso pianist. Modrzejewska arranged for a public concert and joint appearance in Kraków's Hotel Saski to raise funds for Paderewski's further piano study. The scheme was a tremendous success, and Paderewski soon moved to Vienna, where he studied with Theodor Leschetizky (Teodor Leszetycki).[8][9] He married his second wife, Helena Paderewska (née von Rosen, 1856–1934), shortly after she received an annulment of a prior marriage, on 31 May 1899. While she had previously cared for his son Alfred (1880–1901), they had no children together.[8]

Pianist, composer and supporter of new composers

A portrait of Ignacy Jan Paderewski, by painter Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1890
Paderewski photographed early in his career

Paderewski dedicated three more years to diligent study and a teaching appointment at the conservatory in Strasbourg which Leschetizky arranged. After that, Paderewski made his concert debut in Vienna in 1887. He soon gained great popularity and had popular successes in Paris in 1889 and in London in 1890.[8] Audiences responded to his brilliant playing with almost extravagant displays of admiration, and Paderewski also gained access to the halls of power. In 1891, Paderewski repeated his triumphs on an American tour; he would tour the country more than 30 times for the next five decades, and it would become his second home.[8] His stage presence, striking looks, and immense charisma contributed to his stage success, which later proved important in his political and charitable activities. His name became synonymous with the highest level of piano virtuosity.[8] Not everyone was equally impressed, however. After hearing Paderewski for the first time, when Paderewski was exhausted from his American tour, Moriz Rosenthal quipped, "Yes, he plays well, I suppose, but he's no Paderewski."[10]

Paderewski the pianist

Paderewski kept up a furious pace of touring and composition, including many of his own piano compositions in his concerts. He also wrote an opera, Manru, which is still the only opera by a Polish composer that was ever performed in the Metropolitan Opera's 135-year history. A "lyric drama", Manru is an ambitious work that was formally inspired by Wagner's music dramas. It lacks an overture and closed-form arias but uses Wagner's device of leitmotifs to represent characters and ideas. The story centres on a doomed love triangle, social inequality, and racial prejudice (Manru is a Gypsy), and it is set in the Tatra Mountains. In addition to the Met, Manru was staged in Dresden[8] (a private royal viewing), Lviv (its official premiere in 1901), Prague, Cologne, Zürich, Warsaw, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Pittsburgh and Baltimore, Moscow, and Kiev. In 1904, Paderewski, accompanied by his second wife, entourage, parrot, and Érard piano, gave concerts in Australia and New Zealand in collaboration with Polish-French composer, Henri Kowalski. Paderewski toured tirelessly around the world and was the first to give a solo performance at the new 3,000-seat Carnegie Hall. In 1909 came the premiere of his Symphony in B minor "Polonia", a massive work lasting 75 minutes. Paderewski's compositions were quite popular in his lifetime and, for a time, entered the orchestral repertoire, particularly his Fantaisie polonaise sur des thèmes originaux (Polish Fantasy on Original Themes) for piano and orchestra, Piano Concerto in A minor, and Polonia symphony. His piano miniatures became especially popular; the Minuet in G major, Op. 14 No. 1, written in the style of Mozart, became one of the most recognized piano tunes of all time. Despite his relentless touring schedule and his political and charitable engagements, Paderewski left a legacy of over 70 orchestral, instrumental, and vocal works.

All of his works evoke a romantic image of Poland. They incorporate references to Polish dances (polonaise, krakowiak, and mazurka) and highlander music (Tatra album [Album tatrzańskie], op. 12, Polish Dances [Tańce polskie], op. 5). Paderewski's love of his country is reflected in the titles of his compositions (Polish Fantasy [Fantazja polska], op. 19 and Symphony in B minor "Polonia", which includes a quote from Dąbrowski's Mazurka [Mazurek Dąbrowskiego]), themes (Manru), and musical settings of quotes from Polish poets (e.g., Asnyk and Mickiewicz).[11]



In 1896, Paderewski donated US$10,000 to establish a trust fund to encourage American-born composers. The fund underwrote a triennial competition that began in 1901, the Paderewski Prize. Paderewski also launched a similar contest in Leipzig in 1898. He was so popular internationally that the music hall duo "The Two Bobs" had a hit song in 1916 in music halls across Britain with the song "When Paderewski Plays". He was a favorite of concert audiences around the globe; women especially admired his performances.[12]

By the turn of the century, the artist was an extremely wealthy man generously donating to numerous causes and charities and sponsoring monuments, among them the Washington Arch, in New York, in 1892. Paderewski shared his fortune generously with fellow countrymen, as well as with citizens and foundations from around the world. He established a foundation for young American musicians and the students of Stanford University (1896), another at the Parisian Conservatory (1909), yet another scholarship fund at the Ecole Normale (1924), funded students of the Moscow Conservatory and the Saint Petersburg Conservatory (1899) as well as spas in the Alps (1928), for the British Legion. In the Great Depression, Paderewski supported unemployed musicians in the United States (1932) and the unemployed in Switzerland in 1937. Paderewski also publicly supported an insurance fund for musicians in London (1933) and aided Jewish intellectuals in Paris (1933). He also supported orphanages and the Maternity Centre in New York. Only a few of the Paderewski-sponsored concert halls and monuments included Debussy (1931) and Édouard Colonne (1923) monuments in Paris, Liszt Monument in Weimar, Beethoven Monument in Bonn, Chopin Monument in Żelazowa Wola (the composer's birthplace), Kosciuszko Monument in Chicago, and Washington Arch in New York.[13]


In 1913, Paderewski settled in the United States. On the eve of World War I and at the height of his fame, Paderewski bought a 2,000-acre (810-ha) property, Rancho San Ignacio, near Paso Robles, in San Luis Obispo County, in California's Central Coast region. A decade later, he planted Zinfandel vines on the Californian property. When the vines matured, the grapes were processed into wine at the nearby York Mountain Winery, which was, as it still is, one of the best-known wineries between Los Angeles and San Francisco.[14]

Politician and diplomat

Paderewski, ca. 1900

In 1910, Paderewski funded the Grunwald Monument in Kraków to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the Battle of Grunwald.[15] The monument's unveiling led to great patriotic demonstrations. In speaking to the gathered throng, Paderewski proved as adept at capturing their hearts and minds for the political cause as he was with his music. His passionate delivery needed no recourse to notes. Paderewski's status as an artist and philanthropist and not as a member of any of the many Polish political factions became one of his greatest assets and so he rose above the quarrels, and he could legitimately appeal to higher ideals of unity, sacrifice, charity, and work for common goals.[16]

In World War I, Paderewski became an active member of the Polish National Committee in Paris, which was soon accepted by the Triple Entente as the representative of the forces trying to create the state of Poland. Paderewski became the committee's spokesman, and soon, he and his wife also formed others, including the Polish Relief Fund, in London, and the White Cross Society, in the United States. Paderewski met the English composer Edward Elgar, who used a theme from Paderewski's Fantasie Polonaise[17] in his work Polonia written for the Polish Relief Fund concert in London on 6 July 1916 (the title certainly recognises Paderewski's Symphony in B minor).

Paderewski urged fellow Polish immigrants to join the Polish armed forces in France, and he pressed elbows with all the dignitaries and influential men whose salons he could enter. He spoke to Americans directly in public speeches and on the radio by appealing to them to remember the fate of his nation. He kept such a demanding schedule of public appearances, fundraisers, and meetings that he stopped musical touring altogether for a few years, instead dedicating himself to diplomatic activity. On the eve of the American entry into the war, in January 1917, US President Woodrow Wilson's main advisor, Colonel House, turned to Paderewski to prepare a memorandum on the Polish issue. Two weeks later, Wilson spoke before Congress and issued a challenge to the status quo: "I take it for granted that statesmen everywhere are agreed that there should be a united, independent, autonomous Poland." The establishment of "New Poland" became one of Wilson's famous Fourteen Points,[3] the principles that Wilson followed during peace negotiations to end World War I. In April 1918, Paderewski met in New York City with leaders of the American Jewish Committee in an unsuccessful attempt to broker a deal in which organised Jewish groups would support Polish territorial ambitions, in exchange for support for equal rights. However, it soon became clear that no plan would satisfy both Jewish leaders and Roman Dmowski, the head of the Polish National Committee, who was strongly anti-Semitic.[18]

At the end of the war, with the fate of the city of Poznań and the whole region of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) still undecided, Paderewski visited Poznań. Following his public speech there on 27 December 1918, the Polish inhabitants of the city began a military uprising[19] against Germany, the Greater Poland uprising.[20]

Monument to Paderewski in Warsaw's Ujazdów Park

In 1919, in the newly independent Poland, Piłsudski, who was the Chief of State, appointed Paderewski as the Prime Minister of Poland and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland (January 1919 – December 1919). He and Dmowski represented Poland at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference and dealt with issues regarding territorial claims and minority rights.[21] He signed the Treaty of Versailles, which recognized Polish independence won after World War I.[22] Paderewski's period in government had some achievements during its ten months: democratic elections to Parliament, ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, legislation on protection of ethnic minorities in the new state, and the establishment of a public education system. But Paderewski "proved to be a poor administrator and worse politician" and resigned from the Government in December 1919, having received criticism for his perceived submissiveness to the Western powers.[23] After his resignation, Paderewski continued to represent Poland abroad in 1920 at the request of his successor as Prime Minister, Władysław Grabski, at the Spa Conference, when Poland was threatened by the Polish–Soviet War; however Piłsudski's success at the Battle of Warsaw later that year made these negotiations redundant, and put to an end Paderewski's hopes of regaining office.[24]

Return to music

In 1922, Paderewski retired from politics and returned to his musical life. His first concert after a long break, held at Carnegie Hall, was a significant success. He also filled Madison Square Garden (20,000 seats) and toured the United States in a private railway car.[25][26]

His manor house (bought in 1897) in Kąśna Dolna near Tarnów in Poland

In 1897, Paderewski had bought the manor house of the former Duchess of Otrante near Morges, Switzerland, where he rested between concert tours.[27] After Piłsudski's coup d'état in 1926, Paderewski became an active member of the opposition to Sanacja rule. In 1936, two years after his second wife's death at their Swiss home, a coalition of members of the opposition met in the mansion and was nicknamed the Front Morges after the village.

By 1936, Paderewski agreed to appear in a film that presented his talent and art. Although the proposal had come while the mourning Paderewski avoided public appearances, the film project went ahead. It became notable, primarily, for its rare footage of his piano performance. The exiled German-born director Lothar Mendes directed the feature, which was released in Britain as Moonlight Sonata in 1937 and re-titled The Charmer for US distribution in 1943.[28][29]

Paderewski's Steinway & Sons grand piano at the Polish Embassy in Washington, D.C.[30]

In November 1937, Paderewski agreed to take on one last piano student. The musician was Witold Małcużyński, who had won third place at the International Chopin Piano Competition.[31]

Return to public life

After the invasion of Poland in 1939, Paderewski returned to public life. In 1940, he became the head of the National Council of Poland, a Polish sejm (parliament) in exile in London. He again turned to America for help and his broadcast was carried by over 100 radio stations in the United States and Canada. He advocated in person for European aid and to defeat Nazism. In 1941, Paderewski witnessed a touching tribute to his artistry and humanitarianism as US cities celebrated the 50th anniversary of his first American tour by putting on a Paderewski Week, with over 6000 concerts in his honour. The 80-year-old artist also restarted his Polish Relief Fund and gave several concerts to gather money for it. However, his mind was not what it had once been, and scheduled again to play Madison Square Garden, he refused to appear and insisted that he had already played the concert; he was presumably remembering the concert he had played there in the 1920s.[25]

Death and legacy

Paderewski's encased heart muscle within this bronze plaque

Paderewski fell ill on tour on 27 June 1941. Sylwin Strakacz bypassed his secretary and other tour personnel to summon physicians, who diagnosed pneumonia. Despite signs of improving health and recovery, Paderewski died in New York at 11:00 p.m., 29 June, at 80. He was temporarily laid in repose in the crypt of the USS Maine Mast Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia, near Washington, DC, despite anecdotal accounts that he wished to be buried near his second wife and son in France. In 1992, after the end of communism in Poland, his remains were transferred to Warsaw and placed in St. John's Archcathedral. His heart is encased in a bronze sculpture in the National Shrine of Our Lady of Czestochowa near Doylestown, Pennsylvania.[32]

In early 1941, the music publisher Boosey & Hawkes had commissioned 17 prominent composers to contribute a solo piano piece each for an album to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Paderewski's American debut in 1891. It became a posthumous tribute to Paderewski's entire life and work, Homage to Paderewski (1942). Also, Helena Paderewska had prepared a memoir of her husband's political activities between 1910 and 1920, whose typescript was not published in either of their lifetimes but was discovered by an archivist at the Hoover Institution in 2015 and then published.[33]

Paderewski is credited as the chief editor of the edition of Chopin's complete works published by the Instytut Fryderyka Chopina. However, in fact, he died before the work began.[34]

Museum displays

The Polish Museum of America[35] in Chicago received a donation of his personal possessions after his death in June 1941. Both Ignacy Paderewski and his sister, Antonina Paderewska Wilkonska were enthusiastic supporters and generous sponsors of the Museum. Antonina, executor of Ignacy's will, decided to donate the personal possessions to the Museum, as well as artifacts from his apartment in New York. The space was officially opened on 3 November 1941. Another museum in his honour exists at Morges, Switzerland, although Paderewski's mansion was razed in 1965.[36]

Memorials and tributes

Paderewski's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Alfred Gilbert's bust of Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1891), at the V&A

In 1948, the Ignacy Paderewski Foundation was established in New York City, on the initiative of the Polish community there with the goal of promoting Polish culture in the United States.[37] Two other Polish-American organizations are also named in his honour and are dedicated to promoting the legacy of the maestro: the Paderewski Association in Chicago as well as the Paderewski Music Society in Southern California.

In the Irving Berlin song, "I Love a Piano", recorded in 1916 by Billy Murray,[38] the narrator says: "And with the pedal, I love to meddle/When Paderewski comes this way./I'm so delighted, when I'm invited/To hear that long-haired genius play."[39]

Charlie Chaplin writes:

Paderewski had great charm,but there was something bourgeois about him, an over-emphasis of dignity. He was impressive with his long hair, severe, slanting moustache and the small tuft of hair under his lower lip, which I thought revealed some form of mystic vanity. At his recitals, with house lights lowered and the atmosphere sombre and awesome when he was about to sit on the piano stool, I always felt someone should pull it from under him.

During the war I met him at the Ritz Hotel in New York and greeted him enthusiastically, asking if he were there to give a concert. With pontifical solemnity he replied:'I do not give concerts when I am in the service of my country.'

Paderewski became Prime Minister of Poland, but I felt like Clemenceau, who said to him during a conference of the ill-fated Versailles Treaty: "How is it that a gifted artist like you should stoop so low as to become a politician?"

There is an anecdote in circulation about Paderewski having been booked for a concert at Stanford by the future president Hoover and not receiving the full fee for his performance; Thomas F. Schwartz, Director of the Hoover Presidential Library, concludes:

There seems to be enough doubt by both Hoover and Paderewski to lend credence to the story in their respective memoirs other than to acknowledge that their first meeting may have been in 1896.

— Hoover and Paderewski (February 27, 2019)[40]

His unusual combination of being a world-class pianist and successful politician made Saul Kripke use Paderewski in a famous philosophical example in his article "A Puzzle about Belief."[41] Paderewski was so famous that in the 1953 motion picture The 5,000 Fingers of Dr. T., written by Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, piano teacher Terwilliker tells his pupils that he will "make a Paderewski" out of them.

Two music festivals honouring Paderewski are celebrated in the United States, both in November. The first Paderewski Festival[42] has been held each year since 1993, in Paso Robles, California. The second, Paderewski Festival – Raleigh[43] has been held since 2014 in Raleigh, North Carolina.

The facade of White Eagle Hall, in Jersey City, New Jersey, is adorned with busts of Polish heroes Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Casimir Pulaski, Tadeusz Kościuszko and Henryk Sienkiewicz.[44]

Honours and awards

United States commemorative stamp honoring Paderewski
1960 issue
4-cent version
Paderewski monument in Ciężkowice

The Academy of Music in Poznań is named after Paderewski, and many major cities in Poland have streets and schools named after Paderewski. Streets are also named after him in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, and Buffalo, New York. In addition, since 1960 Paderewski has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in Los Angeles.[45]

On 8 October 1960, the United States Post Office Department released two stamps commemorating Ignacy Jan Paderewski.[56] Poland also honored him with postage stamps on at least three occasions.

See also


  1. ^ Carol R. Ember; Melvin Ember; Ian Skoggard (2005). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. p. 260. ISBN 0-306-48321-1.
  2. ^ "A list of famous Freemasons of Poland". www.loza-galileusz.pl.
  3. ^ a b Hanna Marczewska-Zagdanska, and Janina Dorosz, "Wilson – Paderewski – Masaryk: Their Visions of Independence and Conceptions of how to Organize Europe", Acta Poloniae Historica (1996), issue 73, pp. 55–69. ISSN 0001-6829
  4. ^ Hartman, Carl. "Paderewski Remains Begin Journey Home", Associated Press via The Daily News (26 June 1992).
  5. ^ "Ignacy Jan Paderewski – Życie i twóczość". Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  6. ^ "Ignacy Jan Paderewski". Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  7. ^ Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (2002). "The Correspondence of Ignacy Jan Paderewski: Letters to His Father and to Helena Górska (A Selection)". In Małgorzata Perkowska-Waszek (ed.). Musikerbriefe als Spiegel überregionaler Kulturbeziehungen in Mittel- und Osteuropa (PDF). Translated by Cara Thornton. Retrieved 17 June 2024.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Paderewski, Ignace Jan" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 443–444.
  9. ^ "Ignacy Jan Paderewski: Virtuoso, composer, statesman". Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  10. ^ Harold C. Schonberg, The Great Pianists, p. 284.
  11. ^ Wieczorek, Marlena (2021). From Poland with Music. 100 Years of Polish Composers Abroad (1918–2018). London: Fundacja MEAKULTURA, Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-78551-407-4.
  12. ^ Maja Trochimczyk, "An Archangel at the Piano: Paderewski's Image and His Female Audience", Polish American Studies (2010) 67#1 pp 5–44
  13. ^ "Ignacy Jan Paderewski". Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  14. ^ "Wine Talk", The New York Times, 5 July 1995
  15. ^ "Ignacy Paderewski: Artysta i symbol Rzeczypospolitej" (in Polish). Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  16. ^ "80 lat temu zmarł Ignacy Jan Paderewski. Działacz na rzecz odbudowy niepodległej Polski" (in Polish). Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  17. ^ Correspondence between Elgar and Paderewski
  18. ^ Riff 1992, pp. 89–90.
  19. ^ Leśkiewicz, Rafał (24 December 2021). "The National Day of the Victorious Greater Poland Uprising – Press Release" (Press release). Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
  20. ^ "Ignacy Jan Paderewski – mąż stanu, który łagodził obyczaje" (in Polish). Retrieved 27 August 2021.
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  22. ^ "95 lat temu podpisano Traktat Wersalski" (in Polish). Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  23. ^ Biskupski 1987, p. 503.
  24. ^ Biskupski 1987, pp. 505–509.
  25. ^ a b Oscar Levant, The Unimportance of Being Oscar, Pocket Books 1969 (reprint of G.P. Putnam 1968), p. 125–126, ISBN 0-671-77104-3
  26. ^ ""The Lewandowski of his age!" Exhibition celebrates the remarkable life of Ignacy Paderewski". Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  27. ^ "Riond-Bosson | Musée Paderewski".
  28. ^ "Ignacy Jan Paderewski. Bohater Sztuki I Ojczyzny" [Ignacy Jan Paderewski. Hero of Art and Homeland]. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  29. ^ "Moonlight Sonata". rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  30. ^ "Paderewski's Piano", Smithsonian. Accessed 11 March 2010
  31. ^ "Witold Małcużyński. Pianista emocjonalny". Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Background of Ignacy Jan Paderewski" Archived 24 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine. Arlington National Cemetery.
  33. ^ Paderewska, Helena. Paderewski: The Struggle for Polish Independence (1910–1920). Edited by Ilias Chrissochoidis. Stanford, Brave World, 2015, ISBN 0692535411
  34. ^ Higgins, Thomas (1981). "Whose Chopin?". 19th-Century Music. 5 (1): 67–75. doi:10.2307/746559. ISSN 0148-2076. JSTOR 746559.
  35. ^ Polish Museum of America Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine home page
  36. ^ "Paderewski | Musée Paderewski".
  37. ^ "Ignacy Paderewski (1860–1941)"Archived 9 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Government of Poland.
  38. ^ The Online Discographical Project. Retrieved 30 December 2018.[full citation needed]
  39. ^ Irving Berlin "I Love a Piano" lyrics, http://lyricsfreak.com. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  40. ^ "Hoover and Paderewski (February 27, 2019)", hoover.blogs.archives.gov
  41. ^ Kripke, Saul. "A Puzzle About Belief" (PDF). p. 449. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  42. ^ http://www.paderewskifest.com/
  43. ^ http://paderewski-festival.org/
  44. ^ "Mystery Solved: The Four Men on White Eagle Hall". timothyherrick.blogspot.nl. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  45. ^ "Ignacy Paderewski". WalkOfFame.com. Hollywood Chamber of Commerce.
  46. ^ a b Łoza, Stanisław (1938). Czy wiesz kto to jest?. Warsaw: Główna Księgarnia Wojskowa. p. 549.
  47. ^ "Ignacy Jan Paderewski odznaczony Orderem Virtuti Militari". Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  48. ^ "Order Odrodzenia Polski. Trzechlecie Pierwszej Kapituły. 1921–1924". Retrieved 21 March 2020.
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  50. ^ Perkowska-Waszek, Małgorzata. Mała kronika życia artysty i męża stanu (1860–1941).
  51. ^ Perkowska-Waszek, Małgorzata. Mała kronika życia artysty i męża stanu (1860–1941).
  52. ^ "Order Korony Włoch – Krzyż Kawalerski – komplet". Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  53. ^ "Kąśna Dolna – Marzenie Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego". Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g "Odznaczenia i tytuły". Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  55. ^ "Ignacy Jan Paderewski". poznan.pl. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  56. ^ "8-cent Paderewski". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.


Further reading

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